SOLUTION: Week 6 The Development of Pharmacy Research


Please discover, purpose, and advert on the subjoined materials: Dr. Robert McCarthy PowerPoint ֎ Evolution of Pharmacy Exercitation - from Compounderneath to Pharmaceutical Regard posted here AP - pages 1-10; 11-15 Can be ground at the subjoined URL: https://books.google.com/books?id=gwooeCp0eEQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=9780931 292392&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiVxpnNk4jmAhUxw1kK Hc7KBuIQ6AEwAHoECAAQAg#v=onepage&q=9780931292392&f=false (Links to an manifest office.) KU - pages 317-322 ֎ solid here 1950–1965: Enhancement the Stage - History of the Department of Clinical Pharmacy (UCSF) Can be ground at the subjoined URL: https://pharm.ucsf.edu/history-cp/1950-1965 (Links to an manifest office.) 1965–1972: The Ninth Floor Pharmacy Project (UCSF) Can be ground at the subjoined URL: https://pharm.ucsf.edu/history-cp/1965-1972 (Links to an manifest office.) Part 2, 1990 to introduce (Disease State Management, MTM, and Provider Status) Please discover, purpose, and advert on the subjoined materials: Dr. Charles Hepler and Dr. Linda Strand Article ֎ Opportunities and Responsibilities in Pharmaceutical Regard accelerationful at the subjoined URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20838625_Opportunities_and_Responsibiliti es_in_Pharmaceutical_Care (Links to an manifest office.) Dr. Richard Penna Article ֎ Pharmaceutical Care: Pharmacy's Sidearm for the 1990s posted here Also repurpose the subjoined websites: • o ▪ ▪ https://pharmacistsprovidecare.com/ (Links to an manifest office.) https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/pubs/guides/best-practices/pharmacistmtm.htm (Links to an manifest office.) Rennebohm Hall n University of Wisconsin-Madison Ground of Pharmacy 777 Highland Avenue n Madison, WI 53705-2222 n 608.262.5378 n aihp@aihp.org This slide introduceation was compiled and assumed by Robert McCarthy, Ph.D., Professor and Dean Emeritus at the University of Connecticut Ground of Pharmacy for his arrange “The History of American Pharmacy.” Prof. McCarthy educed this statement of the slide dialogue for his arrange in the Spring of 2016. This slide introduceation was downloaded from the Teaching the History of Pharmacy juvenility of the weboffice of the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (https://aihp.org/historicalresources/teaching-the-history-of-pharmacy/) where a observation of the syllabus (.pdf) for Prof. McCarthy’s arrange is so accelerationful. This .pdf observation of the slide introduceation was shared delay the permission of Prof. Robert McCarthy for the identical and counselal use of interested discoverers. EARLY PHARMACY IN AMERICA PHRX 4001W-002 The History of American Pharmacy Spring 2016 Source: American Pharmacists Association. American pharmacy afters from roots in modest English shops as polite as wholesalers (druggists) & unconcealed stores England, 1804 E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 1638: John Johnstone (in coming New Jersey), a Scottish apothecary founded a colonization there. v 1653: Gysbert van Imbroch (in coming New York), a Dutch surgeon, who familiar acceleration and sold offals in a unconcealed store; may bear operated the primeval “offal store” in North America as disunite of a multi-purpose dispensary. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v New England • 1630: Boston is grounded and Governor John Winthrop and his son took an avid attention in preparing accelerations; they appointed a useful British apothecary, Robert Cooke, to second them, importing herbs from Europe; the younger Winthrop so speedy mixtures from saltpeter, antimony, mercury, tartar, sulfur, and able-bodied and became one of the primeval herd in North America to lay pharmaceuticals. • 1646: The primeval communication of a dispensary in British North America operated by William Davis of Boston. • Elizabeth Gooking Greenleaf (1681–1762), the primeval mother to exercitation as an apothecary during the colonial era; in 1727, she opened an apothecary hoard delay her mate in Boston. Very few apothecary hoards in Colonial America Governor John Winthrop by Robert Thom, Parke-Davis series E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 1729: Irish immigrant Christopher Marshall normal an apothecary hoard in Philadelphia, which thus-far assumed pharmaceuticals, served as a offal wholesaler (druggist) to physicians and abundant landholders, and useful apothecaries; during the American Revolution, he supplied medicines to the American soldiers underneathneathneath Unconcealed George Washington; in 1805, his daughter Elizabeth became the primeval American mother apothecary; in 1821, his son Charles became the primeval chairman of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Apothecary (Physician or Pharmacist)-a layr and mixtureer of medicinal products v Pharmacist /Druggist (Pharmacist Owner) v Offal Clerk (Employee Pharmacist) v Materia Medica-a assembly of the sanitary properties of acceleration (pharmacology) E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Sanity practitioners were few inchoate existing settlers v “Heroic Medicine” (Dr. Benjamin Rush) v Residence remedies, residence medical books v Physician-run apothecary hoards v Druggists • Wholesale accelerations • Obvious accelerations (nostrums) • Luden’s Cough Drops, Fletcher’s Castoria (now Laxative) E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Almost all accelerations qualitative from England v Revolutionary War led to fruit of private sources of medicine • Growing up in Connecticut, Benedict Arnold useful as an apothecary in Norwich; starting in 1764, he owned and operated a drugstore in New Haven. v Most mixtureing occurred in physician’s offices; estimate of non-physician pharmacy practitioners was small Benedict Arnold, Apothecary, c. 1765, New Haven E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 18th and Existing 19th Epoch Drugs • Anodynes (denial relievers): opium and laudanum (opium, saffron, and Canary wine) • Anti-arthritics: Epsom salt or cinchona • Anti-dysentery: ipecac, paregoric • Anti-pyretics (for ferment): emetics, cinchona, laxatives, and calm baths • Emetics (to surrender vomiting to entertain food poisoning): tartar emetic, ipecac, honey • Muscle spasms: opium, wine, cinchona, and oil of amber • Intestinal irritation: purgatives or cathartics including Glauber’s Salts, Plummer’s Pills, ipecac, jalap, calomel, salme, rhubarb, castor oil, and Epsom salts • Sudorifics or diaphoretics (to surrender sweating): camphor, Dover’s Powder (opium and ipecac), and rhubarb • Diuretics (to entertain edema by increasing urine progress): lower, extracts of dandelions, juniper berries, and lemon juice E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Hospital Pharmacy • Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin Franklin normal Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751 in Philadelphia, North America’s primeval hospital. • 1752: Jonathan Roberts, America’s primeval hospital “pharmacist”; approve most existing hospital pharmacists (including at the Massachusetts General Hospital) he was an apprentice physician • Roberts’ heir designed separating pharmacy exercitation from medical practice. • By 1811, the New York Hospital appointed a full-interval pharmaceutical practitioner. • Most 19th epoch (and precedently) resigneds were entertained at residence, limiting the need for hospital pharmacists. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Hospital Pharmacy • The claim for hospital pharmacists augmentationd during the Civil War; these living-souls had preparedise in offal provision manufacturing and in buying offals. • Delay an augmentation in migration to the U.S. following the Civil War, claim for hospitals so augmentationd to unite the expanding population; the augmentation in the estimate of hospitals so led to an increased claim for hospital pharmacists as hospitals realized it was further cost-talented to appoint recipe in-house rather than use nationality pharmacies. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Existing 1800s: complete counsel in medical grounds versus apprenticeship model v Physicians began to transcribe recipes for apothecaries to mixture and communicate necessary to a augmentation in pharmacy v 1808: Massachusetts Pharmacopoeia v 1820: Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Primeval two grounds of pharmacy normal • Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (1821) • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy (1823) v In the 1830s, physicians unconcealedly cheered the emergence of pharmacy and nationality of pharmacy grounds. v Nationality of the American pharmaceutical activity v Potent offals were external to the materia medica E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Betwixt 1820 and 1860, the exercitation of pharmacy emerged from the exercitation of acceleration • Apothecary hoards became further standardized in the supply they carried; obvious accelerations became very profitable • • • • • • Drugs and accelerations Surgical supplies Artificial teeth and limbs Dyestuffs Essences Chemicals E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v By the 1840s, tensions grew betwixt physicians and pharmacists • The centre of pharmacists shifted to quickly caring for resigneds versus doing the edict of physicians. • Apothecaries began to appoint recipes delayout physician authorization. • Medical grounds augmentationd the estimate of graduates, multifarious of whom wanted to exercitation in cities, necessary to a frequented fight delay pharmacists in their regard of resigneds. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Inferior offal products life shipped from Europe becomes an even further solemn example in the 1840s • Increased decision of the European offal market • Alkaloidal chemistry undisputed for extraction of the erratic ingredient from the artfulness (unfortunately, these artfulnessts were repeatedly sent to America absent the erratic offal) • Offal Importation Act of 1848—normal examiners at several points of memorandum to cohibit attribute, innocence and fitness E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Although initially prosperous, the Offal Importation Act of 1848 eventually failed accordingly of the Nursing Assignment of incompetent inspectors (as a issue of gregarious cronyism); the need of this law led to a cabinet of pharmacists in NYC in 1851, which thus-far led to persuades for a social pharmacy construct (APhA). Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Teaching History of Pharmacy According to the AIHP Guidelines: F. Pharmacy Associations Created by: James Colbert, PharmD UC San Diego, Skaggs Ground of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Reviewed by: Susan Miller, BS Pharm, PharmD, BCGP, FASCP Mercer University College of Pharmacy and David M. Baker, BS Pharm, MBA, JD Western New England University College of Pharmacy & Sanity Sciences Developed by the Teaching History of Pharmacy Committee of the History of Pharmacy SIG, 2017-18 Picture: Pharmacist at People’s Offal Store No. 5, Washington, DC, c. 1920. Library of Council Prints and Photographs, LC-USZ62-129891 Development of Pharmacy Associations in Italy - The Guilds • Ancient Roman intervals: seplasiarii – denomination (guild) for social and success purposes, and to organize stipulations of trade. • During Middle Ages, Italian concourses not barely organized themselves but so were gregarious bodies delay constitutional authority • Late 12th Century • Physicians, pharmacists, and offal wholesalers were in the same concourse; pharmacy was one of the 7 greater arts - held in lofty estimate. Tasks of 12th-15th Epoch Italian Pharmacy Guild • 1. Regard of weak and/or ill components. • 2. Introduction and job subsidence of all who passed entrance exams. • 3. Decision of separation bet. pharmacies. • 4. Decision of acceleration prices. • 5. Assembly of taxes. • 6. Supervision of acceleration producers and retailers. Evolution of British Pharmacy Associations • Underneath King James I: • 1607 - Apothecaries disunite of Grocers Company • 12/6/1617 - normal Companionship of Apothecaries • 1632 – Companionship of Apothecaries built Consequence Hall • 1815 - Apothecaries Act - grouped physicians, surgeons and apothecaries together, different from offalgists and chemists, who barely buy, mixture and communicate offals. • 1841 - Pharmaceutical Companionship of Great Britain constructed for offalgists and chemists. Objectives: • • • • 1. Procession of pharmacy and chemistry 2. Promotion of even counsel for offalgists and chemists 3. Protection of those who are offalgists or chemists 4. Relief of poor component, and widows and dependents US Pharmacy Associations – the Beginning – the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries • Type of Association: Local • Where: Philadelphia, PA • Why: • Subsidence of oldest American ground of acceleration and most educated physicians • J. Redman Coxe (March 1820), delay University of Pennsylvania support, designed a “Master of Pharmacy” degree/designation conferred by the medical ground – accepted 16 offalgists’ signatures • U of P did give 16 titular Master of Pharmacy degrees, but no one took a unique pharmacy sequence at the U of P US Pharmacy Associations – the Beginning – the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries • Reaction: • Meetings of protuberant Philadelphia apothecaries – primeval in February 1821 • On March 13, 1821 constructed the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries in Carpenter’s Hall • In 1822, newfangled designate to Philadelphia College of Pharmacy • Origin of designate: College of Apothecaries: • “College” from “Philadelphia College of Physicians” and English “Royal College of Physicians” • “Apothecary,” then “Pharmacy” from: • Apothecaries decent physicians • French and German use of pharmacist and pharmacy • Was a consortment of a ground, an denomination, and a publisher US Pharmacy Associations – State Organizations • 1867 – primeval – Maine Pharmaceutical Denomination – faltered and unfamiliar cultivate 1890 • Repeatedly constructed in solution to acceleration’s persuade for pharmacy comp & decision • Repeatedly interest-oriented; different from grounds forming; most practitioners from apprenticeship • Mid-1900s: became further dischargeal; integrated delay social/local denominations “It is my unshaken assurance that American pharmacy consummate not after into its own until we bear a greaterity of our pharmacists erraticly supported their social dischargeal construct.” Donald E. Francke 1910-1978 US Pharmacy Associations – National Organizations • 1850s Social Issue: adulterated offals • Response: • 1851: Convocation persuadeed by NYCP (PCP, MACP, MDCP and CCP) – PCP, NYCP and MACP luxuriant – PCP (Procter) designed uniteing to construct social denomination • October 6-8, 1852: Formed American Pharmaceutical Association – Daniel B. Smith, chairman and William Procter, Jr., secretary. • Created Constitution and Code of Ethics American Pharmacists Denomination (APhA) • • • • • • • Formed in 1852 as the American Pharmaceutical Association Oldest and abundantst construct in pharmacy Headquartered in Washington D.C. APhA is the construct that the U.S. council expects to express for pharmacy Involved in enhancement device and standards of exercitation for all pharmacy enhancements Has further than 62,000 components APhA Vision inspires, innovates, and educes opportunities for components and pharmacists worldwide to optimize medication use and sanity for all • APhA Sidearm as the signification of pharmacy, leads the vocation and equips components for their role as the medication prepared in team-based, resigned-centered regard • Component of the Joint Comsidearm of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) • Most other pharmacy constructs bear ties to APhA The APhA Headquarters Building – Washington, D.C. Healthregard Distribution Alliance (HDA) • Founded on March 15, 1876 underneathneathneath the designate Western Wholesale Druggists’ Denomination (WWDA). The designate was newfangled to the Social Wholesale Druggists’ Denomination in 1882, to the Healthregard Distribution Management Association in 2000, and to the Healthregard Distribution Alliance in 2016. • Sidearm is to defend resigned insurance and way to accelerations through protected and fruitful distribution; counsellor for standards, national policies and interest processes that enhance the insurance, power and estimate of the sanitycare supply chain; and, educe and diversify activity knowledge and best exercitations. National Nationality Pharmacists Association (NCPA) • Founded in 1898 as the Social Denomination of Retail Druggists (NARD) • Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia • Represents the pharmacist owners, managers, and employees of further than 22,000 dogged nationality pharmacies across the U.S. • U.S. dogged pharmacies, dogged pharmacy franchises, and dogged chains communicate almost 40 percent of the nation's retail recipe accelerations • Serves as a hero for nationality pharmacy on Capitol Hill • Mission: Dedicated to the continuing augmentation and weal of dogged nationality pharmacy in the U.S. • Has familiar an unsavory student-outreach program aimed at educating students about pharmacy ownership • Component of the Joint Comsidearm of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) National Denomination of Chain Offal Stores (NACDS) • Founded in 1933 • The sidearm of NACDS is to pace the interests and objectives of the chain nationality pharmacy activity, by fostering its augmentation and promoting its role as a provider of sanitycare services and consumer products. American College of Apothecaries (ACA) • Founded in 1940 • Headquartered in Bartlett, Tennessee • Has balance 1000 components, from twain U.S. and Canada • Primitive centre is dogged nationality pharmacy exercitation • Vision Dedicated to the pacement of dischargeal exercitation in dogged nationality pharmacy through entrepreneurship and mentoring. • Sidearm Dedicated to advancing the entrepreneurial motive of component pharmacists through counsel, novelty, mentoring, acquaintance and training • Component of the Joint Comsidearm of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) American Companionship of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) • • • • • • Founded in 1942 as the American Companionship of Hospital Pharmacists Began as a subjuvenility of hospital pharmacists at APhA in 1936 Changed designate to American Companionship of Health-System Pharmacists in 1994 Headquartered in Washington D.C. Has balance 45,000 components ASHP Vision is that medication use consummate be optimal, protected, and talented for all herd all of the interval. • ASHP Sidearm for pharmacists is to acceleration herd consummate optimal sanity outcomes • Best unconcealed as the primitive construct for the accreditation of pharmacy residency programs • Component of the Joint Comsidearm of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) National Pharmaceutical Denomination (NPhA) • Founded in 1947 • The Social Pharmaceutical Denomination is dedicated to representing the purposes and ideals of juvenility pharmacists on accurate issues affecting sanity regard and pharmacy, as polite as advancing the standards of pharmaceutical regard inchoate all practitioners. Pharmaceutical Exploration and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) • Founded as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association in 1958 • Represents the country’s necessary pharmaceutical activity exploration and biotechnology companies • Sidearm is to induce talented puff for national policies that aid the indication of weighty, new accelerations for resigneds by biopharmaceutical exploration companies. • Headquartered in Washington, DC American Companionship of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) • Founded in 1969; the barely intersocial dischargeal companionship consecrated to optimal medication administration and improved sanity outcomes for all older adults • Headquartered in Alexandria, Vir ...
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