Muslims and Science

THEME OF ESSAY Please peruse the insufficient bulk 'Muslims and Science' by Pervaiz Hoodhbhoy. Provide your apprehensions on the accessible controversy of this bulk. Building on your notice from Bronowski and Sagan, what were the animate characteristics that undisputed Western ethnicalization to outstep Muslim ethnicalization in the harvest of expertness in the new limit? Muslims and Expertness By Zara Abbas(11020043) Perspective Eternally gone the presence of Islam in 7th Century, the Muslim ethnicalization eagerly rose to the forefront of ethnical good-fortune. Remarkable speed was made not solely in the scopes of expertnesss and philosophy – i. e. mathematics, astrology, astronomy, optics, cartography, therapeutics, anthropology, logic and attainments – but they too became the dominant soldierly and economic potentiality of the cosmos-crowd by the 13th Century. These information were made feasible by a sum of underneathlying contents predominant at that boundlessness in Muslim circumstance. The forcible ones life the territorial and wholesale exposition of Muslim administration to a far-reaching area where a esteem trove of Greek, Persian and Roman effects in expertness, therapeutics and philosophy was made helped to their psychologicals to build upon; Stay and welsucceed was fond to Muslim scholars by the repressling aristocracy of that boundlessness, divers universities were built in the Muslim keepions and a apparition of insubservience for prying investigation resisting the sacred distribute was created and encouraged. But then, imputable to a infuriate and interminable battle betwixt the forces of logic and conclude and those of unflexible sacred fundamentalism, Muslim Expertness lost its refer and ultimately disappeared into neighboring disremembrance. Resultantly, the refinement of stay of those seeking notice and the whim of distinction in the scopes of expertnesss and the arts too died. The Muslim Cosmos-crowd today, comprising 57 countries and 1. 57 billion crowd – which is roughly one fifth of the cosmos-crowd population - has made no forcible donation to expertness or offered totalthing corporeal towards technology[1] during the definite 500 years. It sweepings in a set-forth of psychoargumentative peacefulness spanliness its inept and rotten leaders administration outside any prospect or foresight. Budgetary allocations for expertnesss and open information in most Islamic countries are low upshoting in their faith on the West for birth in animate areas of ethnical spectre. Their collective plenty of ethnical excellent and far-reaching save of probable media are life worn on non-harvest payments. The stable cycle of regressive discernment formulation has perpetuated want, battle and fickleness in most Muslim countries. This earnest omission has not solely created discernment and despondency floatingst the Muslim young-person but has too supposing boundlessness to the correct sacred forces to discipline a mysterious grounded disrelish for the ‘Christian West’ life a commodious scapegoat. In the composition of Pakistan and its territoryal geo-collective environment we perceive ourselves trapped in a deliberationful inner battle, socio-economic insecurity, collective fickleness and institutional desuetude which feel retarded the step of societal speed. This stormy scenario provides ample motivation to low-spirited members of the intercourse to connect extremist elements for their stubborn actualization. When the sad extricate of Muslims began follattributable closely 5 centuries of cosmos-crowd repress, the West established aggravatetaking them in total srival of ethnical deed ranging from instrument of war, diligence, economics, information, governance and refinement. This ascendency of European nations is attributed to the desuetude of feudal management, relegation of the Church from socio-collective prevalence to unadulterated sacred preaching, emergence of excellentistic management, harvest of a laic and equitable way towards philosophical and gregarious information[2] and definitely the causative cum wholesale service of expertness and technology for the ethnical career. Unfortunately, the gap betwixt twain ethnicalizations in the edeclare of philosophical investigation and technoargumentative enlargemention has steadily widened during the definite 400 years. It is hence acceleratent upon the Islamic cosmos-crowd to catch drastic but pragmatic measures to stock the tide; differently we are headed towards an impending vexation. This is fixedly the ‘Central Argument’ of Dr. Parvez Hoodbhoy’s Bulk ‘Muslims and Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality”. Although a nuclear physicist by declaration, Dr Hoodbhoy has shown observable instinct into a investigation of academic appropriateization and coeval signification and has produced a boundlessnessly and temperate decomposition of the causes of extricate of the Muslim cosmos-crowd in the scopes of expertnesss follattributable fostering in the forefront for centuries. His sequencest and perspicuous phraseology of controversy, which at boundlessnesss seems rather fetid for illustrative Pakistani (i. e. Muslim) sensibilities, catchs the peruseer through the unimpaired spectrum of contents solemn the Muslim mislaying of cosmos-crowd commencement and privacy from newity. Simultaneously, he too eminentlights the appropriate characteristics of the Western nations that propelled them towards ethnical distinction and accomplishment not solely in expertnesss but too in societal spectre. Finally, he too suggests some functional and palpable measures to speedively catch the Muslims onto the track of newity and philosophical deed in similitude delay our Islamic ethos. Aim The aim of this essay is to declare my own reflections on the extricate of Muslim intercourse follattributable indispensable the cosmos-crowd for centuries as counter the ascendency of Western potentialitys through their eminent ethnical actualization delay a apprehension to proposing a realistic way confident for the Muslims in characterless of the notions explicit by Hoodbhoy, Bronowski and Sagan. What Ails The Muslim Cosmos-crowd Aggravate the gone-by five centuries crowd in Islamic societies feel experienced to succeed to stipulations delay the substantiality of their relegation to life the cosmos-people’s ‘followers’ follattributable fostering its ‘indispensable characterless’ for an homogeneous desire limit in the medieval ages. The searching but pertinent investigation of, ‘What went injustice? ’ agitates the minds of Muslim psychologicals and young-person same. But aggravate seeking scapegoats the investigation sweepings unanswered. There seems to be no despicable underneathtaking and right acknowledgement of our own failings that led to our sad but firm decrease, especially so in the opening of philosophical harvest. However, guarded delay my consider of the investigation ‘Science and Civilization’ I shall tiny put confident an concrete apprehension of the malaise afflicting the Muslims. 1. Historical Causes of Muslim Extricate a. Orthodoxy versus Rationality. The desire drawn clang (801 – 1406 AD) betwixt the maintenanceers of Pre destination/Revelation and other Orthodox/Conservative scholars of Sharia, Theology and Islamic adjudication (represented by Al Ghazali, Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Al Ashari, Ibn e Taymia, Al Maalik) and the Qadarites/Mutazlites (i. e. the proponents of Free Will, Ethics and Conclude represented by Al Kindi, Al Razi, Ibn e Sina, Ibn e Rushd and Ibn e Khaldun)[3] ultimately led to the success of the forces of ossified religiosity and swept equitable deliberation loose from Islamic psychologicalism. Thus the hitherto stay, honor and maintenance expanded to the scholars by the distinction of the boundlessnesss were too delaydrawn underneathneath acceleratency from the conservatives. Sadly, the disjunction betwixt the fundamentalists and laic/equitable Muslims became whole and exists tend the exhibit boundlessnesss. Thereafter, no one could face connect conclude delay apocalypse in Islam. The tenement of Islamic expertness and psychoargumentative effulgence was declining to perdition and could not be rebuilt. b. Non Philosophical Attitude. As a argumentative deduction of the aforementioned unflexibleity of deliberation floatingst the Muslim Orthodoxy, the attitudinal notions demandd for the incline and harvest of expertnesss did not evolve in the Muslim cosmos-crowd follattributable the baffle of equitableity. The exhibition of precept and unflexibleity in Muslim psychoargumentative deliberation led them to the refusal of ‘prediction’, ‘imagination’, ‘curiosity or the apparition of inquiry’ and ‘the obtain or accelerate to repress one’s tangible environment to ethnical advantage’- redundant ingredients of philosophical notice – upshoting in the demise of unreal spectre. Likewise, Muslims of the ‘shaft fortunate age’ lineal a open noncommunication of apparition and concern in ‘theoretical’ attainments of unfixed expertnesss imputable to their inforcible symbolical decorate or profit. They would rather opt for wages of serviceable notice for ‘utilitarian’ ends instead of discloseing a open weather of attainments where ‘contemplative deliberation’ and ‘spiritual esteems could be inclined. [4] This open sluggishness towards academic attainments steadily became a societal lie floatingst the Muslim generations which exists equable today. c. Muslim Educational System. The unwritten concept and orientation of information in Muslim societies boon at consistent all notice delay Islamic deliberation whereby the student sweepings wedded to his/her Islamic ethos. This discloses an lie of ‘acquiring inspired notice’ life a Divine manage rather than ‘discovering’ it through prying and participative instrument. The unwritten sequence of information followed aggravate centuries in the Muslim cosmos-crowd led them to incline the esteems of ‘rote attainments’, ‘historical and conceptual continuity’,[5] ‘stubborn righteousness’ and ‘rigidity’ in their psyche. Their attendant languor to help and dispose to a incessantly changing cosmos-crowd destitute them the befoulment to speed and end philosophical distinction. d. Capitalism versus Islamic Law. The philosophical and industrial office in Europe transformed a hitherto feudal intercourse into a new excellentistic refinement. This was endd through the invention of a bourgeois collocate prime of investments, newfanglednesss and structural changes to coordinate the new instrument of genesis and technical speed delay the new obscure economic challenges. This automatically led to the harvest of a all constitutional systock for mastery and quarrel conversion of the new socio economic realities. [6] As counter this the Islamic adjudication, life extraneous from Quranic injunctions and Prophetic layss, has a civic set of administrations and defining principles delayin which integrity is to be supposing and these laws cannot not be altered or qualified to help changing situations. Therefore, excellentist management could not catch commencement and disclose in its collocateical remembrance in Muslim societies. . Economic Causes. When the colony of Muslim keepions in began in the 18th Century, Muslim ethnicalization was civic installed delay the city dwellers depending on the natural and fixed minister of instrument of buttress from the agricultural peasantry. Such anticipation would abide equable during produces of famine or wrangle delay set-forth support. Therefore, Muslim economies of that boundlessness continueed immune from Europe’s officeary enlargemention. Likewise, Muslim civic centers neternally discloseed corporate or corporate institutions meant for stimulation of economic enlargement through diligence and commerce. [7] As a upshot the Muslim economic manage of that era could not emulate delay Europe’s ascititious economic enlargement. f. Instrument of Warfare. The firm European enlargemention in the instrument of war (concepts and weaponry) adesire delay the speed made in diligence and technology follattributable the 15th Century was too an relevant content in causing European victories on the battlefield. By similitude the Muslims could not propagate similar soldierly muscle/prowess. This incompatibility increased corporeally by the 18th Century upshoting in the avocation of Muslim territories in North Africa, Spain, Balkans, Russia, India and Iran culminating into the colony of closely the unimpaired Muslim cosmos-crowd by the 19th Century. [8] g. Non Existence of a Potentiality Structure. The potentiality building of a intercourse determines its dominant lies towards philosophical enquiry and wages of notice. In the insufficiency of a accessible antecedent wielding politico-sacred and soldierly potentiality as counter the Church in medieval Europe, the Islamic cosmos-crowd did not keep the instrument of exercising repress aggravate its territories/subjects and resolving quarrels. This natural languor laid inadequate the possibility of rebellion by potentialityful sacred circumstanceions/sects, seizing repress of unconnected keepions by usurpers or mobilization of the superiority disposition counter lad apprehensionpoint on bounteous sacred groups. 9] This was a deliberationful organizational languor that ultimately proved hurtful to the collective, economic and psychoargumentative ascendency of the Islamic intercourse. 2. Exhibit Set-forth of Muslim Science/Education a. Philosophical Progress. A new consider of the Cosmos-crowd Bank manifests that the attribute of philosophical as polite as open information in the Muslim Cosmos-crowd is eagerly onflow rearwards the cessation of the Cosmos-crowd and deficiencys acceleratent contemplation if it is to rival delay the demands of the forthcoming. While some Islamic countries – relish Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Malaysia, Iran and Nigeria – feel drastically increased their honorive supplies allocations to boost open information and the Sciences, their unwritten lies towards the information of women, non disjunction of sacred deliberation from the laic disposition of philosophical information and discouinfuriate a philosophical refinement installed upon newfangledness, quantification and tentative verification continue uncompromising to this limit. b. Expertness in the Causative Sector. Despite a exhaustive remembrance of the signification of industrial dispositionor for a nation’s economic enlargement, esteem adventitious genesis of coeval Muslim economies is woefully low. Barring Malaysia, the disposition of management of key Muslim countries sweepings basically agro and inanimate lineage. [10] Hence their accumulated economic strength/parts is comparatively inferior than other discloseing economies. This manifests that the ‘expertness to genesis’ association is negligible delay tiny indications of aggression. c. Philosophical Output. The aggravateall philosophical output of Muslim countries, as manifestd by the sum of expertness investigation papers published conjointly delay the citations to them, manifests that we endure alarmingly low in similitude delay others relish India, Brazil, China and USA. Likewise, we perceive that 46 Muslim countries contributed 1. 17 % of the cosmos-people’s expertness attainments as counter 1. 66% and 1. 48% honorively from India and Spain remaining. Interestingly, 20 Arab countries contributed 0. 55% in similitude to 0. 89 % by Israel. Moreover, the philosophical rate or attribute of a fairly bulky sum of these papers was not solely adown par but some were equable plagiarized. A consider by academics at the Intercollective Islamic University Malaysia showed that OIC countries feel 8. 5 scientists, engineers, and technicians per 1000 population, compared delay a cosmos-crowd mediocre of 40. 7, and 139. 3 for countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. [11] It is too a notorious circumstance that the sum of Muslim Nobel Laureates is stend in uncompounded digit in similitude to hundreds from Israel remaining. This set-forth of affairs does not signify polite for the forthcoming of Muslim expertness. d. Philosophical Enterprises. Over the definite decade or so Muslim Governments feel been steadily increasing their S & T budgets delay a apprehension to inducing senior philosophical spectre. The real mediocre lay-outing of 57 Islamic countries on R & D is 0. 3% of their GNP which sweepings far adown the global mediocre of 2. 4%. [12] Nonetheless, the there is a appreciable incline of conspicuous lay-outing in main Muslim countries. But bigger budgets remaining would not arcessation the deteriorating endureards probable the parts to lay-out these monies is too built contemporaneously on discloseing a fastidious lump of scientists, engineers and technicians too comely their attribute and declarationalism. Recent surveys too manifest that lay-outing on conspicuous information has increased forciblely upshoting in a shrill fuse in the sum of institutions, students and infrastructural aggressions. But these centers of attainments stend noncommunication the redundant edge that could execute them collocate floatingst the chief 500 in the cosmos-crowd which is not the predicament at the force. e. Educational Paradox – Pakistan’s Context. Eternally gone Pakistan’s infaith no synod has eternally fond information any foundation in the register of its collective priorities. The unconcealed dispositionor payment on this animate dispositionor has continueed abysmally low (i. e. ranging betwixt 2. 16% to 2. 42 % of GDP from 2003-08 but was declining to a prevaricating 2% in 2010 budget)[13] which compares meagrely delay other South Asian countries. This has left Pakistan’s literacy rates as the last in the territory (i. e. 57% - which is 69% males and 45% females). [14] The meagre attribute of the attainments environment is visible from the circumstance that a bulky sum of schools noncommunication basic infrabuilding — 37. per cent of the schools up to the simple projecte don’t feel proviso walls, 33. 9 per cent noncommunication drinking breathe-into dexterity, 37 per cent don’t feel latrines and 60 per cent are outside electricity. [15] Imputable to the guilty omission of unfixed successive synods in formulating close and sustainable information policies for the crowd by investing in this animate dispositionor, we feel not solely ended up losing cherished generations to the vicissitudes of boundlessness but feel too destitute them the opening to emend their lot through wages and harvest of aptitudes. Apart from this, the open sluggishness and composure shown towards information by our administrationrs has led to the invention of a stratified systock of informational partiality. In that the ‘rich and the aristocracy’ go to the privy ‘English medium’ schools spanliness the ‘commoner collocate’ attends the synod run ‘Urdu medium’ schools. This puts the despicable burgess at an wrongful hindrance counter the polite to do child when twain tower and emulate for approximation into declafair institutions. Recommendations In the articulation from Dr. Hoodbhoy assumed from one of his new papers, ‘Progress obtain demand behavioral changes. If Muslim societies are to disclose technology instead of sound using it, the ruthlessly competitive global marketplace obtain persevere on not solely eminent aptitude projectes but too intense gregarious effect morality. Expertness can flourish floating Muslims unintermittently repeatedly, but solely delay a obtainingness to confirm fixed basic philosophical and attitudinal changes—i. e. shrug off the gone operative of lays, renounce fatalism and irresponsible permission in antecedent, confirm the legitimacy of transient laws, esteem psychoargumentative austerity and philosophical righty, and honor cultural and idiosyncratic insubserviences. The violent-effort to announce in expertness obtain feel to go side-by-side delay a plenteous depart hostilities to flexure out unflexible correcty and produce in new deliberation, arts, philosophy, democracy, and pluralism’. Floating this forthright contemplation lies an contemplative frameeffect of our forthcoming project of possession installed on despicable remembrance and principles of logic and conclude. However, we would deficiency to tperuse this track delay penetrating discernment and bequeath our strategic thinking in similitude delay the obtaining socio collective realities of the Islamic cosmos-people. Such an way warrants a well-advised and projectatic deterrent but deepseated impression so that the ameliorate manner permeates into the Muslim affection outside agitating its spirited sensibilities. The new sequencel of our information philosophy should own and asseverate that expertness and godliness are complementary and not hostile to each other. Therefore, the revised concept of philosophical information should lucidly set-forth that twain disciplines are unconnected estates which do not aggravatelap; and that there can neternally be a battle betwixt the two as desire as their protagonists do not stoke unconcealed passions for stubborn aggrandizement. The other areas where ameliorate is projected are registered adown: • Remodel the unimpaired concept/ philosophy of open information at the primitive /secondary projectes delay a apprehension to discloseing the traits of pryingness, tentative and hearsay deliberation manner and the ability to challenge/investigation precepts and assumptions. • Basic information up to Matriculation (or equipollent endureard) should be made warranted for all burgesss (twain genders) in all Muslim countries. • Budgetary allocation for information be brought at par delay laid down UNESCO endureards. Revitalize the tertiary and shaft graduate information systock by comely the infrabuilding and facilities, proprospect of eminent attribute instruction staff and comely the attribute/rate of philosophical investigation. • Exoteric endureards of vocational grafting for aptitude harvest of technicians should be genteel, upgraded and rejuvenated to mate the ongoing technoargumentative enlargemention. • The syllabi of Deeni Madaris (sacred schools) should be helpably revamped and colorless delay the exoteric inclines in new information. • The real original betwixt the endureards of information/syllabi of Unconcealed and privy schools be minimized at pre-eminence. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books , 1991) • Bernard Lewis , “What Went Wrong? ” (Perennial Harper Collins 2002) • Jacob Bronowski, “The Ascent of Man” (1973) • Carl Sagan, “Cosmos” (1980) • Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Science and the Islamic Cosmos-crowd – The Quest for Rapprochement” , “Physics Today” August 2007 pg 49 < http://ptonline. aip. org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_60/iss_8/49_1. shtml? bypassSSO=1 > • “Muslim Cosmos-crowd Information – Onflow Behind”, ‘Khilafah. Com’ , 24 Feb 2008 < http://www. khilafah. com/index. hp/the-khilafah/education/2019-muslim-world-education-falling-rearwards > • Dr. Ahmad shafaat, “a reapprehension of Pervez Hoodbhoy, Islam and Science: Sacred Orthodoxy and Battle for Rationality” November 2002 < http://www. islamicperspectives. com/ReviewPervezHoodbhoy. htm > • Khawar Ghumman, “Only two percent of GDP Spent on Education”, Dawn. Com, (5 Jun 2010) , < http://www. dawn. com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/the-newspaper/front-page/21-only-2pc-of-gdp-spent-on-education-560-sk-09 > ----------------------- [1] “Muslim Cosmos-crowd Information – Onflow Behind”, ‘Khilafah. Com’ , 24 Feb 2008 < http://www. khilafah. om/index. php/the-khilafah/education/2019-muslim-world-education-falling-rearwards > [2] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991) pg 2 &161. [3]Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991),pg 115 – 141. [4]Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991) pg 145 – 149. [5] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991), pg 149 – 154. 6] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991), pg 154 – 156. [7] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books ,1991), pg 157 – 160. [8] Bernard Lewis , “What Went Wrong? ” (Perennial Harper Collins 2002), pg 18 – 34. [9]Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books , 1991), pg 161. [10]Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Muslims & Expertness – Sacred Orthodoxy and the Violent-effort for Rationality” (Vanguard Books , 1991), pg 34 – 37. 11] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy(2007), “Science and the Islamic Cosmos-crowd – The Quest for Rapprochement” ,Physics today’ August 2007 pg 49 < http://ptonline. aip. org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_60/iss_8/49_1. shtml? bypassSSO=1 > [12] Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy, “Science and the Islamic Cosmos-crowd – The Quest for Rapprochement” ,Physics Today’ August 2007 pg 49 < http://ptonline. aip. org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_60/iss_8/49_1. shtml? bypassSSO=1 > [13] Synod of Pakistan – Ministries of Finance and Information –