Project Management: Project Failures Sydney Opera House
PROJECT MANAGEMENT: PROJECT FAILURES Sydney Opera Issue CONTENTS Introductionp. 3 Historyp. 3 – 4 Stakeholdersp. 4 – 7 Stakeholder sectionp. 5 Stakeholder Power/Interest Gridp. 7 Causes for device wantp. 8-10 Closing of ignore superintendencep. 9 Unrealistic seasonlayer and Consume escalationp. 10 Recommendationsp. 10 – 14 Ignore Managementp. 11 Forecastingp. 11 – 12
Stakeholder Engagementp. 12 – 14 Conclusionp. 14 Referencesp. 15 - 16 Introduction For this assignment the device separated to nicely analyse its want is the Sydney Opera House. Critically analysing its want and its consequences and executeling bad device superintendence procedures made me seem into this device intensively and evaluate it as a device want relapse a “joyous end”.
This assignment complete be disconnected in three ocean accommodation which are History where it complete be explained what the Sydney Opera issue is and what was the opinion of the device, a Stakeholders unimportantity where the key stakeholders complete be signed and discussed, a Device Want unimportantity executeling what bad superintendence procedures were enslaved and for plain there complete be a Recommendations unimportantity recommending new procedures to relinquish an aggravate budget and aggravate seasond device, which this is sever of.
For the constructor - Jorg Utzon – it is his “masterpiece”, to Australia as a aver it is their figurative remembrance as World Heritage (Design5 ultimate description 2010). Although device superintendent and client are now “happy” relapse the ultimate emanation it can peaceful be considered as a device want due to a immense aggravaterun budget and aggravate seasond device relapse consequences that are peaceful nature repaired, almost 40 years posterior. History In 2003 Utzon is awarded relapse the Pritzker, the constructorure’s “Nobel”.
It was said of Sydney Opera Issue (from now on in this assignment besides exoteric as ‘SOH’) that it is one of the vast iconic buildings of the twentieth epoch (Murray, P. 2004). It all inaugurated in 1957 when Utzon were separated to be the constructor for this device. Everymonstrosity was going according relapse the device but two years succeeding the new elected legislation (not the one that acquiesced relapse Utzon’s device) was getting waspish.
More and elevate companies were nature put into the device (in the ultimate elevate than 165 companies, suppliers middle, contributed to this device) and the consumes were nature borrowed and the new legislation was importunate-compulsory Utzon as ample as the instrument trying to cut in consumes and urge up the device*. They besides resolute to modify the former device succeeding its subordinatestanding as inaugurated and now instead of 2 theatre rooms they wanted 4*.
Utzon was losing restrain of the footing and had an unproductive hurry subordinate him. The primal consume was (Aus) 7 favorite dollars and in the end it has consume (Aus) 102 favorite dollars and a completion of 14 years to be artful, 6 elevate than it should be*. The Arup, engineers near for the engineering sever stayed until the end of the device but Utzon left in the end , succeeding maneuvering the roof but not final.
It was forced to repress two of the key stakeholders joyous, the subserve David Hughes and the SOHEC – Sydney Opera Issue Constabulary Committee so he resolute to give-up blaming the regulateing of closing of compact but in incontrovertiblety plain the metallic consultants did not acquiesce incompact each other (Murray, 2004 :66) and as a remainder of all these modifys of delineations and misunderstandings the Sydney Opera Issue – refined by three common constructors – peaceful did not had the special metallic, which was the regulateing ocean incontrovertibletyor that regulate to a new opera issue*.
Nowadays the Sydney Opera Issue is already seen as productive gone its consume was already expert by the fruits made from customers (tourists oceanly) but elevate improvements on admissioning provisions were enslaved. Stakeholders Precedently going end to the topic it is insufficiencyed to procure into averment that a ignoreed device is a device that is cancelled precedently completion, never implemented, or injured in some way. Other reasons that why devices ignore are an deficiency of commitment, a bad device organisation and delineationning, a bad season superintendence, closing of superintendential restrain, extra consumes incompact other heights.
Among all these reasons the Stakeholders indicate a big sever in the devices that they are uneasy and rarely a device can go evil-doing remaining on decisions enslaved by these groups. To begin this limit of the assignment it is adventitious to executel the stakeholders – all the users that undeviatingly or inundeviatingly favor positively or negatively – the device. (Polychronakis, 2011) The reexplanation complete be assisted from the word “Toward a assumption of a stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the motive of whom and what truly counts”, determining which of the stakeholders await which of its three indications, one can executel stakeholders.
Then Stakeholders can be analysed by its salience. Explaining briefly the three indications jurisdiction enables to act opposing opposition of others, legitimacy is nature seen as acting uprightly relapsein composition norms and exigency relates to season sensitivity and consequence of the stakeholder (Mitchell 1997). Stakeholder Classification| | Power| Legitimate| Urgent| Type| Stakeholder Classification| | Power| Legitimate| Urgent| Type| | | | | | | NSW Government| | x| x| x| Definitive| Exoteric Works, David Hughes| | x| | x| Dangerous| Utzon| | x| | x| Dangerous| Arup| | x| x| | Dominant|
SOHEC| | x| x| | Dominant| Sketch Team| | | x| x| Dependent| Engineer Team| | | x| x| Dependent| Consultants | | | x| x| Dependent| Suppliers | | | x| x| Dependent| Contractor| | | x| x| Dependent| Hall, Todd, Littleelevate (Three constructors compensated)| | | x| x| Dependent| Sense Workers| | | x| x| Dependent| Public/Customers| | | x| | Discretionary| Media| | x| x | x| Dangerous| There are 14 ocean stakeholders: NSW Legislation – Can be considered the client so its symbol is absolute, has the jurisdiction to aggravate ask and the device superintendent has to approveness exigency on repressing him joyous.
David Hughes – Having the role of Exoteric Works subserve for the new NSW legislation he has bargaint undeviatingly relapse the device having the jurisdiction to swing it and as a client’s figurative has the selfselfselfidentical exigency condition. Is considered Dangerous accordingly although is not absolute (could be replaced for development) he favors undeviatingly the device as client figurative (pressuring Utzon plow he enduring) Utzon – Nature the device superintendent and constructor he presented the device and calculated it so he has jurisdiction on the device itself and on the staff.
He has an importunate speciality accordingly he uninterruptedly insufficiencys to repress on trail of the device’s milestones and donation dates. Arup – as the engineers congregation they suffer some jurisdiction on the device but no exigency at all gone they exertion when it is told to but is plaind to act relapsein the norms but couldn’t deliberately modify anymonstrosity and was socially not spurious. Is dominant accordingly has a key role in the device. SOHEC – Although it has the jurisdiction to insist incontrovertible specialitys and has legitimacy in the device it doesn’t suffer big exigency gone it isn’t a client but a client’s swingr.
Good to repress sensible. Working staff (retaining stakeholders) – They don’t suffer vast jurisdiction but they are subject on milestones so besides they suffer the exigency to converge expectations. They besides suffer their plainness gone they redeep on each other and insufficiency to coordinate their calculated areas. Hall, Todd and Littlemore, the three constructors that replaced Utzon don’t suffer any jurisdiction gone perfectmonstrosity was calculated and they solely insufficiencyed to re-sketch the roof in a way that could mate the foundations.
Public/Customers – Gone they are “watching” relapses and aggravate consumes nature remunerated from their taxes they are on the plain indication accordingly they are on the “socially not spurious and expected behaviours” policy (Mitchell 1997). Instrument – Has the foreign jurisdiction of approvenessing a device as a device victory or want. Meets the parameters of the plain indication expecting behaviours and has the exigency of nature season impressible (generating notification relapse the device relapse). The ocean stakeholder was the constructor, but Utzon was ample elevate uneasy relapse the sketch presentation rather than season and costs extrinsics, which proved heightatic.
During the device, Utzon collaborated relapse Ove Arup, who was in arraign of the texture and the engineering eraliness subcontractors were in arraign of mechanics, electrics, heating and ventilating, vaining and metallics. There was no plain device superintendent, but rather collaboration incompact Utzon and Arup. The other ocean stakeholder was the client, the aver of New South Wales (Australian legislation). A constabulary committee was created to furnish device supervision but the members had no plain technical skills.
The legislation plaintually became an difficulty to the device team by inhibiting modifys during the growth of the operations and thus contributed to consume aggravaterun and relapses. Finally, the exoteric and instrument was an foreign stakeholder accordingly they were uneasy relapse the device’s victory. Defining INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS. Palpable stakeholders The palpable stakeholders can be considered as anyone outpolicy the implementing organisations who could be favored by the device’s remainders.
Internal Stakeholders Inverge stakeholders are those friendd relapse the course, typically members of the device team or the governance texture. Succeeding describing what inverge and palpable stakeholders are, it can be precise what stakeholders insufficiency elevate notice, or in other vote, insufficiency to be ‘more’ kind. It is exoteric that it’s impracticable to repress all the stakeholders joyous at the selfselfselfidentical season so the flourishingcited delineate complete approveness that it was adventitious to repress NSW legislation and Mr.
David Hughes joyous (a reminder to say that the harmony incompact Utzon and David Hughes wasn’t amiable-tempered). The harmony relapse Arup should be sounder in dispose to suffer a emend deed stringing ‘departments’. As a remainder (of not doing it) the roof couldn’t mate the foundations created by Arup (the roof was too grievous for the foundation’s esthetic) and the aggregateity of instrument would not be so numerous seasons recalculated, it would suffer minimized the season gone-by and the capital attenuated. The contract relapse the instrument should besides be handled emend.
The harmony incompact stakeholders was too ‘transparent’ and what was meant to be a immense severner advertising the device ended up pulling down the device in conditions of forthcoming customer’s sharp-end of inspection (customers would be driven by the instrument and friend the Sydney Opera Issue negatively). Besides the harmony relapse the SOHEC could be emend driven gone it was the deep beneficiated relapsein the device. They did not pay for it (the legislation did) and they were represented by the ones that would use it the most but what was longing was crabbed into faint. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | POWER| | Keep| Satisfied| | Manage| Closely| | | | | | SOHEC| | | | NSW Legislation | | | | | | Arup| | | | David Hughes | | | | | | Media| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Monitor| Only| | | Keep| Informed| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Sketch Team| | | Consultants| | | | | Engineer Team| | | Suppliers | | | | | | | | | | Contractor| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | INTEREST| | | | | | Causes for device want A device is a set of nation and other instrument temporarily assembled to penetrate a precise extrinsic, normally relapse a agricultural budget and relapse a agricultural season epoch. Projects are generally friendd relapse emanations or procedures that are nature effected for the regulateing season or relapse exoteric procedures that are nature altered (Graham 1985).
Sidney Opera issue was meant to be the unblemished subordinatestanding that agnate Utzon’s inventiveness and Arup’s structural expertise (Murray, P. 2004) but it is inevitable to sanction the incontrovertiblety that neither of them were a device superintendent, that sound in the 70’s inaugurated to be another individual rather than nature an engineer or an constructor (the device superintendent), so Utzon’s superintendence skills were fixed on test and acquaintance in his sector rather than in device superintendence itself (closing of delineationning and superintendence skills), which modifys perspectives.
While Utzon had a masterpiece perspective, Arup had a production perspective. If they were device superintendents they would be elevate oriented to execute the stakeholder’s perspectives and the “business by device” perspective where they would rendezvous on device investments and bene? ts, which comprise device remainders, device victory, manoeuvre, pro? t and bene? ts” (Bjorn Johs. Kolltvei, 2005). Another ocean sharp-end is the incontrovertiblety of the wages for the device modifys at any season. The Sydney Opera issue was reported to suffer 2 rooms but ended up having 4 rooms.
So it can approveness some disharmony incompact what was wanted (precedently and succeeding the new legislation) and what was delivered. In this device severicularly the Legislation has modifyd so it is forced to say that is someone’s flaw but in incontrovertiblety it had an impression, methodicly reexploration for modifys and putting hurry in Utzon. This approvenesss that the acquiescements incompact Utzon and the former Australian Legislation did not suffer sound levels of engament relapse the inverge stakeholders (government, Minister, SOHEC).
According to the OGC - the UK Office of Legislation Commerce, it is adventitious to suffer “bright organisational boundaries” and “bright governance arrangements to secure sustainability” and it did not betideed in this device, where the hurry was horrendous on Utzon to be used as the legitimate for this immense consume and season aggravaterun (and he has his flaw accordingly of the colossal ignore when maneuvering a roof not sustained by its foundations and closing of compact relapse the Arup remaindering on a bad valuable of the esthetics for the roof) but Utzon can’t be blamed by the repeated modifys asked on the entrances (peaceful eing re-arranged) and the moietys, which had truly deficient metallic property. The Sydney Opera Issue was meant to be “one of the six best opera issues in the world…relapse a filmy concord moiety relapse unblemished metallics “(Murray, P. 2004) But at the selfselfselfidentical season Peter Murray besides avers that “(opera) nevertheless, was a unmomentous curiosity-behalf. There were some common groups and the intermittent outing from an Italian congregation but it was it”.
This approvenesss that a deep stakeholder – the exoteric – was not enslaved into subsidy gone the adduction was elevate interpolitical than common, but plain there it ignoreed(insufficiency to suffer in opinion that nowadays SOH is elevate productive relapse immense concords and museum and adduction accordingly it was re-oriented for elevate than Opera concords) . The (new concept) of the moietys were across the harmonious race rules (nature put policy by policy) and the metallic were truly deficient, so plain thou the extrinsics were delivered they didn’t price specially about its benefits.
Nowadays the Sydney Opera Issue had its modifys specially in the admission areas, parking and metallics and now is used for the opinion of concords and as a museum (tourist adduction). Closing of skills and proven proceeding to Device superintendence and ignore superintendence As it is said, Device superintendence was solely plain in the 70’s and 80’s so the test took attribute aggravate the device superintendence ‘science’ (not truly plain during the 50’s) so it definitely closinged during the course. Blunder Margins totally evil-doing, years and favorites elevate were used and that is the biggest momentous of a Device that has ignoreed, when its blunder extremitys do not adduce.
Fortunately the SOH was “re-used” in dispose to suffer “Return on Investment” but not delivering a device oriented to its benefits is definitely a momentous of device want. The step of the device did not converge expectations, but those 14 years could suffer been close. Again the roof was the biggest height. This has to be akin relapse the closing of coursees in attribute to secure that all severies suffer a “bright subordinatestanding of their roles and responsibilities, and a portion-outd subordinatestanding of desired outcomes, key conditions and deadlines”( Office of Legislation Commerce, CP0015/01/05).
Furtherelevate the integration of such a big contribute security and peaceful Utzon couldn’t honor the suitable aggregateity of the suitable esthetic for its foundations and roof (10%, 20% elevate instrument on the aggravateall budget is what it should be as sever of the completion budget and those 20% ‘extra’ would be used for any exigency) approvenesss no purpose and interaction relapse other severicipants (stakeholders). The total novel cited precedently approvenesss closing of subordinatestanding. Utzon calculated a roof that couldn’t mate relapse Arup’s foundations. Too numerous “tiers”, which goes across the prioritisation that is adventitious in a contribute security.
So it crossed aggravate three ocean causes for a device want: Consume escalation, season escalation (blunder extremitys) and restlessness of the nucleus coursees (politics). Unrealistic seasonlayer and Consume escalation? In the fact of the Sydney Opera Issue blemished delineations, drawings and a closing of notification about the esthetic and the texture of its now-famous roof all borrowed dramatically to the consume. The estimators (consultants, avermentants, auditors) didn't find those blunders; other members of the device team did (Utzon, Arup).
When the subordinatestanding inaugurated there was no bright concept of how the roof command be artful. It’s not that the honors were evil-doing; it’s that there was button to worthiest the honors on in the regulateing attribute. Ample of the relapse and consume aggravaterun was caused by rereiteration on roof sketch and closing of Data, plaintually landing on a explanation that artful the roof out of interlocking tiles, but this explanation was solely disexpert succeeding a lot of season and endeavor. PM endeavor is coordinated to penetrate a severicular motive or discharge some speci? c capacity. The ? eld demonstrates‘‘. . . means-end paradigm relapse a sound sense on order, motive attempting and end-item accomplishment’’ (Pollack, J. 2006) – this is why Utzon was a vast constructor and a bad device superintendent, accordingly in this severicular device he ignoreed all these antecedent. Accordingly of the season (the 50’s) some deep acquaintance can’t be used accordingly it is unexoteric but it can be signed as closing of ready device superintendence, a deep want to vouch stakeholders, irrelevant regulateership diction (Utzon enduring precedently the device was completed), scant procedures (as it was said precedently about consume and season escalation).
Recommendations Field tells us that “projects ignore too frequently accordingly the device purpose was not abundantly appreciated and/or user insufficiencys not abundantly subordinatestood. ” The purport of a device can be estheticized in the Sidney Opera House, but although it was a device, it ignoreed by multiform reasons. RISK MANAGEMENT The ‘‘. . . transmitted priceing flourishing a device ignore superintendence (PRM) frameexertion is adventitiously centrist, authoritarian. It . . . assumes that the mediate device superintendent conceives best’’ (Williams 40, p. 219).
Williams suggests that in Device Superintendence severicipation and qualification may in-fact growth ignore by reducing mediateised restrain. Without an acquiescement that could find Utzon cleave on the device acquiesced precedently his ignore superintendence couldn’t fit in new perspectives from the client approve elevate rooms (halls). Demanding elevate and reexploration to refer season due to the later relapse that was not expected in Utzon’s extremitys fixed on the device’s milestones it approvenesss that the hurry pretending to procure jurisdiction from Utzon (led to his abdication) ‘helped’ to find of this device a want.
So, Ignore Superintendence would be one of the ocean rendezvouses if I was the Device Manager. Achieving milestones, methodic monitoring, evaluating and updating ignore superintendence delineations and ignore archives and oceantain ignore superintendence coursees for the prolongation of the device. FORECASTING ; DEALING WITH EXTERNAL MOTIVES Essentially, devices are approve organisations. They suffer device governance, inverge superintendence systems, a reckon of staff, palpable stakeholders, an palpable environment and motives, extrinsics and deliverables.
However, device donation in the subordinatestanding toil comes relapse a eminent grade of doubt due to Industrial incontrovertibletyors, confusion and changing technologies and uniqueness of devices where season, consume and property insufficiency to be handled, rarely akin, rarely heterogeneous. Season Property Consume In this severicular fact I would set up a criterion of property and add 20% extremity blunder on the budget for instrument. Relapse a rendezvous on property I would find unmistakable that the device would cleave on the acquiesced and perfect modify emanded would suffer a new budget and season escalation so the Legislation would price twice precedently insisting. Relapse a rendezvous on property and the consume already resolute (relapse 20% for instrument) the two ocean heights would be solved (the roof height and the 50 favorite (AUS) dollars of consume aggravaterun). Furtherelevate the season height would be solved relapse an upright bridle sharp-end on milestones any relapse would be due to palpable motives approve a tropical revolution or any alter resolute by the legislation but they would conceive in proceeding the consume and season dissipate of their decisions direct afar instead of ‘just’ insist alters.
STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT Strategic proceeding Stakeholder Agreement is calculated to procure averment of all the living-souls and groups impressioned by the contemplated modify and complete a deeper subordinatestanding of their multiform curiosity-behalfs. So, as a device superintendent I would find unmistakable that the 6 motives adown would be the ‘foundations’ of my contract relapse the stakeholders. Significance: bargain relapse issues of signification to stakeholders and the agency. Completeness: subordinatestand the concerns, inspections, insufficiencys and expectations.
Responsiveness: answer coherently and uprightly Communication: disclosed and efficient Transparency: bright and acquiesced notification and feedend coursees. Collaboration: exertion to attempt reciprocally salutary outcomes where contrivable. Inclusiveness: recognise, subordinatestand and mingle stakeholders in the course. Integrity: pass vouchment in a deportment that fosters reciprocal deference and belief. (Australian Handbook for citizenship, Stakeholder Agreement Section, Strategic Policy Group, Implementation and Stakeholder Agreement Branch, 2008).
Identifying the device’s stakeholders, assessing them, and determining how they should be handled is a sever of that course. When interesting stakeholder it is insufficiencyed to executel, prioritise, subordinatestand and delineation communications relapse stakeholders. When interesting stakeholder it is insufficiencyed to executel, prioritise, subordinatestand and delineation communications relapse stakeholders. The regulateing and prevent sharp-ends are already effected relapse the stakeholder identification and section aggravatehead and besides the Interest/Power grid calculated precedently. As a reminder, Walker avers that, 2003, p. 261).
Asever from the stakeholder groups identifiable by their elevate manifest intercourse relapse devices there are bright and deep groups that are atomic but whose compact and patronage is inseparable for device victory(2003, p. 261) so I would handle my ‘tiers’ (in contribute security for esthetics) having three (tiers) for divergent inequitable esthetics instead of bargaining relapse hundreds. Sense stakeholders would be another momentous monstrosity to begin from. Asever from speculation I price that is one of the best concepts that suffer to be incorporated in a device superintendent provision to begin a device.
Asking himself “what”, “who”, “when” is truly momentous and the subordinatestanding of the device’s deliverables regulates to a emend subordinatestanding of stakeholder’s insufficiencys. That regulates to a emend collaboration incompact superintendent and stakeholders. Mitchell avers that “making collaboration incompact powerful stakeholders and the device superintendent betide remains on individualal behaviour modifys by acquaintance exertioners to not solely exertion collaboratively but besides to portion-out acquaintance. (Mitchell 2002, p. 59). Sense Stakeholders regulates to amiable-tempered-tempered communications.
Following its key concerns and flourish the Power/Interest grid regulates to a amiable-tempered-tempered subordinatestanding incompact stakeholders and device superintendent so all the immodest steps has to be co-related. Conclusion Sydney Opera Issue is considered a device want, ignoreing on the season layer and consume aggravaterun and the property of it is peaceful nature refurbished but it is an interpolitical adduction and no outingist wants to ignore it when they go to Sydney. Utzon delivered his masterpiece but in a device superintendent’s sharp-end of inspection he had his limitations.
Bad speculation, bad delineationning skills and closing of stakeholder vouchment were the ocean reasons for this device want and I would suffer rendezvoused on milestones, executeling stakeholders, prioritising necessities and having a bright consume/season perspective and besides having a bright ignore toll. References Mitchell, K. (2002), “Collaboration and notification sharing: an ROI perspective? ”, The Exoteric Manager, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 59-62 Lock, D. , Device Management, 5th edn. Gower, 1992. Nicholas, J. M. , Superintendence of Business and Engineering Projects. Prentice Hall, 1990.
J. K Pinto, J. E Prescot, Variations in nice victory incontrovertibletyors aggravate the limits in the device conduct cycle Journal of Management, 14 (1) (1988), pp. 5–18 Kerzner H. , In exploration of rarity in device superintendence. Journal of Systems Management, 1987, 30–39 David I. Cleland, Lewis R. Ireland (2006). Device Management: Strategic Sketch And Implementation. 5th edn. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 17-35. A RETROSPECTIVE LOOK AT OUR EVOLVING UNDERSTANDING OF PROJECT SUCCESS Kam Jugdev; Ralf Muller Device Superintendence Journal; Dec 2005; 36, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 19 J.
N Wright, Season and budget: the fellow imperatives of a device bail. Interpolitical Journal of Device Management, 15 3 (1997), pp. 181–186 Peter Murray (2004). The Saga Of Sydney Opera House: The Dramatic Story Of The Sketch And Sense Of The Icon Of Modern Australia. Bedford Park: Taylor ; Francis. p3-18. Bjorn Johs. Kolltveit et al. , Perspectives on device superintendence, Interpolitical Journal of Device Superintendence (2006), doi:10. 1016/j. ijproman. 2005. 12. 002 Julien Pollack, The changing paradigms of device superintendence, Interpolitical Journal of Device Superintendence (2006), doi:10. 016/j. ijproman. 2006. 08. 002 Williams T. Assessing and moving on from the dominant device superintendence disquisition in the vain of device aggravateruns. IEEE Trans Eng Handle 2005;52(4):497 Office of Legislation Commerce, CP0015/01/05, 2004 Field, Tom. (1997). “When bad monstrositys betide to amiable-tempered-tempered devices”, CIO repository, Oct 15, 1997, Vol. 11, 2; pg. 54, 6 pgs. Lynda Bourne and Derek H. T. Walker Visualising and mapping stakeholder swing RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia (2003) Device Superintendence Lectures from week 2 (1st semester) to week 7 (as of 2nd semester)