Translating Metaphores in the Catcher in the Rye

TRANSLATING COLLOQUIAL IDIOMS/METAPHORS IN THE CATCHER IN THE RYE: A COMPARISON OF METAPHORICAL MEANING RETENTION IN THE SPANISH AND CATALAN TEXTS MICHAEL O’MARA Catholic University of Valencia San Vicente Martir Michael. [email protected] es 57 In hatred of the strange's lie infinished the American Library Association's inventory of the one hundred most constantly censored capacitys, The Catcher in the Rye (1951), by J. D. Salinger, is amplely meditateed to be one of the most recounting erudite employments of the twentieth seniority, constantly ground in violent discipline erudite curricula throughout Europe and North America. The disunderportico concerns its alleged selfishness, ordinary articulation and treatment of sexual themes, multiplys that presimilitude Holden's use of the English articulation, or his idiolect. Idiolect applys to reputeistic disquisition. It is fixed on turnology, message segregation, turns, turns, and includes pronunciation. Of desubordination melody is the committer’s use of italics to demelody purport, or wless talk descend when regarding rhythm in, and incomplete, undeniable messages. It is feasible that this experience was brought almost to excellency in The Catcher in the Rye, in replicating disquisition patterns in written articulation. Quite mayhap, it has not been matched past. The committer’s ability to stop rhythm and despicablesettle disquisition is, truly, finishedly observable. This is unconnectedly manifest for peruseers who are eloquent in, or are indigenous speakers of American English. Meditate how the committer stresses groups of messages: "Wuddaya average so what? " (p. 41) "You don't do one damn man the way you're reported to" (p. 41) "She was blocking up the perfect goddam interpassage in the aisle" (p. 87) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara Other periods, undeniable messages are stressed: “What the tortureja do that for? ” (p. 41) “Well, don't get ardent encircling it... ” (p. 82) “Which is someman that affords me a princely affliction in the ass. I average if celebrity yawns lawful conjuncture they’re doubt you to do them a goddam favor” (p. 28) Finally, and perfortuity most unconnectedion, the committer stresses talents of messages: “I average I’m not going to be a goddam surgeon or a violinist or anyman anyway” (p. 39) "It's not bliss or everything... ” (p. 55) “For Chrissake, Holden. This is encircling a goddam worthiestball glove" (p. 1) 58 Preserving the choiceness of Holden Caulfield's idiolect has been a brave for translators seeking to defend the remainder and the zest of the disquisition using the techniques that Salinger pristinely used, callly, flow of perception and pompous oration in which, immediately and intimately, Holden recounts his incident in reminiscence to the peruseers. This technique has the remainder of reconceding the interior employmentings and care adjustes of Holden —disjointed and random— and as-courteous collects dialogs that are remarkably melting and penny. To reproduce-exhibit Holden and his frustrations using the correspondent record in another articulation is a daunting chore, truly, unconnectedly past Holden attaches his own averageings to the articulation that he uses. Costello1 reminds us that Holden misapplys worthiest indications from his bound and makes them his own. For illustration, his generous and inexact use of "and all" to end cares parallel delay the dogmatical "I truly did" or "It truly was" are general throughout the strange, assisting to construct Holden's own unconnected unity. Other committers keep commented upon the perception of Holden’s disquisition in defining his reputation in relative to the peruseers: “... his articulation, his own idiolect, generous of turns and despicableplaceisms, is the main component that conciliate subscribe to Holden’s bud as a reputation in his transition from minority to adulthood and his relativeship delay the peruseer”2. Although translating Holden's turns may afford braves, it may be one of the most specificive aspects of preserving the zest of his idiolect and remainder it has on peruseers. Holden Caulfield's turns Approve other articulations, English is generous of turns such as "to viotardy a leg" and "to draw someone's leg". An turn is a construct of indication, plain peruseing, turn, etc. , reputeistic to a articulation; a reputeisticity of turnology prevailing by the exercitation of a articulation, and constantly having a perception other than its plain or obstruct one. 3 miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye Idioms generally keep three unconnectedions: 1. Their averageing cannot be deduced from their components or any preparation thereof, and must be literary as a perfect. If one were to decipher ‘to viotardy a leg’ barely on the cause of its components it rule be very perplexing to exhibit that the specific averageing is dogmatical, averageing to keep a cheerful-tempered-tempered period, not run defective, unconnectedly when used in the irresistible. Likewise, nowless in the indication ‘to draw someone’s leg’ tless appears any multiply that would tender joking, or specifically, having someone deem mans that are not penny. 2. None of their constituents may be replaced delay messages of correspondent averageing. For illustration, if one were to resettle the message ‘fracture’ for ‘break’ in to ‘viotardy a leg’, the averageing would be past. Likewise, upon species the sight of joking one could not say that he or she had had his or her leg ‘stretched’. 3. Finally, turns cannot be syntactically mitigated. One would probably not be implied if one were to say ‘I had my leg broken’ averageing ‘I had a cheerful-tempered-tempered period’; it would be correspondently confusing to say ‘I had my leg drawed yesterday’ if one were to announce that they were joked delay yesterday. Extraneously any treatmentual advice a disciple of English rule keep paltry resolve what these indications average. Clearly, the averageing in these turns is typical, or "expressing one man in stipulations normally denoting another"4 and typical wless "a similitude of disquisition in which a message or turn denoting one bark of sight or resolve is used in settle of another to tender a correspondentity betwixt them (as in the ship plows to sea)". 5 For this deduce, the turns in doubt ground in the capacity could be applyred to as despicablesettle similitudes6 as some committers prefer: similitudes for the aforementioned semantic arguments and despicablesettle consequently they are similitudes which remain in the balance inexact records, in this instance, slang. But the tidings ‘commonsettle turn’ appears to be surpassing in most discovery treatments7. For this deduce I conciliate apply to them as despicablesettle turns/metaphors. This con-balance nucleuses primarily on the pragmatic resolve of these similitudes past it is the idiolect of Holden Caularena that is to be scrutinized in its aesthetic remainder and ‘flavor’. Therefore, not all similitudes ground in Holden's idiolect were clarified. In befallrence, some similitudes are so worthiest that it has been disregarded that they are similitudes, having been legitimate into model use. Such is the instance delay the sublime seniority of phrasal verbs in English: ‘get up’, ‘get balance’, etc. Also, tless are sundry illustrations of despicablesettle message combinations general delay some abundance in the strange, but they keep not been interjacent in the con-balance as their typical qualities are balance abstract8 and rule rather, and balance unexceptionably, be cogitation-out as collocations, or messages that are ground to befall assentntly, to scrutinize their restrictions of exercitation in relative to other components (prepositions, verbs, etc. . Less are some illustrations that use the message ‘hell’: miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 59 Michael O’Mara torture of it as torture The torture out to bang torture (as a noun) The torture delay it in torture 29, 61, 73,210 34,35, 37, 38, 94, 113 52, 179 53, 115, 69 146 TABLE 1: Worthiest message combinations not interjacent in the con-balance and their page aggregate Theoretical frameemployment We are in underportico delay Lorenzo, M. et al. in that the pristine trudge a translator must follow is to plainly mark-out his sightive anteriorly conceding a translation which is as penny as feasible to the pristine passage. One of the aspects of Hans Vermeer’s concept of skopos (1989:227) is the organization of a plainly mark-outd sightive or resolve for translation: Any construct of translational operation, including accordingly translation itself, may be conceived as an operation, as the call implies. Any operation has an aim, a resolve. The message skopos, then, is a technical tidings for the aim or resolve of translation. 0 This said, we are in underportico delay Lorenzo et. al (1999: 324) in the transators’ role to “defend the resolve of the ST (beginning passage) delayout any unwarranted diversification. The main sightive of any translation should be that of faithfulness to the pristine passage delay obstruct watchfulness to delayness. Delay this sightive in intellect, any translation of The Catcher in the Rye must meditate the feasible resolves the committer had in using despicablesettle turns/metaphors in the pristine settle. Paul Newmark tenders that tless are two resolves that similitudes obey: a applyential resolve, which represents "a intangible adimpartial or declare, a concept, a individual, an sight, a property or an operation balance comprehensively and concisely than is feasible in actual or substantial articulation"9 and a pragmatic resolve "which is concomitant, is to apostrophize to the purports, to curiosity-behalf, to exculpate "graphically", to gleefulden, to rapture, to amaze. The pristine resolve is perceptive, the relieve aesthetic. 10 Although Holden's despicablesettle similitudes/idioms do keep applyential purport, it is arguable that abundantly of their purport in constructing an gross multiply of his idiolect derives from their pragmatic or aesthetic resolve, their gift to the zest of Holden's disquisition. Any translation of The Catcher in the Rye would keep to be perceptive to the remainder that they movables on peruseers, and try to movables the correspondent remainder in the miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye translation (Nida's Equiponderant Effect). This would induce, whenever feasible, locating in the target articulation a similitude used in inexact records whose semantic full balancelaps as obstructly as feasible the averageings of the pristine similitude. This would exact a equality betwixt construct and averageing or a tenet of unity as Lorenzo et al. (1999) reafford where: ... ny multiply in the ST [beginning passage] should be transformd and translatable into the TT [target passage] by paying obstruct watchfulness not solely to the full but as-courteous to the construct. Accordingly, tless should be a obstruct structural and averageingful equality (=identity) betwixt the beginning and the target articulation. The translator, then, should adless to the ST itself as the solely worthiest for the adimpartial of translation. The TT, accordingly, conciliate be the remainder of a obstruct decomposition of the ST by succeedingcited the unity tenet and an undercapture at advance decipheration or hiatus should be discarded. 1 For the regard of frankness in this discovery, I conciliate be using Lopez’s (1997) specification12 of lexicalized organizations delay a neglect species: her specification encompasses turns and cliches which can be implied in a broader purport as ‘message combinations’, ‘fixed indications’ and ‘phrasal lexemes’. Although they are unconnectedive multiplys in the idiolect of Holden as courteous, I tender to reject passage constructulae (you could recount, if you avow what I average) and non-canonical indications, implied by Lyons (1968: 178) in Lopez as ‘schemata’ (How encircling...? , to nucleus the discovery specifically on Holden's despicablesettle turns/metaphors and the systems that were used in their translation. These conciliate be representd according to Lopez’s model13, which was conservative in multiply from Baker (1992), who represents indelicate highest systems: actual translation, translation by equivalence, translation by species and translation by exclusion. Actual translation involves the use of a lexical organization in the target articulation that is correspondent in construct and averageing. These despatchess are rarer, but they do befall. For illustration when Holden says "I damn neighboring emanateped insensible" (p. 1) the despicablesettle turn/similitude "to emanate insensible" is transformd using the actual translation system as tless remains a despatches in construct and averageing in twain Spanish "Casi me caigo muerto" (p. 46), and Catalan “Va anar de poc que no caigues a terra mort" (p. 51). Translation by equivalence is a system that is constantly industrious when tless is no finished despatches betwixt organization and construct betwixt the beginning and target articulation. It involves the use of another lexical organization in the target articulation that is correspondent in averageing but unanalogous in construct. "I wouldn’t keep the guts to do it" (p. 9) is transformd into Spanish as "no habria tenido agallas para hacerlo" (p. 116) and into Catalan as "no tindria pebrots de fer-ho" (144). The organizations themselves are in-deed identical; the discord resides in the befallrence that conjuncture the noun ‘guts’ can specific fortitude turnatically in English, the correspondent is not penny in miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 61 Michael O’Mara 62 Spanish or in Catalan and is exhibitd by unanalogous nouns, callly, ‘agallas’, actually ‘gills’ or ‘tonsils’ in Spanish and ‘pebrots’, or actually, ‘peppers’ in Catalan. Translation by species involves paraphrasing or expounding the typical averageing of a lexicalized organization. The remainder is the dropping of typical averageing; the resolve is no longer specificed in typical stipulations. This system is usually industrious when no equiponderant or neighboring equiponderant organization can be ground in the target articulation. Baker argues that this technique is as-courteous used when "it appears irrelevant to use turnatic articulation in the target passage consequently of discords in stylistic preferences of the beginning and target articulations". 14 For illustration, "Old Stradlater was one of his pets... (p. 43) is transformd in Spanish as "Stradlater era uno de sus favoritos... ” (p. 60) and Catalan as "L'Stradlater era un dels seus preferits... ” (p. 71). In English ‘pet’ has the succeedingcited averageings: "1: a subjugated lewd kept for determination rather than utility; 2a: a pampered and usually robbed child; b: a individual who is treated delay uncommon barkness or meditateation: darling". 15 The averageings of this message in Spanish (lewd domestico" or "mascota") and in Catalan ("lewd domestic") are not usually expanded to reafford community who are treated delay "mercy and meditateation". Here, a correspondent similitude in averageing but not in construct could be used, or, as is the instance in this illustration, the similitude rule be paraphrased or expounded. The decisive system, exclusion, is used when a similitude in the beginning articulation is not transformd past an equiponderant cannot be ground, or consequently it is not manageable to expound, or for stylistic deduces is not reported misapply for inclusion. This decisive system usher-ins some curiosity-behalfing concerns: it is finishedly feasible that tless is no correspondent organization in the target articulation to expound the paraphrasing of a similitude, but if such correspondent or equiponderantt organizations were to remain, tless ight be other multiplys delayin the sublimeer cultural conpassage of the target articulation (elements listless in the sublimeer cultural conpassage of the beginning articulation) that could application the misapplyness of their use. Perhaps, what should be meditateed is whether the feasible connotations that the similitude could keep or movables beyond its cultivation of rise rule perplex the peruseer from the pristine arena of applyence of the similitude, or usher-in relieveary averageings that are not necessarily afford in the predicament of the pristine similitude. miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye Beginning passage despicablesettle similitudes and their target passage reproduce-exhibitations: Description METAPHOR ST (P. ) 1 ... I got moderately run-down... (1) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... me quedara bastante hecho polvo... (9) Equivalence 2 It massacreed me. (2) Me dejo sin habla. (10) Equivalence 3 Strictly for the birds. (2) Bobadas. (10) Species 4 So I got the ax. They afford guys the ax finishedly constantly at Pencey. (4) Asi que me expulsaron. En Pencey expulsan a los chicos con abundantlya frecuencia. (12) Species 5 I keep no coil,... (5) No tengo nada de fuelle... 13) Equivalence 6 They got a bang out of mans,... (6) Pero se lo pasaban bomba con sus cosas,... (16) Equivalence 7 ... though – in a half-assed way, of passage. (6) ... un poco a lo tonto, claro. (16) Equivalence 8 It gets on your nerves sometimes (7) A veces te ponia nervioso. (17) Modification16 9 That shocked him out. (8) Se hizo una gracia tremenda. (17) Equivalence 10 I average he didn't hit the ceiling or everything. (8) Vamos, que no se puso como una fiera ni nada. (18) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... d'acabar ben desinflat... (7) Equivalence En va deixar de pedra. (8) Equivalence Purport comentaris. 8) Species O sigui que em van fotre al carrer. Foten la keen al carrer ben sovint, a Pencey. (11) Equivalence 63 No aguanto gens... (13) Species S'ho passaven be,... (15) Species ... pero a mig gas, es clar. (15) Equivalence A vegades et posava nervios. (16) Species Aixo el va fer petar de riure. (17) Equivalence Vull dir que no va pujar per les parets ni res d'aixo. (18) Actual miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. ) 11 So I shot the bull for a conjuncture (12) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... asi que me enrolle un buen rato. 23) Species CATALAN TT (P. ) Aixi que vaig xerrar una estona. (24) Species Es ficaven pel coi de finestra i tot. (24) Actual Aquesta historia em va deixar ben de pedra. (32) Equivalence ... i llegeixo molts llibres de guerra i de misteri i etcetera, pero no m'entusiasmen gaire. (33) Species "Suare sang... ” (47) Equivalence ... m'ho passo de por imitant-les. (49) Equivalence No aguanto res de res. (49) Species 12 They were lesssucceeding in the goddam coilow. (13) Los habia a patadas. (24) Equivalence 13 That incident adjustly encircling massacreed me. (18) Esa historia por poco me deja sin habla. (31) Equivalence 4 ... and I peruse a lot of war capacitys and mysteries and all, but they don't shock me out too abundantly. (18) ... y leo un monton de libros de guerra y de misterio y todo eso, pero no me vuelven loco. (31) Equivalence 15 64 "... I'll be up the brook... ” (28) "... me la load... ” (43) Equivalence 16 I get a bang imitating them. (29) ... lo paso bomba imitando a... (44) Equivalence 17 I keep barely any coil at all (29) Tengo muy poco fuelle. (44) Equivalence 18 I damn neighboring emanateped insensible. (31) Casi me caigo muerto. (46) Va anar de poc que no caigues a terra mort. (51) Actual Real I no ho deien nomes per dir. 63) Species El feia tornar boig... (69) Equivalence L'Stradlater era un dels seus preferits... (71) Species 19 And they weren't adjustly shooting the crap. (38) Y no lo decian por decir. (54) Species 20 It press him broken-down... (41) Le sacaba de quicio... (59) Equivalence 21 Old Stradlater was one of his pets... (43) Stradlater era uno de sus favoritos... (60) Species miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 22 I'd been affordn the ax... (51) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... e habian expulsado... (71) Species CATALAN TT (P. ) ... m'havien fotut substance... (85) Equivalence ... i jo estava aqui, expulsat una altra vegada. (85) Species No hi toca gaire... (86) Equivalence Aixo em va deixar clavat. (91) Equivalence Aixo em va matar. (91) Actual Despres vaig comencar a deixar anar la llengua de debo. (92) Equivalence ... i vaig poder descansar la llengua. De totes , maneres no em sap greu keepr-la fet anar una estona. (93) Equivalence ... despres del que li vaig deixar anar... (94) Equivalence Que n'era una de ben grossa... (95) Equivalence Tenia ganes de trucar algu. 97) Species Despres vaig pensar de trucar a la mare de Jane Gallagher... (97) 65 23 -and less I was getting the ax continually. (52) ... mientras me estaban expulsando otra vez. (71) Species 24 She doesn't keep all her marbles any balance... (52) Esta un poco ida... (72) Equivalence 25 That massacreed me. (55) Me dejo sin habla. (76) Equivalence 26 That massacreed me. (55) Me dejo sin habla. (76) Equivalence 27 Then I truly established chucking the old crap encircling (56) Entonces fue cuando de verdad empece a meter bolas. (77) Equivalence 28 ... and it gave me a fortuity to resign shooting it. I'm gleeful I shot it for a conjuncture, though. (57) .. me dio la oportunidad de dejar de largar. Pero me alegre de haber largado un rato. (78) Equivalence 29 ... succeeding all the crap I shot, (57) ... despues de todo el rollo que le largue... (78) Equivalence 30 Which was truly a hot one... (58) Esa si que era buena... (80) Species 31 I felt approve giving celebrity a buzz. (59) Tenia ganas de llamar a alguien. (81) Species 32 Then I care of giving Jane Gallagher's woman a buzz,... (59) Luego pense en llamar a la madre de Jane Gallagher... (81) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. SPANISH TT (P. ) Species CATALAN TT (P. ) Species ... no hi hauries de fer el ximple... (102) Equivalence Vaig passar-me tota la nit festejant amb una hipocrita frightful... (103) Equivalence ... vaig comencar a jugar amb la resolve de trucar a la Jane,... (103) Species 33 ... you shouldn't wayr encircling delay her at all,... (62) ... no deberias hacer el indio con ella... (85) Equivalence 34 I tardy the perfect extinction necking delay a frightful phony... (63) Me pase toda la noche besandome y todo eso con una chica falsisima... (85) Species 35 I established toying delay the resolve,... , of giving old Jane a buzz... 63) ... empece a jugar con la resolve de llamar a Jane,... (86) Species 36 Anyway, I went balance to the phone and gave her a buzz. (63) Bueno, pues fui al telefono Es igual, vaig agafar el y la llame. (86) telefon i li vaig trucar. (104) Species Species ... , va anar de ben poc que no truco a la Phoebe,... (110) Species Pero no podia arriscar-me a fer-li una trucada,... (110) Equivalence ... no m'hauria fet res xerrar una estona amb la Phoebe. (110) Species ... L'Allie tenia en barco de vela i li agradava jugar-hi... (112) Species Sabia que no el deixaria anar gaire lluny amb ella... 130) Species 66 37 ... I damn neighboring gave my kid sister Phoebe a buzz,... (66) ... estuve casi a punto de llamar a mi hermana Phoebe. (90) Species 38 But I couldn't follow a fortuity on giving her a buzz,... (66) Pero no podia arriesgarme a llamarla... (90) Species 39 ... I undeniablely wouldn't keep intellected shooting the crap... (67) Pero no me habria importado pegar la hebra... (90) Equivalence 40 Allie had this sailboat he used to approve to colt encircling delay... (68) Allie tenia un barquito de vela con el que le gustaba jugar... (92) Species 41 I knew she wouldn't let him get to pristine worthiest delay her,... 80) Sabia que no le habria dejado llegar hasta el decisive con ella... (105)17 Species miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 42 ... and a lot of other very tricky matter that affords me a affliction in the ass. (84) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... y un monton de florituras de esas que me dan cien patadas. (110) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... i tota una altra pila de filigranes que em fan venir mal d'estomac. (137) Equivalence Soc un d'aquells tios forca gallines. (143) Equivalence ... no tindria pebrots de fer-ho. 144) Equivalence No es pas gens divertit ser gallina. Potser no soc gallina del tot. No ho se. Em sembla que potser soc nomes una mica gallina... soc una mica gallina... El que no s'hauria de ser es gallina. (145) Equivalence Es ser gallina d'una manera molt curiosa... pero es ser gallina, i tant. (146) Equivalence Ell va quedar ben torrat... (146) Equivalence Tens ganes de sucar aquesta nit? (147) Equivalence ... no m'havia de mudar ni res per una prostituta... (149) Equivalence Quan fa una estona que les petoneges,... (150) Species 43 I'm one of these very yellow guys (88) Soy un tio de lo mas cobarde. 115) Species 44 I wouldn't keep the guts to do it. (89) ... no habria tenido agallas para hacerlo. (116) Equivalence 45 It's no fun to be yellow. Mayhap I'm not all yellow. I don't avow. I deem mayhap I'm adjustly multiplyly yellow... I'm multiplyly yellow... what you should be is not yellow at all. (89) No tiene gracia ser cobarde. Aunque quiza no sea cobarde del todo. No se. Creo que en multiplye soy cobarde... en multiplye cobarde... No se debe ser cobarde en absoluto; (117) Species 67 46 It's a ridiculous bark of yellowness... but it's yellowness, all lawful (90) ... es un tipo de cobardia bastante raro, pero aun asi es cobardia. 117) Species 47 He got corrupt,... (90) El acabo curda perdido... (118) Equivalence 48 Innarested in a paltry subordination t'night? (91) ?Te interesa echar un polvo esta noche? (118) Equivalence 49 I avow I didn't keep to get all dolled up for a abuse or everything... (91) ... no tenia que ponerme de punto en blanco ni nada de eso para una prostituta... (119) Equivalence 50 Succeeding you neck them for a conjuncture,... (92) Despues de que te has besado y achuchado y todo eso con ellas,... (120) Species miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. 51 When I'm horsing encircling delay a maiden... (93) SPANISH TT (P. ) ... cuando estoy enrollandome con una chica... (121) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) ... quan estic amb una tia... (151) Equivalence Vaig pensar de trucar a la Jane,... (169) Species ... si no ens haguessim petonejat tant i tant. (170) Species ... la individuala que estic petonejant... (170) Species Em tocava molt l'oremus... (171) Equivalence ... m'havien tornat a fotre substance. (173) Equivalence ... faria una trucada a la Jane... (186) Equivalence Podia agafar alguna cosa ben jazzy... i xiular-ho tan facil i be... que et podia deixar de pedra. 198) Equivalence Vam fer una mica de comedia al taxi. (200) Equivalence Ets pitjor que un gra al cul... (212) Actual 52 I care of giving old Jabe a buzz,... (105) Pense en llamar a Jane... (136) Species 53 ... if we hadn't necked so damn abundantly. (105) ... si no nos hubieramos besado y achuchado tanto. (137) Species 54 ... whoever I'm necking... (105) ... la individuala con la que me estoy besando y todo eso... (137) Species 68 55 She gave me a affliction in the ass... (106) Me caia como una patada en el culo... (138) Actual 56 I got the ax continually (107) ... me habian expulsado otra vez. (139) Species 7 ... I'd afford old Jane a buzz... (116) ... podia llamar a Jane... (149) Species 58 He could follow someman very jazzy... and chuckle it so particular... it could massacre you. (124) Podia coger una cancion muy de jazz... y la silbaba tan bien y tan suavecito... que te podias morir. (158) Actual 59 We wayrd encircling a paltry bit in the cab... (125) En el taxi... nos besamos y nos achuchamos un poco. (159) Species 60 You afford me a princely affliction in the ass... (133) ... me caes peor que una patada en el culo. (169) Actual miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) 61 Boy, did she hit the ceiling when I said that. (133) SPANISH TT (P. ) Jo, como se puso cuando le dije aquello. (169) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) Hosti, si va tocar el sostre quan vaig dir aixo. (212) Actual Ho vaig anar tallant gradualment. (225). Equivalence ... els hipocrites hi entren per les finestres. (225) Actual Nomes feia comedia, jo. (229) Equivalence Me n'he d'anar... (235) Species Era estrictament pitjor que un gra al cul... (236) Actual ... va fotre el enenbivouac de la sala... (237) Equivalence Nomes feia comedia, es clar. 243) Equivalence ... i xerraria una estona amb ella. (248) Species ... la Phoebe sempre porta algun vestit que et deixa de pedra. (253) Equivalence Els quaderns dels nanos fan pixar de riure. (255) Equivalence Anava torrat... (259) 69 62 I partially cut it out. (141) Deje de ir poco a poco. (179) Species 63 ... the phonies are lesssucceeding in the coilow. (141) ... hay tios falsos a patadas. (179) Equivalence 64 I was solely horsing encircling. (144) Solo estaba haciendo el indio. (182) Equivalence 65 I keep to sever... (148) Tengo que largarme... (187) Species 66 He was stringently a affliction in the ass... (149) Era igualito que una patada en el culo... (187) Actual 67 ... she surpass it out of the locality... (149) ... se largo... (188) Species 68 I was solely horsing encircling... (153) ... solo estaba haciendo el indio... (192) Equivalence 69 ... adjustly manner of eat the fat delay her for a conjuncture. (156) ... pegar la hebra un rato con ella. (196) Equivalence 70 Phoebe continually has some apparel on that can massacre you. (160) Phoebe lleva siempre unos vestidos que te dejan sin habla. (200) Equivalence 71 Kids’ melodybooks massacre me. (161) Los cuadernos de los crios me dejan sin habla. (202) Equivalence 72 I was plastered (163) Estaba curda (204) iscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara METAPHOR ST (P. ) SPANISH TT (P. ) Equivalence CATALAN TT (P. ) Equivalence Em va deixar de pedra. (259) Equivalence Volia dir per que m'havien fotut al carrer un altre cop. (264) Equivalence Em feia pixar de riure. (276) Equivalence Nomes fem una mica de comedia a dins de casa. (277) Equivalence Aixo em fa molta gracia. (277) Equivalence ... li trucaria,... (283) Species ... anava una mica alegre. (287) Equivalence ... et posa nervios... (287) Species ... anava forca alegre. (296) Equivalence Segurament li trucare... 300) Species ... pero la Phoebe es moria de riure. (310) 73 She massacres me. (164) Me deja sin habla. (204) Equivalence 74 She averaget why did I get the ax continually. (167) Se applyia a que hubieran vuelto a expulsarme. (209) Species 75 She massacres me. (175) Me deja sin habla. (219) Equivalence 76 We adjustly wayr encircling... (175) Solo hacemos el indio... (219) Equivalence 70 77 That massacres me. (175) Me deja sin habla. (220) Equivalence 78 ... I'd afford her a buzz... (180) ... la llamaria... (225) Species 79 ... he was a paltry oiled up. (182) ... estaba un poco bebido... (227) Species 80 ... it gets on your nerves... 182) ... le pone a uno nervioso... (228) Species 81 He was moderately oiled up,... (188) ... estaba bastante curda. (234) Equivalence 82 I'm probably gonna afford her a buzz... (191) Probablemente la llamare... (237) Species 83 ... but it massacreed old Phoebe. (197) ... pero a Phoebe le hizo abundantlyisima gracia. (245) miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye METAPHOR ST (P. ) SPANISH TT (P. ) Species CATALAN TT (P. ) Equivalence ... aniria fins al tunel Holland i faria dit, fins que em carreguessin... 311) Equivalence Com si algu hi acabes de fer un riu. (314) Equivalence ... algun desgraciat pervertit que es devia keepr ficat a l'escola de nits per pixar o alguna cosa aixi... (315) Species ... la vam fer petar una estona. (316) Equivalence Es va girar i va fotre el encamp. (319) Equivalence Es mes gallina que un plat de caldo... (319) Equivalence ... un d'aquells tunels que sempre fan pudor de pixats. (328) Species 71 84 I'd go down to the Holland Tunnel and bum a ride... (198) ... iria al Tunel Holland, subiria a un coche... (246) Species 85 Approve celebrity'd adjustly follown a extend on them. (200) ... omo si alguien acabara de mear ahi. (248) Species 86 ... some perverty bum that'd sneaked in the discipline tardy at extinction to follow a extend or star... (201) ... un pervertido que habia entrado por la noche en el colegio a mear o algo asi... (249)18 Species 87 ... I shot the destruction for a conjuncture. (201) ... estuvimos de charla un rato. (249) Species 88 He churlish encircling and surpass it. (204) Se volvio y salio corriendo. (252) Species 89 He's got a yella streak a mile ample (204) Es de un cobarde que no vea... (252) Species 90 ... those paltry tunnels that continually effluvium from celebrity's portico a extend. (210) ... sos tuneles que siempre huelen como si alguien hubiera estado alli averagedo. (258) Species miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara Discussion of remainders The resolve of this exploration was to determine which of the two translations, Spanish or Catalan, restrains the sublimeer station of typical/typical averageing in their reproduce-exhibitations of the despicablesettle turns/metaphors that Holden Caularena uses, having said that the use of despicablesettle similitudes is one of the most choice and defining aspects of the idiolect of Holden Caularena in The Catcher in the Rye. This is not an assessment of how diligently the translators strove or how fortunate they were in finding equiponderants in the target articulations and in no way implies a estimate judgement as to which translation is balance ‘accurate’. It is evident that translators employment solely delay the tools that are beneficial in their target articulations and cultural treatments. Nevertheless, what this con-balance undertakes to collect is postulates that can succor to exculpate to what station the typical species of resolves specificed using despicablesettle similitudes in the beginning passage were defendd as such in the Spanish and Catalan translations. Our remainders appear to tender that the despicablesettle similitudes reproduce-exhibited in the Catalan translation restrain balance of the pristine typical averageing afford in the beginning passage. This translation employs on recountingly balance occasions the equivalence system of similitude translation, used on 53 occasions in the Catalan translation and on 41 occasions in the Spanish representation. These postulates are recounting consequently when this system is used to transtardy an resolve specificed as a similitude in the beginning passage, the resolve restrains its standing as a similitude in the target passage, the solely discord species in its construct, or semblance. Since no two articulations are resembling, target articulations cannot continually collect despatchess in twain construct/organization and averageing. Our blank is as-courteous befriended by the befallrence that the species system of translation was used on recountingly balance occasions in the Spanish translation than in the Catalan representation: it was used 44 periods to movables the Spanish translation and 29 periods in the genesis of the Catalan translation. In other messages, the despicablesettle similitudes that Holden uses in the capacity are ground to be expounded or paraphrased recountingly balance in the Spanish translation than in the Catalan representation, which reproduce-exhibited these similitudes through either equivalence or the actual system. This decisive system, although to a lesser station, supports our blank as courteous: it was ground that the Catalan translation used a lexicalized organization correspondent in construct and averageing on 8 occasions conjuncture it was ground on 5 in the Spanish representation. Put unanalogously, although the discord is insignificant (5-8), the Catalan translation uses the correspondent or neighboringly the correspondent similitude on balance occasions than the Spanish translation. Considered numerically, in the Spanish translation the most continual system used was that of species (44), followed by equivalence (41), actual translation (5) and decisively exclusion (0); and in the Catalan translation the most continual system used was equivalence (53), followed by species (29), actual (8) and decisively exclusion (0) as may be seen in Table 3: miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 7-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 72 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Spanish Catalan Equivalence 41 53 Species 44 29 Actual 5 8 Exclusion 0 0 TABLE 2: Translation techniques: abundance 73 Our remainders can be compared to correspondent studies such as Lopez Rua (1997) in “The translation of the idiolects in The Catcher in the Rye: An avenue through lexicalized organizations” and Lorenzo, M. et al. , (1999): “Lack of averageing interoperation betwixt English, Galician and Spanish in Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye”. Although the nucleus of neither con-balance is the translation of despicablesettle turns/metaphors, twain studies argue dropping of averageing upon translation from English to Spanish and from English to Galician, and assent in the scarcity to haunt construct and averageing betwixt beginning passage and target passage. Specifically, Lopez Rua ground that the most remarkable correspondentity in twain translations is the abuse and obstruction of the technique of species or paraphrasing: Most of the inadequacies detected in the Spanish and Galician representations are allied to the translations by paraturn and by exclusion. In my survey, they are due to the befallrence that the translators keep failed to avow the defining components of the reputations’ idiolect (for illustration, the unicontrive use of some lexicalized organizations). Apparently, they are not known of the befallrence that the writer is deliberately haunting to commonplace and unicontrive glossary in adimpartial to mark-out the reputations and their disquisition manners. Twain translations (but detailly the Spanish one) appear completely disqualified to sursurrender the reputations’ idiolects respectfully. Instead of trying to consign those idiolects whenever feasible (of passage, adapting them to the reputeisticities of the TL), in most instances the translators remanner to the unicontrive exclusion of reiterated organizations, and some other periods they transtardy those reiterated organizations in sundry unanalogous ways miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Michael O’Mara delayout portico into representation the treatment, the fashion, and the reputation who uses them. As a remainder, the translation becomes indicationless. 19 The remainders of Lorenzo et. al. 1999), can be applied as courteous to our con-over, unconnectedly in stipulations of the perception of a stringent adherence to the unity tenet20, from which the Spanish and Gallician representations could keep benefited: the seniority of the feasible errors adjustly cogitation-out could keep been avoided if the translators had follown into meditateation the unity tenet... In befallrence, the unity tenet, past it is fixed on the equality betwixt construct and averageing in the ST and the TT, would keep proved a balance respectful means when trade delay the adimpartial of translation from a affordn L1 to L2 and L3. 21 Notes 1 See Costello (1959:173). 74 2 . See Lorenzo, M. , et al. (1999: 324). 8 . Some of these message combinations keep been the sight of other studies. For illustration, see Lopez Rua (1997). 9 . See the Oxford English Dictionary’s entrance for ‘idiom’: http://dictionary. oed. com/cgi/entry/50111256? single=1&query_ type=word&queryword=idiom&first=1&max_ to_show=10. 4 . Specification collectd by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 374). 5 Specification collectd by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 630). 3 . See Newmark (1988: 104). . Ibid. (1988:104). . See Lorenzo, M. , et. al. (1999: . See Lopez Rua (1997: 147). . Ibid. (1997: 148). . Baker, M. (1992:74) in Lopez Rua 10 11 324). 12 13 14 The tidings ‘commonsettle similitude’ has been used anteriorly, unconnectedly in online beginnings: Answers. com, etc. It was ground to be used in some non-linguistic academic treatments (legal) such as “Why pristineism won't die – Worthiest mistakes in competing theories of juridical decipheration”, Duke Chronicle of Constitutional Law and Public Policy, Online Edition, 2007. Duke J. Con. Law & Pub. Pol'y 230, page 238. 7 . In capacitys that keep been published on the question the tidings ‘Colloquial turns’ appears surpassing: Ball, W. J. 1972. A Practical Manage to Commonsettle Idiom, Wood, F. T. 1976. English Commonsettle Idioms, etc. 6 (1997: 148). 15 . Specification collectd by Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary (1994: 752). 16 . Conjuncture it is penny that twain translations of "It gets on your nerves sometimes" restrain typical/typical averageing, they can be rectify implied as collocations —"ponerse" (Spanish) and "posarse" (Catalan) place delay "nervioso" (Spanish) and "nervios" (Catalan)— and their legitimate use in twain model Spanish and Catalan is fairly amplespread. Here they obey to exculpate the pristine similitude which in English is generally meditateed balance inexact. miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368 Translating despicablesettle turns/metaphors in The Catcher in the Rye 17 . The translation of the despicablesettle similitude “to get to pristine worthiest” delay someone less is slightly faulty. The Catalan translation is obstructr in averageing to the ST, wless the similitude is used in relative to fanciful intimacy: pristine worthiest applys to judicious contacts such as kissing; a “homerun” generally applys to sexual intimacy. 8 . The absence of a translation for the message "bum" in the Spanish translation may be meditateed slightly faulty: although the message “bum” does not construct a multiply of the similitude itself, it does subscribe to the atmospless in which the similitude is afforded. In this instance, the “perverty bum” was left adjustly as “un pervertido” in the Spanish translation, disregarding the material bit of advice that the individual is a “bum” i. e. a homeless and/or thin individual. The Catalan representation transforms it as a “desgraciat” or illfated, adverse, or smooth pitiable individual. One rule tender that a “perverty bum” is balance in keepership delay the idiolect of Holden than adjustly a “pervert”. 19 . See Lopez Rua (1997: 149). . See Lorenzo, M. et al. (1999: 5). . Ibid. (1999:329). 20 21 Works cited American Library Association. http://www. ala. org/ala/oif/bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/100 mostfrequently. htm BAKER, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursecapacity on Translation. London: Routledge. BALL, W. J. 1972. Practical manage to despicablesettle turn. London: Longman. COSTELLO, D. P. 1959. "The articulation of The Catcher in the Rye," American Speech, Vol. 34, no. 3, October:172-81. LOPEZ RUA, P. 1997. "The translation of the idiolects in The Catcher in the Rye: An avenue through lexicalized organizations". Miscelanea: A Chronicle of English and American Studies, 18: 139-158. LORENZO, M. , et. al. 1999. "Lack of averageing interoperation betwixt English, Galician and Spanish in Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye". Estudios de linguistica contrastiva. Universidade de Santiago de Compostela: 323-330. MERRIAM-WEBSTER Inc. 1994. Webster's New Encyclopedic Dictionary. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal. Received: 11 June 2007 Revised representation: 17 January 2008 NEWMARK, P. 1988. A passagecapacity of translation. London: Prentice Hall International. OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY: http://dictionary. oed. com/cgi/entry/50034626? single=1&query_ type=word&queryword=catharsis&first=1&max _to_show=10 SALINGER, J. D. 1951. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. —. 1990. El energetic en el enenbivouac de segol. Trans. E. Riera & J. Fonalleras. Barcelona: Editorial Empuries. —. 2006. El keeper entre el centeno. Trans. C. Criado. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. SMITH, T. 2007. “Why pristineism won't die – Worthiest mistakes in competing theories of juridical decipheration”. Duke Chronicle of Constitutional Law and Public Policy. Online edition, 159: 230-238. VERMEER, H. 2004. “Skopos and cexclusion in translational operation”. In Venuti, L. (ed. ) The translation studies peruseer. London: Routledge. WOOD, F. T. 1976. English despicablesettle turns. London: Macmillan. 75 miscelanea: a chronicle of english and american studies 35 (2007): pp. 57-75 ISSN: 1137-6368