Multilingualism: Controlled Vocabulary and Survey

MULTILINGUAL ACCESS TO THE DIGITAL EUROPEAN CULTURAL HERITAGE Introduction to the multilingual multiformity of Europe Best experiences for multilingual websites and thesauri Quantity Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 4 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 6 1. 1 FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................ 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 10 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY .............................................................................. 10 1. 4 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................... 12 2. Dominion tidingss ......................................................................................................................... 15 2. CZECH REPUBLIC ............................................................................................................. 15 2. 1. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 15 2. 1. 2 The revision in the Czech Republic....................................................................... 15 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 17 2. 2 ESTONIA ........................................................................................................................... 8 2. 2. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 18 2. 2. 2 The revision in Estonia.......................................................................................... 18 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 20 2. 3 FRANCE ............................................................................................................................ 21 2. 3. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 1 2. 3. 2 The revision in France ........................................................................................... 27 2. 3. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 29 2. 4 GERMANY ........................................................................................................................ 35 2. 4. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 35 2. 4. 2 The Revision in Gerfrequent ...................................................................................... 5 2. 4. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 36 2. 5 GREECE ............................................................................................................................ 39 2. 5. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 39 2. 5. 2 The Revision in Greece.......................................................................................... 39 2. 5. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 40 2. HUNGARY ........................................................................................................................ 42 2. 6. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 42 2. 6. 2 The Revision in Hungary ....................................................................................... 42 2. 6. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 43 2. 7 IRELAND........................................................................................................................... 4 2. 7. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 44 2. 7. 2 The Revision in Ireland.......................................................................................... 44 2. 7. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 44 2. 8 ISRAEL ............................................................................................................................. 45 2. 8. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 45 2. 8. The Revision in Israel ............................................................................................ 45 2. 8. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 48 2. 9 ITALY ............................................................................................................................... 49 2. 9. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 49 2. 9. 2 The revision in Italy............................................................................................... 9 2. 9. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 50 2. 10 LATVIA ............................................................................................................................ 52 2. 10. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 52 2. 10. 2 The Revision in Latvia ........................................................................................... 53 2. 10. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 53 2. 1 MALTA ............................................................................................................................. 55 2. 11. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 55 2 2. 11. 2 The Revision in Malta............................................................................................ 55 2. 11. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 56 2. 12 THE NETHERLANDS .......................................................................................................... 6 2. 12. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 56 2. 12. 2 The revision in the Netherlands............................................................................. 57 2. 12. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 58 2. 13. NORWAY .......................................................................................................................... 60 2. 13. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 60 2. 3. 2 The Revision in Norway ........................................................................................ 62 2. 14 POLAND ........................................................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 63 2. 14. 2 The Revision in Poland .......................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 4 2. 14. 4 Summary and mischronicles .................................................................................... 65 2. 15 RUSSIAN FEDERATION ..................................................................................................... 66 2. 15. 1 Population and Languages vocal ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 2 The revision in Russian Federation ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 67 2. 6 SLOVAK REPUBLIC ........................................................................................................... 69 2. 16. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 69 2. 16. 2 The revision in Slovak Reunreserved ........................................................................... 69 2. 16. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 71 2. 17 SLOVENIA ........................................................................................................................ 2 2. 17. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 72 2. 17. 2 The revision in Slovenia........................................................................................ 72 2. 17. 3 Inferior wordbook and thesauri used ............................................................ 72 2. 18 SPAIN ............................................................................................................................... 73 2. 18. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 3 2. 18. 2 The revision in Spain............................................................................................. 73 2. 19 UNITED KINGDOM ............................................................................................................ 75 2. 19. 1 Population and Languages vocal ...................................................................... 75 2. 19. 2 The Revision in United Kingdom .......................................................................... 76 2. 19. 3 Inferior vocabularies and thesauri .................................................................. 8 3. Good-tempered experience examples ........................................................................................................... 80 3. 1 BEST PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUAL THESAURI .............................................................. 80 3. 2 BEST PRACTICE EXAMPLES FOR MULTILINGUAL WEBSITES ............................................... 86 3. 2. 1 Best experience examples of multilingual websites delay thesaurus ........................ 86 3. 2. 2 Best experiences of multilingual websites delay untrammelled extract indexing ............................ 89 4. Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 94 5. Coming perspectives ................................................................................................................... 96 Annex 1: Questionnaire .................................................................................................................. 97 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................ 03 Annex 2: Interunreserved thesauri and inferior vocabularies........................................................... 104 Annex 3: Other starts ................................................................................................................ 105 Annex 4: Registered thesauri on the review’s webtop ................................................................. 107 3 Acknowledgements From February 2004 10 new constituent recites (plus Russia and Israel) enjoy been bisecticipating in the knee European start of MINERVA Plus agoing delay MINERVA to coordinate digitization efforts and activities. Since then Minerva Plus supplementary agoing assembleions (SWG) upshoting agency and Hungary became the coordinator of SWG Multilingual thesauri. The outsucceed of multilingualism is beseeming spent and spent influential in making the digital cultural legacy of Europe conducive. Chat is one of the most indicative distributions to adit of websites and, owing of this distribution, masterful compatcapforce of the European digital cultural legacy cannot be build on the Internet. MINERVA Plus conducted a grave revision to get an aggravatevision of the standing of chat experience in cultural websites. The aim of the revision was to see to what quantity cultural websites and gates are conducive for users of opposed chat communities and so whether websites use spent chats than the chat they were originally composed in. Furtherspent the revision profitable to furnish out if cultural websites are using resuscitation tools such as inferior vocabularies or thesauri and whether multilingual tools are conducive for use. The mannerology used for our revision interposed a questionnaire completed on a discretional plea by our target assembleion: libraries, museums, proceedings and other cultural sciences unreserved websites. The segregation of the websites was not or-lawsally builded and so the sampling is not statistically delegated-to-others. Nevertheless, the revision yielded a unreserved delineate of multilingualism of cultural websites and the furnishings get be a amiable-tempered-tempered starting substance-substance for spent independent and statistically strong examination in the coming. I would affect to rejoice our Israeli colleagues for letting us use their questionnaire (Registry of Inferior Vocabularies akin to Jewish Cultural Legacy and Israel) as plea for our review. I am so very satisfactory to our respondents for infering and mailing the requested perceiveledge. Last but not moderationest I would affect to purposeed my gratefulness to the editorial consultation of this instrument. Ivan Ronai NRG constituent for Hungary "We set-asunderneath this tidings to the perpetuation of the new Stephen Conrad. ” Editorial Committee Stephan Conrad (Germany) David Dawson (The United Kingdom), Christophe Dessaux (France), Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom), Antonella Fresa (Italy), Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel), Ivan Ronai (Hungary), Martina Rozman Salobir (Slovenia), Gabriella Szaloki (Hungary) 4 Contributors Jitka Zamrzlova (Czeck Republik) Marju Reismaa (Estonia) Veronique Prouvost (France) Dimitrios A. Koutsomitropoulos (Greece) Stephan Conrad (Germany) Szaloki Gabriella (HUngary) Marzia Piccininno (Italy) Guiliana di Frnacesco (Italy) Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel) Domitilla Fagan (Ireland) Laila Valdovska (Latvia) Pierre Sammut (Malta) Jos Taekema (The Netherlands) Lars Egeland (Norway) Maria Sliwinska (Poland) Piotr Ryszewski (Poland) Ana Alvarez Lacambra (Spain) Martina Roznan Salobir (Slovenia) Elena Kuzmina (The Russian Federation) Martin Katuscak (Slovak Republik) Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom) Guy Frank (Luxembourg) Minna Kaukonen (Finland) 1. 1. 1 Introduction FOREWORD “Immer werden jene vonnoten sein, die auf das Bindende zwischen den Volkern jenseits des Trennenden hindeuten und im Herzen der Menschheit den Gedanken eines kommenden Zeitalters hoherer Humanitat glaubig erneuern“ Stefan Zweig: Triumph und Tragik des Erasmus von Rotterdam There get ordainlyly be indispensefficacious those who visage on the astringent compatcapforce unmoulded masss aggravate the separating ones, reinvigorating, in the feeling of men, the conceit of a forthcoming period of loftier compassion. What is multilingualism? The European conextract "Multilingualism adverts to twain a separate’s capforce to use unconnected chats and the co-existence of opposed chat communities in one geographical area. "1 In fixedty, the spent chats you perceive, the spent of a separate you are (Kolko jazykov vies, tolkokrat si clovekom), says the Slovak maxim that unreserveds the Commission’s message on multilingualism. The European Commission adopted in November 2005 the message to the Council “New Frameupshot Diplomacy for Multilingualism” instrument2, which beneathneathlines the moment of multilingualism and introduces the European Commission's multilingualism cunning. The Commission’s multilingualism cunning has three boon: • to aid chat letters and promoting linguistic multiformity in similarity; • to aid a salubrious multilingual husbanding, and • to furnish citizens adit to European Union congress, procedures and perceiveledge in their own chats. "3 1 2 3 Message from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Gregarious Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A New Frameupshot Diplomacy for Multilingualism COM(2005) 596 signalinal Brussels, 22. 11. 2005 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? d=913 European Commission lean disenjoin http://europa. eu. int/rapid/pressReleasesAction. do? advertence=IP/05/1451&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN &guiLanguage=en#fn1 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? id=913 6 The Tower of Babel is an antiquated peculiarity of the multilingualism in the Bible4 Always spent the European Year of Languages in 20015 was organised by the European Council, the European Day of Languages has been held complete September 26 to succor the unreserved regard the moment of chat letters, to substantiate sensibleness of all the chats vocal in Europe and to aid vivacitylong chat letters. It is a observance of Europe’s linguistic multiformity. The European Commission has so embarked of-late a new gate for European chats6, which is conducive in all the 20 functional chats of the European Union. It is a conducive perceiveledge origin of multilingualism and can be a starting substance-substance for complete purpose. The reorigin furnishn has been gratuitous for the unreserved unreserved and covers a ramble from the Union’s policies to aid chat letters and linguistic multiformity. The main areas experienced are: • linguistic multiformity • chat letters • chat instruction • translation • explanation • chat technology A expanded ramble of perceiveledge is furnishn for each of them from EU and unreserved rules to a spherical up of usurpation opportunities for functional linguists delay the Union’s sciences. In fixedty, the Message so stresses the moment of chat skills to upshoter disturbance and the 4 5 6 Pieter Breugel: Tower of Babel http://europa. eu. int/comm/education/policies/lang/awareness/year2001_en. html http://europa. eu. int/languages/ 7 ompetitiveness of the EU husbanding. The Commission get inframe a con-aggravate proximate year on the continuity on the European husbanding of briefages of chats skills. It is merit mentioning the Eurobarometer7 revision informed on the web top that was carried out unmoulded May and June 2005 unmoulded European citizens including those of the adition countries (Bulgaria and Romania), of canvasser countries (Croatia and Turkey) and the Turkish Cypriot Community. One of the most animated upshots is that half of the mass interviewed say that they can confide a chat in a succor chat asunderneath from their dowager accent. Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible8 Why Multilingualism is influential? In Europe we neglect to feed in a gregariously broad similarity in which manifold ameliorations feed in niggardly intellect, edifice at the identical duration a niggardly European oneness. Language, concurrently delay the portion-outd perceiveledge and traditions, which passed from one vivacityquantity to another, is an influential bisect of an separate’s cultural oneness. We strongly judge that the multiformity of chats, traditions and literal experiences enriches us all and fosters our niggardly germinative for creativity. Let us compose chats attach mass and ameliorations not unconnected them. This is an influential role for cultural sciences. Transfer the befallrence of museums; multilingualism is of indicative moment. Museums determine their dispose of labors as infering, making conducive, conserving, examinationing and exhibiting objects. A multilingual substitute of perceiveledge on objects accelerations museums in their labors on the one agency and on the other agency the users of the products of museum upshot (visitors). Museums infer objects whose signification renders them singular and one-of-a-kind. However, the tangible objects can solely be conducive in one settle at one bisecticular duration, making them aditible solely to a few mass. In dispose to compose perceiveledge environing museum pieces conducive to as expanded a target assembleion as potential, a eeparticular moment lies in the aditibility of the applicefficacious perceiveledge on the Internet and in outweighing chat distributions. Web tops are giganticly masterful moderation to do that. Nonetheless, multilingual substitute of perceiveledge environing museum pieces is so of cause for cultural tourism and accordingly for economic infers. A museum stranger neglects to perceive how to adit such objects, in other opinion, which museum is exposeing the objects at what substance-substance in duration. Museums want to be efficacious to compose this perceiveledge conducive in opposed chats in dispose to grasp strangers from neighbouring countries. 7 8 Europeans and chats. A revision in 25 EU Constituent States, in the adition countries (Bulgaria and Romania), the canvasser countries (Croatia and Turkey) and unmoulded the Turkish Cypriot Similarity http://europa. eu. int/languages/en/document/80/20 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image:Maciejowski_Tower_of_Babel. jpg 8 Multilingualism is of eeparticular cause to nearer and themeal museums in Europe, to save themeal and unreserved differences and to compose conducive their peculiarities and singular characteristics to others. Objects that originally belonged concurrently enjoy been circulate aspherical the cosmos-fellow-creatures by moderations of substitute, dissipation, dissolution of amiable-tempereds and so by larceny or outrageous battle. To release not-absoluteships unmoulded the compatcapforce of inferions that enjoy been dispersed to multiple sciences and countries, it is promotive to substitute applicefficacious perceiveledge and for this to bechance multilingual aditibility is a prerequisite. Further, it can be inconsequent that frequent objects can be fitted through a provenance reerection that crosses borders. The unique objects niggardlyly treatmentualise one another. And cross-bdispose message implies the use of multiple chats. Another substance-substance of vision is the peculiarity and energy of message on the Internet. Contempt technologies dramatically progressive users’ behaviour at the end of twentieth period and a trustworthy extension in demands and expectations from new uses can be observed. Some countries tidings that the enumerate of skilled scrutinizes to cultural sciences is beseeming better than legitimate scrutinizes. Therefore each science should transfer solicitude environing message on the Internet and the best medium for this is an scienceal website. Cultural sciences enjoy befit sensible of the capforce of websites and enjoy been creating their own websites spent the 1990s. Aggravate the drift of answer-foring a ordainly defence of the perceiveledge supposing, multilingualism denotes frequently a strategic role, The graveity of websites are harangueed to their own near communities, such as university constituents, unreserved library readers or the citizens of a town in which a museum is located. However, the spent conducive perceiveledge that can be build on a website, the spent Internet users scrutinize them careless of borders. Chat is the grave distribution to irrelevanters in making use of these websites. Whilst policies and starts aimed at conserving chats are the perfect province of Constituent States, similarity resuscitation can denote a catalytic role at European plane adding appreciate to the Constituent States' efforts. The outgrowth of multilingualism on the Internet has been stimulated in new years by the European Commission by accelerationed trans-unreserved purposes, fostering bisectnership unmoulded digital pleased owners and chat industries. However, acceleration for eminent peculiarity multilingual wealths quiet wants to be enhanced. A panEuropean catalogue and library of confirmed linguistic tools, wealths and applications as courteous as fitted centres of force and distinction would cater succorful acceleration. Online adit to this catalogue, oriented towards drift-solving, providing cultural sciences delay divert solutions for inequitpowerful drifts akin to linguistic and cultural customization would be salutary for the amendment of multilingualism in the web cultural applications. This Handbook is profitable as a subsidy to this pan-European catalogue. Europe's experiences in multiculturalism and multilingualism denote an gross force that European cultural sciences should be efficacious to instrument by poseing themselves in the new digital dispose of perceiveledge and perceiveledge similarity. 9 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This instrument was composed for cultural sciences to emphasize the moment of multilingualism, and to cater them perceiveledge and tools for substantiateing multilingual adit to their inferions. In the Introduction we summarize the healthy revision mode carried out by the WP3 agoing assembleion in the object of the MINERVA Plus Project. The aim of the revision was mapping the multilingualism of the cultural tops and infering perceiveledge on multilingual thesauri in use. The revision ultimateed for a year from June 2004 to June 2005 in two runs, the upshots are exhibited in the subjoined dates. During the revision mode we legitimateized that we want to imbibe environing functional and boy chats and congress delayin opposed countries and so we upshoting to infer Dominion tidingss. This perceiveledge should be the starting substance-substance in each European Union purpose owing it succors to apprehend the differences unmoulded countries. Each tidings has the identical constituency: multilingual multiformity of the dominion, an evaluation of the bisecticipation in the revision and use of multilingual thesauri or inferior vocabularies. One of the skilled boon of the MINERVA Purpose is to portion-out the Best experience examples. Dominion delegated-to-otherss were asked to specify the best experience examples for multilingual websites and thesauri. We enjoy summarized the upshots of the nominations for Best experience examples for multilingual thesauri and introduced some of them in extraordinaryty, which are already in use in frequent opposed countries. In the revision we infered 657 multilingual websites9 from all aggravate Europe. We exhibit the Best experience examples of multilingual cultural websites, which are conducive in two or spent chats, and unite the requirements of the 7th date of the Peculiarity Principles for cultural Web Sites: a agencybook10 informed by the MINERVA Plus WP5 agoing assembleion. Some of them tools thesaurus for perceiveledge resuscitation. From the upshots, and furnishings we set up the Conclusions environing the moment of multilingualism, and the use of multilingual thesauri. We so made identical aggravateture for the coming in the Coming perspectives environing accelerationed the translation of the courteous-tested thesauri, the peculiarity criterion beds for thesauri, and the aid inferion of multilingual thesauri. 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY After adition to the European Union the new constituent recites became a bisect of a multicultural and multilingual similarity. At exhibit there are 20 functional, and environing 150 estimated boy and immigrant chats are vocal in the copious European Union11. Thus perceiveledge resuscitation whether on the Web or in a niggardly accountbase can be a important drift. That is why, at the rebel off uniteing of the MINERVA Plus Purpose in Budapest February 2004, it was determined to substantiate a agoing assembleion especializing in multilingual outcomes, in-particular on multilingual thesauri. The agoing 9 10 11 MINERVA Institutions http://www. minervaeurope. org/institutions. htm http://www. minervaeurope. org/publications/qualitycriteria. tm Calimera Guidelines: Cultural Applications: Topical Institutions Mediating Electronic Resources, Multiligualism, 2004. http://www. calimera. org/Lists/Guidelines/Multilingualism. htm 10 assembleion was a ensue up of the upshot carried out by the agoing assembleion by the MINERVA Purpose Upshot Package 3 (WP3), led by France. Instead of creating a mark new multilingual thesaurus for the purpose's purposes, we determined to compose a revision of multilingual websites and thesauri. This so gave us a amiable-tempered-tempered create to discaggravate the experience of multilingual thesauri all aggravate Europe. The revision was wholly discretional, and we repel that our upshots cannot be considered to be statistically applicable. They can be best advertred to as a chance sampling. The infer for this is explained by the opposed subsidy of the constituent recites, opposed manners of circulating and bunch perceiveledge tooled by the unreserved delegated-to-otherss and the opposed gregarious attitudes of each dominion towards the outsucceed of multilingualism and accordingly the opposed planes of ripeness of the digital products in conditions of multilingual features. The coordinators' attitudes, agoing scenes and poses made a grave continuity on their countries' upshots. Some countries, including Israel, The Netherlands and Slovakia, had honest perfect a revision and were efficacious to subscribe these upshots offline. Other countries, including Poland, Greece and Russia, determined to cast offline upshots owing of a briefage of duration or wealths; these were assumed to the online upshots in the identical frameat. The aim of the revision was mapping multilingual adit to the European digital cultural pleased. To tool the revision we compiled a webtop http://www. ek. oszk. hu/minerva/survey, which was used for account inferion and exposeing the real upshots. The online questionnaire could be grasped from the visage page. The questionnaire had two grave compatability. The principal separateity was for auditing the multilingualism of the cultural websites. The succor bisect could be employed out solely by sciences that repeld the use of inferior vocabularies for perceiveledge resuscitation in their accountbase. This bisect was naturalized on an Israeli questionnaire that was exposed for a opposed review. The upshots could be once ensueed online. There were unconnected adds from the visage page to the "Statistics", to the registered "Institutions", and to the "Controlled vocabularies" assembleioned by the countries. The statistics were fitted by separate countries and so for the upshots of the healthy review. The science’s molds, the enumerate of the chats conducive on the top, the top availcapforce in English and the mold of minute tools were irritated. "Institutions" showed the indicates of the registered sciences added to their websites, so that the top could be catholicly reviewed. Inferior vocabularies" showed the indicates of the registered thesauri and their registration frame. The principal run of the account inferion upshoting in June 2004 and ended in August. In the principal decompose there were 236 answers from 21 recites. This eminent reckoning involved so the multiformity of bisecticipation. From 1 to 40 sciences answered per recite and registered their websites in our accountbase. There were 67 libraries, 63 museums, 35 proceedings, 21 cultural tops, and 45 other sciences. The upshots of the principal run demonstrated that the 30% of the websites were quiet monolingual, 3% were bilingual, and environing 26% were multilingual. There were 31 thesauri registered: 13 from Italy, 10 from the United Kingdom, 6 from Hungary, 1 frame the Netherlands, and 1 from Austria. The agoing assembleion had its principal uniteing on 12th of November 2004 in Budapest. The constituents of the agoing assembleion exhibited a brief dominion tidings. The slides are conducive on the functional webtop of the revision by clicking on the "Download the slide shows". It was distinct, that there are opposed congress and subsidy in each constituent recites and so we purposed to infer dominion tidingss of multilingual aspects. The assembleion agreed on new rules for the revision and restrictions for the upshots. We upshoting a succor run of the revision for those countries that were beneathneathrepresented in the principal run. We so determined to compose a mailing roll (WP3 roll) for circulating unreserved perceiveledge and argument. We set up the criteria for the best experiences examples and agreed on peculiarations. The succor uniteing took settle in Berlin on the 8th of April 2005, during the two day WP5 uniteing on peculiarity of the websites. We gained conducive experiences. We legitimateised that it would be conducive to get 11 o perceive environing the multilingual outcomes from each dominion in a sophisticated way and so we determined to infer dominion tidingss. This get so succor us to furnish the best experiences examples to portion-out. We agreed on the frame of the dominion tidingss and the deadline for preparing them. The succor run of the revision barred at the end of May 2005. The combined upshots of the two runs of the revision doubled those of the principal. There were 676 websites registered from 24 countries. Some countries, affect Germany, Italy, Greece, Israel and Malta sent subjoined perceiveledge, but no perceiveledge came from Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania or Luxembourg. There were 265 museums, 138 libraries, 98 proceedings, 65 cultural tops, and 129 other websites registered. 179 of them were monolingual, the graveity (310) were bilingual, 123 were conducive in 4 chats, 14 in 5 chats, 10 in 6 chats, 4 in 7 chats, 3 in 9 chats, and 1 in 34 chats. 491 out of the 676 websites were conducive in English. There were 106 registered inferior vocabularies in our accountbase: 1 from Austria, 3 from France, 22 from Germany, 6 from Hungary, 30 from Israel, 13 from Italy, 19 from Russia, 1 from Sweden, 1 from The Netherlands and 10 from the United Kingdom. The third uniteing took settle in Budapest on the 8th of September 2005. The bisecticipants of the uniteing substantiateed an editorial consultation of this instrument. We agreed on the durationline, set up the constituency of the deliverefficacious and portion-outd the labors unmoulded the assembleion. 1. 4 DEFINITIONS Specification of conditions used in the review: Cultural Site: is a webtop of a cultural science (libraries, museums, proceedings) or a webtop providing cultural perceiveledge having a digital inferion (skilled galleries, cultural accountbases, literal tops). Multilingual website: is a webtop providing perceiveledge in two or spent chats We apprehend that thesaurus is a eeparticular mold of inferior wordbook, in which the not-absolutes unmoulded the conditions are determined. We are visageing for multilingual thesauri focusing on cultural coverage, which can be used for online perceiveledge resuscitation on a cultural website. A inferior wordbook12 is a roll of conditions that enjoy been distinctly enumerated. This roll is inferior by and is conducive from a inferior wordbook registration example. All conditions in a inferior wordbook should enjoy an unambiguous, non-redundant peculiaration. This is a delineation end that may not be gentleman in experience. It depends on how precise the inferior wordbook registration example is in-reference-to registration of conditions into a inferior wordbook. As a poverty the subjoined two rules should be enforced: • If the identical signal is niggardlyly used to moderation opposed concepts in opposed treatments, then its indicate is distinctly fitted to instruct this tortuousness. If multiple conditions are used to moderation the identical art, one of the conditions is verified as the preferred signal in the inferior wordbook and the other conditions are rolled as synonyms, aliases or non-preferred. A thesaurus is a networked inferion of inferior wordbook conditions. This moderations that a thesaurus uses associative not-absoluteships in importation to parent-child not-absoluteships. The purposeediveness of the associative not-absoluteships in a thesaurus modify and can be as mere as “akin to signal” as in signal A is akin to signal B. 12 What are the differences unmoulded a wordbook, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology, and a meta-model? ttp://www. metamodel. com/article. php? story=20030115211223271 12 A thesaurus has two barks of adds: indelicateer/narrower signal, which is abundantly affect the unreservedization/specialization add, but may ensuppress a difference of others (honest affect a taxonomy). In fixedty, the indelicateer/narrower adds of a thesaurus is not legitimately opposed from a taxonomy, as pictorial overhead. A thesaurus has another bark of add, which typically get not be a clerical not-absolute, although it could be. This add may not enjoy any manifest signification at all, other than that there is some not-absoluteship unmoulded the two conditions. Additional perceiveledge environing thesauri: What inferior vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, ontologies, and meta-models all enjoy in niggardly are: • They are approaches to succor constituency, dispose, mould, and or denote the concepts and not-absoluteships pertaining to some substance substance of cause to some similarity. • They are profitable to enefficacious a similarity to succeed to harmony and to execute to use the identical conditions in the identical way. • There is a set of conditions that some similarity agrees to use to advert to these concepts and not-absoluteships. The signification of the conditions is determined in some way and to some quantity. • They are fuzzy, pointless notions used in frequent opposed ways by opposed separates and communities. Inferior Wordbook vs Untrammelled Text13 When you inquiry an electronic accountbase for perceiveledge on a inequitpowerful theme, you must furnish a poise unmoulded achieving eminent accuracy and achieving eminent foreclosure. A inquiry which upshots in eminent accuracy get be near, including solely history which are very focused on your theme. However, this mold of inquiry may be so focused that you misconceive out on some perceiveledge which may be applicable. A inquiry which upshots in eminent foreclosure get be indelicateer and spent broad, but may rescue irapplicefficacious perceiveledge which you then enjoy to rank through. Inferior Wordbook Most electronic accountbases recognize you to inquiry a substance by inferior wordbook. This is frequently the best way to touch that poise unmoulded accuracy and foreclosure. Inferior wordbook is a set of predetermined conditions which are used suitably to draw fixed concepts. Experts in a punishment irritate an date and cull the divert conditions from the inferior wordbook which best distinguish what the date is environing. All dates which harangue the identical concept get be devious using the identical signal or confederacy of conditions. . Thesaurus Of continuity, to use inferior wordbook, you must perceive what the conditions are. The roll of these conditions is determined a thesaurus. Frequent electronic accountbases recognize you to inquiry the thesaurus online to furnish the divert signal for your inquiry. Some accountbases, including OVID accountbases, get automatically map, or transnew the signal you mold to the suppressst matching inferior wordbook signal and perframe the inquiry on that inferior wordbook signal. 3 Contempt profitable by Shauna Rutherford, University of Calgary Library, from: Barclay, Donald (ed). 1995. Instruction Electronic Contempt Literacy: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neil Schuman. (p. 63-64). 13 Inferior wordbook conditions can usually be build in the substance names or descriptor scenes of a accountbase chronicles. When you inquiry by inferior wordbook, the manner is visageing for those conditions solely in the substance name or descriptor scenes, not in the other scenes of the accountbase. Advantages: Inferior wordbook fixs that you rescue all history which harangue the identical theme, careless of which opinion the authors use to draw that theme. Synonyms are all devious beneathneathneath the identical inferior wordbook signal, so the inquiryer is spared the job of thinking of and minute complete signal that draws a fixed theme. Inferior wordbook so avoids drifts delay spelling variations. Disadvantages: There get be durations when using inferior wordbook does not upshot in the upright inquiry that you want. New themes are not courteous denoteed by inferior wordbook. As courteous a very inequitpowerful and determined theme may not be denoteed in the inferior wordbook which caters a substance name which is abundantly too indelicate. Untrammelled Extract Approximately all electronic accountbases recognize untrammelled-extract or keyword minute. In this mold of inquiry, the manner usually visages for your inquiry conditions in complete scene of the chronicles (not honest in the substance name or descriptor scenes) and it visages for those conditions to befall uprightly as you mold them, delayout mapping or translating them to inferior wordbook conditions. Advantages Free-extract minute can frequently cater spent upshots in a briefer duration p owing you are not reviewing the thesaurus for the inferior substance name. It is divert for very inequitpowerful inquiryes or when the theme you are visageing for is proportionately new. Disadvantage Free-extract minute frequently upshots in misconceiveed history that are very applicefficacious to your inquiry theme. You must consume spent duration planning your inquiry diplomacy to fix that you are minute all divert synonyms of your inquiry signal. Success, accordingly, frequently depends on your contempt delay the inquiry theme and your capforce to test divert keyopinion and their synonyms. 14 2. 2. 1 Dominion tidingss CZECH REPUBLIC 2. 1. 1 Population and Languages vocal The enumerate of basealty in the Czech Reunreserved is environing 10 pet. 90. 4% of the population is Czech by unreservedity although frequent other unreservedities are denoteed (see the tefficacious beneath). 94,1% citizens pronounce Czech, which is the functional chat of the Czech Republic. Nationalities in the Czech Reunreserved in 2001 Population in entirety 10 230 060 Czech Moravian Slovakian Polish German Ukrainian Vietnamese Hungarian Russian Romany/gypsy Silesian Bulgarian Grecian Serbian Croatian Romanian Albanian Others U/I 9 249 777 380 474 193 190 51 968 39 106 22 112 17 462 14 672 12 369 11 746 10 878 4 363 3 219 1 801 1 585 1 238 690 39 477 172 827 100% 90,4 3,7 1,9 0,5 0,4 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,4 1,7 2. 1. 2 The revision in the Czech Reunreserved In the principal spherical of the review, 15 cultural sciences were chosen; the revision was completed by con-overing their web tops via the Internet. This seemed to be the most suitefficacious manner of the obtaining strong upshots. The cultural sciences were assembleioned into 4 categories: museums, registers, galleries and libraries. Museums Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague Unreserved Technical Museum in Prague Technical Museum in Brno Unreserved Museum of Agriamelioration in Prague The Moravian Museum Comenius Museum in Uhersky Brod Museum of Puppets in Chrudim 15 Languages used CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE, FR, NL, IT Hustop Museum in Tabor Museum of Glass and Jewellery in Jablonec nad Nisou The Wallachian Unreserved Air Museum in Roznov Registers Memorial Lidice Memorial Terezin Galleries Unreserved Gallery in Prague Moravian Gallery in Brno Libraries Unreserved Library of the Czech Reunreserved CZ, EN, DE CZ CZ, DE, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN In the succor spherical of the review, a chance scantling of the websites of constituents of the Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Reunreserved (AMG) were checked. The AMG has 856 functional constituents. In Prague there are 51 sciences; 26 museums and 25 other cultural sciences (galleries, registers etc). The revision build that, unmoulded the Prague museums websites 19. 2% were monolingual, 69. 2 % were bilingual and 11. 6% were multilingual; 80. 8 % were conducive in English. The revision build that, unmoulded the non-Prague museums websites: 33 % were monolingual, 40% were bilingual websites and 27% were multilingual websites; 67% were conducive in English. The upshots from non-Prague museums were as ensues: Museums The City of Tesin Museum The Pharmaceutical Museum Kuks Regional Museum Ceska Lipa City Museum Usti nad Labem Regional Museum of Kromeriz South Moravian Museum in Znojmo The Museum of Moravian Slovakia East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice The Museum of Mlada Boleslav Region The Museum of Romani (Gypsy) Amelioration Sports Cars Museum Lany Museum Podkrkonosi in Trutnov Museum of Literal Motorcycles and Bohemian Toys Museum Kasperske Hory Regional Literal and Geographical Museum in Sumperk The Town Museum Nova Paka Technical Museum in Koprivnice Languages used CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE, PL CZ, EN,DE CZ, EN, DE, FR, PL, RU 16 Portals The Server muzei a galerii CR (Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Republic: http://www. cz-museums. cz/) is the most broad gate of the Czech museums. An English recitement is ordinaryly beneathneathneath erection. Contempt on museums and cultural legacy can be build on the gate Startpage (http://muzea. startpage. cz/) as courteous, but solely in the Czech chat, the identical standing is on the Seznam web catalogue (Muzea). Prague museums are pictorial and rolled on the gate ‚Prague - Feeling of Europe‘ (http://www. feelingofeurope. cz/museum_national1. html), which is used by irrelevant strangers to Prague and has an English recitement. There are unconnected library gates. A roll of the most broad can be build on the home page of the Unreserved Library of the Czech Reunreserved (http://www. nkp. cz/_en/). Uniframe Contempt Gateway (http://www. jib. cz/), Conspectus (http://conspectus. nkp. cz/), Memoria Purpose – Manuscriptorium (http://www. memoria. cz/) and Kramerius (http://kramerius. nkp. cz/) all enjoy an English recitement. Czech libraries can be build so on Kknihovny. cz http://www. knihovny. cz/en_index. hp3), which caters perceiveledge on Czech libraries, their inferions, perceiveledge wealths, uses and how to adit and use them. Comparison of furnishings Websites interposed in the MINERVA Survey: 86. 7% conducive in English. Websites interposed in the revision of Prague cultural sciences: 80. 8 % conducive in English. Websites of other Czech museums and sciences: 67 % conducive in English. 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used No multilingual thesauri delay cultural coverage were build to be conducive online unmoulded the sciences interposed in the review. Relations unmoulded conditions were in-great-measure produced using adds or some other hyperextract manners. Some of the sciences used untrammelled extract indexing, but most did not use any fiction resuscitation tools. The identical standing is gentleman of online inferior vocabularies or eglossaries. Library of Congress Substance Headings (LCSH) Library of Congress Substance Headings (LCSH) are ordinaryly used in the Czech Reunreserved as a origin of English equivalents of substance conditions, a Czech translation does not be. UNESCO Thesaurus A Czech translation of the UNESCO thesaurus does not departure. 17 2. 2 ESTONIA 2. 2. 1 Population and Languages vocal Estonia has environing 1. 351 pet basealty (as of January 2005). The catholicst ethnic assembleions are Estonians (68%), Russians (26%), Ukrainians (2%), Belarussians (1%) and Finns (1%). Estonian is the solely functional chat in Estonia in themeal comp and recite sciences. The Estonian chat belongs to the Finno-Ugric chat nobility and is suppressly akin to Finnish. Finnish, English, Russian and German are so expandedly vocal and beneathneathstood in Estonia. 2. 2. 2 The revision in Estonia In 2004, 8 Estonian sciences took bisect in the MINERVA revision of multilingualism in cultural websites. These interposed 2 proceedings, 1 library, 4 museums and 1 other cultural organisation: Estonian Recite Proceedings (http://riigi. arhiiv. ee/) Estonian Literal Proceedings (http://www. eha. ee/) Unreserved Library of Estonia (http://www. nlib. ee/) Estonian Theatre and Silence Museum (http://www. tmm. ee/) Estonian Unreserved Museum (http://www. rm. ee/) The Art Museum of Tartu (http://www. tartmus. ee/) Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Delineation (http://www. etdm. ee/) Conservation Centre Kanut (http://www. kanut. ee/) As this was not a delegated-to-others scantling, 34 subjoined websites were reviewed via the Internet. These interposed 30 museums (museums delayin the comp of the Ministry of Culture, county museums and corporate museums financed by the Ministry of Culture), 20 libraries (examination and eeparticular libraries and accessible libraries) and 4 proceedings (governmental and unreserved archival sciences). Est Museums delayin the comp of the Ministry of Culture: Accessible museums: Art Museum of Estonia Estonian Health Solicitude Museum Estonian History Museum Estonian Mariduration Museum Estonian Unreserved Museum Estonian Unreserved Air Museum Estonian Sports Museum Estonian Theatre and Silence Museum http://www. ekm. ee/ http://www. tervishoiumuuseum. ee/ http://www. eam. ee/ http://www. meremuuseum. ee/ http://www. erm. ee/ http://www. evm. ee/ http://www. spordimuuseum. ee/ http://www. tmm. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + untrammelled extract untrammelled extract Eng Rus Ger Fin Inquiry tools Museum of Estonian Architecture http://www. arhitektuurimuuseum. ee/ Recite museums: Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Delineation Tartu Art Museum County museums: http://www. etdm. ee/ http://www. tartmus. ee/ 18 Harjumaa Museum Hiiumaa Museum Iisaku Museum Jarvamaa Museum Laanemaa Museum Mahtra Peasantry Museum Memorial Museum of Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald Parish School Museum of Oskar Luts at Palamuse Polva Peasantry Museum Parnu Museum Saaremaa Museum Tartumaa Museum Valga Museum Viljandi Museum Foundations: Anton Hansen Tammsaare Museum at Vargamae Museums of Virumaa Corporate museums: Juhan Liiv Museum Muhu Museum Setu Farm Museum Libraries: Examination and eeparticular libraries: Academic Library of Tallinn University Estonian Unreserved Library Estonian Repository Library Tartu University Library Accessible libraries: Harju County Library Jogeva County Accessible Library Johvi Accessible Library Jarva County Accessible Library Kohtla-Jarve Accessible Library http://www. muuseum. harju. ee/ http://www. uuseum. hiiumaa. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/iisakumuuseum/ http://www. jarva. ee/? CatID=201 http://www. muuseum. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/mahtram/ http://www. hot. ee/muuseumvoru/ http://www. palmuseum. ee/ http://talurahvamuuseum. polvamaa. ee/ http://www. pernau. ee/ http://www. saaremaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. tartumaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. valgamuuseum. ee/ http://www. muuseum. viljandimaa. ee/ http://ice. estnet. ee/albuvv/? id=257 http://www. svm. ee/ http://www. muusa. ee/ http://www. muhumuuseum. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/setomuuseum/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + untrammelled extract untrammelled extract - + + + + untrammelled extract + + - + ree extract - + - + + http://www. tulib. ee/ http://www. nlib. ee/ http://www. hoiuraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. utlib. ee/ http://www. poltsamaa. ee/index. php? lan g=est=72,661,664 http://raamat. paide. ee/ http://k-jarve. lib. ee/ + + + + + + + untrammelled extract untrammelled extract - + - + + + + untrammelled extract Korvekula Library / Tartu County http://tmk. tartuvv. ee/tmk/ Accessible Library Kardla Accessible Library Laane County Accessible Library Narva Accessible Library Polva Accessible Library Parnu Accessible Library http://www. lib. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. raamat. polva. ee/ http://www. pkr. ee/ + + + + + + - Laane-Viru County Accessible Library http://www. lvkrk. ee/ + + - 19 Rapla Accessible Library Saare County Accessible Library Sillamae City Accessible Library Tallinn Accessible Library Tartu City Accessible Library Valga Accessible Library Viljandi City Library Voru County Accessible Library Archives: http://www. raplakrk. ee/ http://www. kuressaare. ee/skr/ http://www. slib. ee/ http://www. keskraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. luts. ee/ http://www. valgark. ee/ http://www. raamatukogu. viljandi. ee/ http://lib. werro. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + untrammelled extract untrammelled extract untrammelled extract untrammelled extract Governmental and unreserved archival sciences: Estonian Filmarchive Estonian Literal Proceedings Estonian Recite Proceedings Unreserved Proceedings of Estonia http://www. filmi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. eha. ee/ http://www. riigi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. ra. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + untrammelled extract untrammelled extract - 4 of these websites were monolingual suitableness 30 were multilingual as ensues: • 20 tops were conducive in 2 chats • 7 tops were conducive in 3 chats • 2 top was conducive in 4 chats • 1 top was conducive in 5 chats 4 irrelevant chats were denoteed including English (28), Russian (9), German (4) and Finnish (3). The quantity to which the pleaseds are conducive in these chats varies. On the web pages there are frequent signs of upshot-in-progress: pages in other chats nature announced or in an introduce mark of outgrowth. 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used At exhibit there are no multilingual thesauri in use on the Web by any Estonian cultural science. 15 tops cater untrammelled extract inquiry. 20 2. 3 FRANCE 2. 3. Population and Languages vocal The linguistic standing in France The collective conextract Spent the embark in 1998 of the Comp Resuscitation Plan for the Contempt Similarity (PAGSI) that made amelioration and chat two of its priorities the French comp has been actively accelerationed and promoting examination efforts and applications in the scene of chat. Here are some examples of this multifaceted involvement: • Taking bisect in multilingual European purposes delay an directional pleased (eg Linguanet : http://www. linguanet-europa. org) • Taking bisect in multilingual European purposes delay a cultural pleased (eg Herein: http://www. european-heritage. et/sdv/herein/ , Narcisse, Minerva or Michael) • Taking bisect in multilingual European purposes delay a or-laws pleased (eg Cismef: http://www. chu-rouen. fr/cismef/) • Taking bisect in the equipment of chat (terminology executetees ) or in the industrialisation of chat through accelerationed the figment of basic tools and linguistic wealths in the traditional and written areas (acceleration of the linguistic examination laboratories by the ministries in enjoin of perseverance, amelioration and direction) • Promoting perceiveledge in linguistic engineering by making it conducive to the communities of examination upshoters and industrialists (eg Technolangue purpose: http://www. technolangue. net) Delay its fruitful spent and its catholic dissemination the French chat can visage the coming delay belief. In dispose to answer-for its unreserved and interunreserved role in an always changing cosmos-fellow-creatures the unreserved cunning in favour of the French chat has transfern into totality all areas: the role of the French chat in the gregarious cohesion, its instruction (in France and aloof), its enhancement (figment of new opinion), its disdenote through the new technologies and on the web, and its dissemination, but so its not-absoluteship delay the other chats. Unreserved aggravatevision and resuscitations transfern France possesses a very fruitful linguistic legacy. The chats of France are our niggardly amiable-tempered-tempered and subscribe to the creativity of our dominion and to its cultural swing at the laterality of the French chat. By the purposeedion “languages of France” we moderation the regional or boy chats that are traditionally vocal by French citizens on the region of the Reunreserved and that are not the functional chat of any recite. For this infer neither Portuguese nor Chinese are chats of France though vocal by frequent French citizens. Abisect from the fixedty that they are not endangered chats, they are ordainlyly taught delayin the direction manner as irrelevant chats. Western Armenian is the chat of the diaspora and thus a chat of France when-in-fact Eastern Armenian is the functional chat of the Reunreserved of Armenia. Colloquial Arabic is the chat that is veritably vocal by frequent French mass. It differs from studious or polished Arabic that is the functional chat of Arabic countries and is used in the instrument but not by the unreserved population. These peculiaration criteria are profitable from the European Charter for Regional or Boy Languages. France’s linguistic cunning is in-truth exposed delayin the European framework. 21 Languages that surpass collective visageiers, such as the Basque, Catalan, Flemish and Frankish chats, explain the inside multitudinousness and the oneness of our niggardly cultural quantity. They unreserved doors on neighbouring countries. From this turn the chats of France can be visioned as moderations of cultural invention and as the components of a polyphonic ensemble where the unreal, psychical and affective cosmos-peoples of the men and women of our dominion can purposeed themselves untrammelledly. On the plea of these criteria spent than seventy-five chats of France can be counted in Metropolitan France and aggravateseas areas. They are distinguishd by a masterful multiformity. In Metropolitan France: Romance, Germanic, Celtic chats as courteous as Basque, a non-IndoEuropean chat. Overseas: Creoles, Amerindian, Polynesian, Bantu (Mayotte) and Austronesian (New Caledonia) chats, unmoulded others. There is so a masterful demographic multiformity unmoulded these chats. Three or indelicate pet mass are pronounceing Arabic in France when-in-fact Neku or Arha are vocal solely by a few dozen mass. In unmoulded, the manifold Creoles or the Berber chats are vocal by environing two pet mass in France. The 1999 unreserved census revealed that 26 % of adults help in France had ordainlyly experienced in their young-person a chat other than French – Alsatian (660 000 pronounceers), Occitan (610 000), Oil chats (580 000), Breton (290 000). For each of these chats one can add an similar – at moderationest –enumerate of intermittent pronounceers. Howalways chat transmission in France is approximately not effectual any spent in the nobility divergence and relies today in-great-measure on the instruction of these chats and their creativity in the excellent lordship. Metropolitan France Regional chats : Alsatian, Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Western Flemish, Moselle Franconian, Franco-provencal, Oil chats (Franc-Comtois, Walloon, Champenois, Picard, Norman, Gallo, Poitevin-Saintongeais, Lorrain, Bourguignon-Morvandiau), Oc chats or Occitan (Gascon, Languedocien, Provencal, Auvergnat, Limousin, Vivarese-Alpine). Non-territorial chats: Colloquial Arabic, Western Armenian, Berber, Judeo-Spanish, Romany, Yiddish) Overseas Caribbean area: French-naturalized Creoles: Guadeloupean, Guyanese, Martiniquan, Reunionese; Bushinenge Creoles of Guyana (Anglo-Portuguese-based): Saramaca, Aluku, Njuka, Paramaca; Amerindian chats of Guyana: Galibi (or Kalina), Wayana, Palikur, Arawak (or Lokono), Wayampi, Emerillon; Hmong New Caledonia: twenty-eight Kanak chats. Grande terre: Nyelayu, Kumak, Caac, Yuaga, Jawe, Nemi, Fwai, Pije, Pwaamei, Pwapwa, VohKone, Cemuhi, Paici, Ajie, Arha, Arho, Orowe, Neku, Siche, Tiri, Xaracuu, Xaragure, Drubea, Numee; Loyalty Islands: Nengone, Drehu, Iaai, Fagauvea. French Polynesia: Tahitian, Marquesan, Tuamotuan and Mangareva chats, chats vocal in the Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa and Ruturu chats. Wallis and Futuna Islands: Wallisian, Futunian. Mayotte :Maore, Malagasy accent of Mayotte. French Sign Chat (Langue des signes francaise or LSF) It is traditionally used by French citizens and is so a chat of France. Unconnected legislative conditions and regulations determine the settle of the chats of France in the areas of amelioration, direction and the instrument. The law of 4 August 1994 not-absolute to the use of the 22 French chat specifies: “The conditions of the exhibit law engage delayout disadvantage to the congress and regulations not-absolute to regional chats in France and is not frequentlyst their use” (date 21). The confession by the French Recite of the inequitpowerful pose held by the chats of France in the nation’s cultural vivacity was materialized by the figment in October 2001 of the Delegation unreservede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France. The Ministry of Amelioration and Message acceleration and aid the chats of France through its multiple scenes of intervention: silence, reading, theatre, ethnological legacy, proceedings, museums, cinema, … Moreover, inequitpowerful credits enjoy been allotted to the Delegation unreservede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France for the subjoined pre-eminence objectives : • Helping unreservedations in or environing the chats of France; • Supported the scenes – such as the dischargeing arts, singing, television and radio – where chat act as a vector for figment • Ensuring the influence of the chats of France through the new perceiveledge and message technologies; • Spent unreservedly, putting the pith on the interresuscitation unmoulded chat and amelioration and their moment in a help similarity. http://www. languesdefrance. om/ At a duration when economical or cultural transactions unmoulded countries are growing eagerly and Europe14 gets stronger a cunning that answer-fors the influence of the French chat for French citizens and French unreserved causes is asserted: (http://www. amelioration. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/Actualites/communication_ministre_17_mars. pdf). The French linguistic standing has succeed beneathneathneath suppress inspection and has been elaborate concertedly by the two unreserved decompose institutes – INSEE15 and INED16 – on the create of the ultimate unreserved census: http://www. ined. fr/publications/pop_et_soc/pes376. pdf Howalways this unreserved cunning goes concurrently delay a determined unreservedness towards the other chats: • Through the furtherance of boy and/or regional chats that are bisect of France’s legacy. France’s linguistic legacy consists of 75 chats. Howalways this roll puts concurrently idioms that enjoy a difference of socio-linguistic foundation. It goes from the in-great-measure vocal Creoles, which are the dowager accents of spent than one pet pronounceers and probably the regional chats that are the most living, to the in-great-measure written Bourguignon-Morvandiau which is solely vocal by a few mass nowadays and delay no dowager-to-baby transmission. See: http://www. amelioration. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lang-reg/rapport_cerquiglini/langues-france. html http://www. amelioration. gouv. fr/dglf/politique-langue/assises/actes_assises. pdf http://www. insee. fr/fr/insee_regions/idf/rfc/docs/alapage226. pdf • Through the figment of an Observatory of Linguistic Experience (Observatoire des pratiques linguistiques). The observatory’s labor is to con-aggravate ordinary linguistic experiences in France as courteous as the modalities and the proceeds of the continuity unmoulded chats. The observatory was substantiateed in 1999 delayin the Delegation unreservede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France (DGLFLF), an interdepartmental use for amelioration and message. It boon at catalogueing, developing, making conducive, the perceiveledge pertaining to France’s linguistic standing, in dispose to cater perceiveledge conducive for developing cultural, directional or gregarious policies. One of its boon is so to compose spent expandedly perceiven the niggardly linguistic legacy http://culture. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lois/politiques_ling_eng_Europe. df INSEE : Institut Unreserved de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (French Unreserved Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) INED : Institut Unreserved d’Etudes Demographiques (French Unreserved Institute for Demographic Studies) 14 15 16 23 that consists of all the chats and linguistic varieties vocal in France and that subscribe to its multiformity. The principle of the observatory is unembarrassed aspherical indelicate axes: • Examination and con-aggravate upshot: the observatory does not propel out examination upshot as such but it is accelerationed and coordinating purposes or examination programmes on themes that are of cause to the French Ministry of Amelioration and Message and – spent unreservedly – to the unreserved authorities, the delegated-to-otherss, the decision