The Worldwide Epidemiology
A person is said to be fat if the person have a high amount of the calories. Fat helps in keeping an individual healthy but excess fat is not good for heath. The official fattest country of Europe is the United Kingdom. In UK one out of every five adult is overweight and one in every fifteen is obese. It is estimated from the recent studies thatin the next 20 years the number of obese adult in the country will increase to 26 million people that is around seventy three percent of the total population (Jha et al. 2013pp.260-272.). The health experts say that if this continues then it will subsequently result in the rise of more than a million extra cases of type 2 Diabetes, heart disease and cancer. In the year 1994 the number of cases of Type 2 Diabetes was 1.4 million which have reach to 2.9 million in present time and it may rise to five million in the year 2025 (Krijthe et al. 2013 pp.2746-2751.). Diabetes affects over 9 percent of the global population. Previous it was called as the adult onset Diabetes but now it is found in the young adults and even the children are also sometimes affected by the disease.
Being overweight and obesity increases the chances of development of type 2 Diabetes. In this disease the amount insulin produced by the body is enough but the cells become resistant to the action of the insulin. This happens because if someone is overweight then the insides of the individual cells gets stressed. Particularly due to overeating the membranous network present inside the cells normally known as Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) gets stressed. When this ER has to process more nutrient than the capacity it can handle, an alarm is send out by the ER. This signal insist the cell to dampen down the insulin receptors on the cell surface (Kaufman et al. 2014 pp.2233-2239.). This ultimately result in the insulin resistance and as a result of that the concentration of sugar and glucose in the blood increases which is one of the sure sign of forming diabetes. Also the adipose tissue is the source of several chemical signals, cytokines and hormones to other tissues. The TNFαwhich is an inflammatory cytokine, activates the NF-κB pathwaythat is linked to the developing procedure of the insulin resistant (Wort et al. 2016 pp. A6592-A6592). These inflammation related cytokine found in the obese people results in the production of the smaller and fewer mitochondria than normal and thus making the body more prone to insulin resistant. The result of increase in the fat tissue is that the body secretes RBP4, this increases the insulin resistance by blocking the insulin’s action in the liver and muscle. Also the presence of fat in the body may cause a decrease in the level of adiponectin which acts in the opposite way of RBP4. Thus both the low level of adiponectin and high level of RBP4 increases the risk of development of Diabetes (Vieira et al 2015). Body fat cannot be reduce by cutting down on dietary fat. The dietary fat like the proteins and carbohydrate also provide energy for the body. If more calories are consumed in a day than it is used then the body converts the excess calories into fat. It is proved by the medical studies that high fat diets are not the direct cause of excess body fat. However the original fact is that low fat or the fat free foods can also increase overall body fat because the fats that are removed are often replaced by high amounts of carbohydrates, sugars and calories.
Studies show that saturated fats may increase the total blood cholesterol and low density lipoproteins which result in the risk of type 2 Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The true fact is that not only these thing are not the only reason of increasing the body fat. The diet which are rich in animal fat like butter, red meat, eggs, packaged foods, full-fat dairy food and fried foods are also responsible for causing the diseases like type 2 Diabetes. To avoid the occurrence of these disease a diet which emphasizes the seafood, whole and plant based food like the vegetables, fruits, grains, beans, olive oil and nuts should be followed. Recent studies show that this type of diet causes many health benefits such as decreased the risk of death, cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes. Many doctors also suggest the patient to follow this type of diet in their daily routine.
The body fat is the main reason of Type 2 diabetes in more than 64 percent cases of diabetes in the men and 77 percent cases of diabetes in women (Chen et al. 2012 pp.228-236.). It is found that obesity has contributed in approximately more than 55 percent of the cases of type 2 diabetes.Millions of people are suffering from type 2 Diabetes and can be cured just by losing their weight. The researcher of Newcastle University have proved that the disease is caused by the accumulation of the fat in the pancreas and just by losing only one gram every day from the organ can make it possible to reverse this life limiting illness and the level of insulin production can be restored. Type 2 Diabetes can be very chronic and can lead to stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputation. New researches have also showed that even the obese people who are having the disease can reverse it. The thing that these patient have to do is that they have to make it sure that the weight loss they are going through can be sustainable for long terms and it is obvious that to this the peoples have struggle a lot.This weight loss will also make the people feel lighter and they will be physically more active.
A major health promotion campaign has been undertaken by the Department of Health to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes by tackling obesity in the population of UK. The campaign has two primary approaches that include helping the patients to identify whether the people are heading towards poor health and develop Diabetes 2 by being obese or overweight and offering counselling to reduce weight in a stepwise manner. The campaign has also developed a website for supporting the campaign by providing practical advice and helpful tips for reducing their weight and measuring their waist. According to the director of the campaign Mr. Johnson, UK is officially country in the continent of Europe and this incidence is estimated to increase in the next 20 years. It is not realized by most of the people in UK that they are obese and is at a risk of developing Diabetes 2 (Dahlgren and Whitehead 2016). Therefore, the campaign aims to promote well-being and health and reduce health inequalities and this is the reason of mounting this novel initiative. The organizers of the campaign want the people to think about inching towards the development of several diseases due to obesity and take relevant steps to address them. The campaign helped the participants to explain the various adverse health effects by encouraging making changes in lifestyle that are realistic and small that will ultimately help them to maintain a balanced weight (Malik, Willett and Hu 2013). These small changes are feasible for the participants to bring about and can gradually move towards a big difference. The small steps taken by the participants helped them to improve their health by maintaining a balanced weight. The Department of Health aims to work throughout the country and organize similar campaigns to make it easy for the population to choose healthier options and stay active. Obesity is growing in UK as a lifestyle epidemic that is threatening the well-being and health of the population and increases the incidence of Diabetes 2. This campaign has been regarded as a breakthrough and timely step to empower the people to lose weight and prevent Diabetes 2 by making positive changes. Various organizations have come forward to develop the campaign and share ideas that will help the people and encourage them to adopt better living with healthy diets and activity. The campaign encouraged the participants to measure their waist and this is beneficial for them as more of this activity will indicate them of their lifestyle choices and the impact that could have on their health.
Chen, L., Magliano, D.J. and Zimmet, P.Z., 2012. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus—present and future perspectives. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8(4), pp.228-236.
Dahlgren, D. and Whitehead, M., 2016. European Strategies for tackling social inequalities in health: levelling up part 2. World.
Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., Saran, R., Wang, A.Y.M. and Yang, C.W., 2013. Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382(9888), pp.260-272.
Kaufman, R.J. and Malhotra, J.D., 2014. Calcium trafficking integrates endoplasmic reticulum function with mitochondrial bioenergetics. BiochimicaetBiophysicaActa (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 1843(10), pp.2233-2239.
Krijthe, B.P., Kunst, A., Benjamin, E.J., Lip, G.Y., Franco, O.H., Hofman, A., Witteman, J.C., Stricker, B.H. and Heeringa, J., 2013. Projections on the number of individuals with atrial fibrillation in the European Union, from 2000 to 2060. European heart journal, 34(35), pp.2746-2751.
Malik, V.S., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B., 2013. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 9(1), pp.13-27.
Vieira, P., Castoldi, A., Aryal, P., Wellenstein, K., Yore, M., Peroni, O. and Kahn, B., 2015. CTLA4-Ig treatment improves RBP4-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance triggered by MyD88, JNK, ERK and p38 pathways (IRC8P. 443). The Journal of Immunology, 194(1 Supplement), pp.129-7.
Wort, J., Chung, F., Adcock, I.M., Mumby, S. and Natsuki, A., 2016. TNFα Stimulates an Inflammatory Response in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HPMECs): The Role of NF-κB And BET Proteins. In D26. I’M ON FIRE-INFLAMMATION IN PULMONARY VASCULAR DISEASE (pp. A6592-A6592). American Thoracic Society.