Running Head : NATURE VERSUS NURTURE ? Nature versus Nurture (Name (University (Professor (Course /Subject )? Nature versus Nurture ? Before psychology and sociology have dealt on the behaviour of man , the ? dominant view concerning human behaviour was centered on the theory ? proposed by Charles Darwin . He explains that , human nature and human ? behaviour are all natural . By this , Darwin proposed that humans acted ? out of natural tendencies or instincts which are dictated by nature ? through “genetic make up ‘ as later discovered by Gregor Mendel .?
However , this kind of thinking was later on rejected through the ? knowledge of the role of “nurture ‘ which is a shaping a persons ? behaviour or attitudes and perspectives through cultural context . This ? idea was first instituted by John Watson in his “behaviourism .? Later on , social scientist began to claim the importance of learned ? social behaviour . On the part of Freud , he developed the theory of ? psychoanalysis which relates biological factors with personality and ? behaviour . He claimed that humans have basic needs that are prompted by ? rives and urges , however , humans are also influenced by society . A ? three dimensional personality results from this , that which is consist ? of the id-which is basically biological needs and satisfaction , the ? conscious ego-the pleasure dimension and the superego-the cultural ? influence to the individual , which includes , morality .
Piaget on the ? other hand develops a cognitive theory , in which he created stages of ? how persons know things . The first is through sensorimotor stage which ? consist of sensory perception , followed by the pre-operational , wherein ? anguage are learned through cultural contact , thirdly , the concrete ? operational wherein the person already learned to use logic and ? relationships and finally the formal operational , characterized by the ? ability to think hypothetically . Kohlberg have outlined his ideas with ? Piaget , however , he is more concerned with moral development . According ? to him , the first stage is comprised of pain and pleasure which is ? termed as preconventional stage it would then be followed by ? conventional stage in which there is already recognition of right and ? rong .
The final stage is the post conventional stage in which there is ? a possibility to critique or find fault within the normal cultural ? thinking . Carol Gilligan , work with and improved Kohlberg ideas by ? incorporating gender with moral development . According to her , males and ? females creates moral judgments using different perspective males uses ? justice perspective which is deeply connected to societal rules and ? bias , while women uses “care and responsibility ‘ perspective which is ? ttached to personal damage and harm . Mead recognizes the impact of ? societal bias to the perspective of the “self ‘ of each individual ,? promoting the concept of a “looking glass ‘ in which the person is ? conscious about how others perceived the person . The concept of a ? subjective self and an objective “me ‘ suggest that a person sees ? himself as both independent and dependent to the society in which he ? belong . Lastly , Erikson believes that personality develops throughout a ? persons ‘ lifetime .
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