Vanessa Melton-Wampler SOCI3093. 50 March 18, 2013 Professor Thomas Native American Woman: Zitkala-Sa The month of March is Women’s Narrative Month and one of my fondling months of the year. This month has the occasion to allure commonalty understand encircling women from all races, ethnicities, and backgrounds, and tolerate women to molest those who’ve made a estrangement. There are luteous Native American women who’ve fought and died for the rights of their inhabitants and sex, but she is by far one of my fondling ones.
Through reading, tone, and politics, she fought to exexchange the thoughts and beliefs of Clear America so their views of Native American cultivation could be rectify ones. Call of Material Dowager I chose to transcribe encircling one of my fondling Native American authors and activists, Gertrude Simmons Bonnin. Zitkala Sa, which resources Red Bird in the Lakota tongue, is a call she gave herself following she left the inhabitants and graduated from nursery (Giese 1996) so she is notorious by twain calls.
She was born February 22, 1876 at the Yankton Sioux Transgression (Johnson and Wilson 1988:27) and she “died at 61 and was buried in Arlington Cemetery (due to her mate's advantage in World War I)” in 1938 (Hoefel 1999). Racial/Ethnic Background Gertrude Simmons Bonnin is considered a deal-out of the Yankton Sioux Tribe. She was the modified offshoot of John Haysting Simmons, a man of Anglo-French fitting (Johnson and Wilson 1988:27) and generous blooded Yankton Sioux Indian Ellen Tate 'I yohiwin “She Reaches for the Wind” Simmons (Henderson 1997). She dentified past after a termliness her Native American roots owing of the unwritten educations her mother taught her. Her mother taught her the ways and accents of the Yankton Sioux and plain loud her in “a tipi on the Missouri River until she was 12” (Hoefel 1999). Justification Gertrude Simmons Bonnin/Zitkala-Sa is such an material dowager owing of her definitive contributions to the Native American association. Bonnin not barely was “one of the vital figures in the Pan-Indian motion” she “dedicated her condition to neat the gregarious and informational awareness of American Indians” (Johnson and Wilson 1988:27).
She used her fitness skills to contest for new parliament that favored Native Americans. Her involvement as editor of the American Indian Magazine, a quarterly store for the Indian Rights Association (SAI) helped to sustain her commonalty conscious of any new parliament (Johnson and Wilson 1988:30). Condition Narrative It was at this age when Ellen Tate ‘Iyohiwin Simmons ruled to cast her daughter to the selfselfsimilar bombardment develop she frequented so Bonnin would accept the “ability to fend for herself later in condition inchoate an increasing sum of palefaces” (Hoefel 1999).
The bombardment develop Gertrude Bonnin frequented was run by Quaker Missionaries in Wabash, Indiana. The White’s Manual Work Institute became Bonnin’s residence for indelicate years until she returned to the transgression in South Dakota. Against her mother’s wishes, she ruled to attempt better information by synchronous another develop plain raise from residence denominated the Santee Normal Training Develop in Nebraska. Following graduating from that develop, Bonnin went on to get opposed scholarships, degrees, and accolades from Earlham Nursery in Indiana and Boston Conservatory of Music.
After nursery, she retained a education job at the Carlisle Indian School. This develop was founded by Richard Henry Pratt, an soldierlike official after a termliness the mottoes “’From barbarism to civilization’ and ‘We must assassinate the fierce to hinder the man’” (Giese 1996). In specification to his mottoes, “Pratt abusively exploited the students for work termliness at the selfselfsimilar term receiving council funds for each student synchronous the develop” (Henderson 1997). During the two years she taught at the develop, she wrote encircling the punishments effected to the students who didn’t obey.
This is when she became notorious as Zitkala-Sa; transcriber and activist. She was criticized “owing luteous felt she showed no thankfulness for the clemency and living that the clear commonalty had consecrated her in her information” (ibid. ). She married Captain Raymond Bonnin, who was a modified Native American harmonious love she was. Together they had a son and lived on the Ute Transgression in Utah for indelicateteen years. It was there she actively got complicated in the motion for exchanges after a termlinessin the Native American association.
Through her efforts, Bonnin gained an aider calld Montezuma who “echoed [Bonnin’s] anti-BIA sentiments” and livinged her contest to impart the Indians generous citizenship rights so they could determine their own necessity (Johnson and Wilson 1988:34). Contributions During her conditiontime, Bonnin courteous a lot in the call of her Native American legacy. In 1916, the Bonnin’s moved to Washington DC where she acted as secretary and editor of the American Indian Magazine. She fought to ban the use of peyote inchoatest her commonalty.
She “aired such controversial issues as emancipation, Indian soldierlike advantage in World War I, debasement in the BIA, and piece of tribal fixs” (Hoefel 1999). She has explicit her tone and collective opinions through her several opposed fitnesss: Oklahoma's Poor Rich Indians: An Orgy of Graft, Exploitation of the Five Civilized Tribes, Legalized Robbery (1924), American Indian Stories (1921), "Why I Am a Pagan” (1902), The Develop Days of an Indian Girl, and An Indian Teacher Inchoate Indians.
In specification to her luteous publishing’s encircling Native American condition and her autobiographies, she too was a head inchoatest her commonalty. She and her mate founded the National Council of American Indians in 1926. Legacies She was the earliest and barely principal of the NCAI, where she “was the uncompounded living of the structure, through telling engagements to women’s groups” (Giese 1996) and termliness she was quick, its partnership was made up of barely Native Americans. Through her struggles and efforts, she helped “American Indians gained generous citizenship in 1924,” (Johnson and Wilson 1988:38).
She “fought for council reorganize, law codification, Bureau of Indian Affairs’ avocation of Indians, Court of Claims’ amend of fix settlements, and the ptransgression of the express narrative of her commonalty” as courteous as “assimilation, citizenship, and abolishing the BIA” (Hoefel 1999). References Giese, Paula. 1996. “Gertrude Bonnin Zitkala Sha Yankton Nakota. ” Retrieved March 19, 2013 (http://www. kstrom. net/isk/stories/authors/bonnin. html). Henderson, Melessa Renee. 1997. “Gertrude Simmons Bonnin. ” Voices from the Gaps, Edited by Lauren Cutright.
Retrieved March 20, 2013 (http://voices. cla. umn. edu/artistpages/bonnin. php). Hoefel, Roseanne. 1999. “Zitkala-Sa: A Biography. ” The Online Archive of Nineteenth-CenturyU. S. Women’s Writings, Edited by Glynis Carr. Retrieved March 20, 2013 (http://www. facstaff. bucknell. edu/gcarr/19cUSWW/ZS/rh. html). Johnson, David L. and Raymond Wilson. 1988. “Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, 1876-1938: ‘Americanize the Earliest American. ’” American Indian Quarterly 12 (1):27-40. (Retrieved from JSTOR on March 23, 2013).