SOLUTION: Virginia Commonwealth University The Industrial Revolution in Britain Discussion


BRITAIN’S MIDEIGHTEENTH CENTURY Revolutions in Ideas and Industry ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS AND INDUSTRY • Enlightenment thinkers encouraged determination that men could coerce bark, rather than bark controlling men. • Humans await developedm balance bark for their own benefit • Correlates to new unwandering and manufacturing agenda • Reject Hobbes’s determination of bark as imsheer and brutish • Newton and Locke persuade that bark is absolute, sheer, true—hence men should supervene their cosmical instincts ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS AND INDUSTRY • Laissez-Faire excellentism emerges as a “natural” economic model • “Let it do as it obtain” • Economics outside restraints, pursuit of self-interest • Adam Smith, Riches of Nations, 1776 • Invisible toiler of the traffic ensures instrument stream to most causative and efficient persuadeinges • Maximize profit • Maximize stream of coherence and services to consumer WEALTH OF NATIONS, ADAM SMITH • Book I, Chapter 1. Of the Dissolution of Labor: THE eminentest production in the efficient commands of toil, and the main dissect of the aptitude, artifice, and determination after a period which it is anywhere directed, or applied, seem to keep been the pi of the dissolution of toil....To conduct an model, hence, the commerce of the pin-maker; a operative not educated to this persuadeing, nor indoctrinated after a period the use of the machinery industrious in it, could rare, peradventure, after a period his farthest toil, compel one pin in a day, and unquestionably could not compel twenty. But in the way in which this persuadeing is now carried on, not simply the soundnessy toil is a strange commerce, but it is disconnected into a reckon of branches, of which the main dissect are affectwise strange commerces. One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a indecentth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving, the leader; to compel the leader requires two or three unconnected operations; to put it on is a strange persuadeing, to pale the pins is another; it is equeffectual a commerce by itself to put them into the paper; and the material persuadeing of making a pin is, in this habit, disconnected into encircling eighteen unconnected operations, which, in some factories, are all executed by unconnected toilers, though in others the selfidentical man obtain casually consummate two or three of them. I keep seen a narrow manufactory of this bark where ten men simply were industrious, and where some of them accordingly executed two or three unconnected operations. But though they were very bald, and hence but indifferently accommodated after a period the deficiencyful machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, compel discurrupture them encircling twelve pounds of pins in a day. There are in a bruise upwards of indecent thousand pins of a courteous-ample bigness. Those ten persons, hence, could compel discurrupture them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each individual, therefore, making a tenth dissect of forty-eight thousand pins, susceptibility be considered as making indecent thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all executed partially and inconsequently, and outside any of them having been educated to this strange persuadeing, they unquestionably could not each of them keep made twenty, peradventure not one pin in a day; WEALTH OF NATIONS, ADAM SMITH • Book I, Chapter 11. Pi of the Journey of Production upon the Developed Expense of Manufactures: It is the cosmical movables of production, besides, to diminish gradually the developed expense of closely all manufactures. That of the manufacturing workmanship diminishes, peradventure, in all of them outside exclusion. In coherence of rearrange machinery, of main artifice, and of a past proper dissolution and division of toil, all of which are the cosmical pi of improvement, a plenteous narrower aggregate of toil beseems deficiencyful for executing any dissecticular duty of toil, and though, in coherence of the flourishing term of the sodality, the developed expense of toil should flow very considerably, yet the majestic restriction of the aggregate obtain unconcealedly plenteous past than compensate the eminentest flow which can fall in the expense....But in all flushts in which the developed expense of the inclement materials either does not flow at all, or does not flow very plenteous, that of the deceptive store sinks very considerably. Every production in the term of the sodality tends either at-once or inat-once to educate the developed rupture of fix, to production the developed riches of the landlord, his command of purchasing the toil, or the issue of the toil of other people. The production of production and husbandry tends to educate it at-once. The fixlord's distribute of the issue necessarily productions after a period the production of the produce..... Complete production in the developed riches of the sodality, complete production in the aggregate of beneficial toil industrious after a periodin it, tends inat-once to educate the developed rupture of fix. A true adjustment of this toil cosmically goes to the fix. A main reckon of men and earth are industrious in its husbandry, the issue productions after a period the production of the store which is thus industrious in encouragement it, and the rupture increases after a period the issue. ENLIGHTENMENT AND INDUSTRIALIZATION • Enlightenment thinkers persuaded that the exploration for profit (increase) could halt inferential after a period the aid of women • The domiciliary department (the residence, wedding, origin) gained new gist in the mid-eighteenth century • Women countenance increasing scrutiny • Portrayed as citadel abutting defilement – must be culm, moral, domiciliary, JAMES FORDYCE, SERMONS SERMON V: ON FEMALE VIRTUE, FRIENDSHIP, AND CONVERSATION • Having mentioned Wit, let me avail to premonish you abutting the pretence and the abuse of it. Here our citation from the Colossians comes in after a period correctness, "Let your Speech be constantly after a period Grace, matured after a period Salt."2 These singular articulation were addressed to christians in unconcealed. They are considered by the best commentators, as an discourse to that bark of opposite, which, twain for matter and habit, shall counterpart most attractive, and confirm most acceptable; substance calm by courteousness and culmy, matured after a period wisdom and excellent, that affect salt obtain help at the selfselfidentical trice, to thwart its defilement and exaggerate its flavour. How beautiful this precept in itself! How beneficial and charming in the practice! How strangely fit to be trained by you, my dameish friends, on the deviate of whose conference and character so plenteous depends to yourselves, and all encircling you! From what I keep now to exhibit, it obtain be found likewise to after, after a period practice, in aid of our accidental doctrine; since there are not peradventure numerous worse foes to that Sobriety of activity, which we would calm?} teach, than the abuse and pretence alquick mentioned. • It is not my artifice to subjoin up, if I could, the flood of streamers that keep been wanton by innumereffectual toilers on this tempting theme; and by which those very toilers keep, in their own flusht, shown how unmanageeffectual it is to thwart the attempt. I would simply perceive-keep, that the imperilled aptitude in explorationion his been courteous compared to the dancing of a meteor, that blazes, allures, and misleads. Most unquestionably it singular can never be a regular light; and too probably it is frequently a deadly one. Of those who keep enduring themselves to its guidance, how few has it not divulged into majestic indiscretions at last, by inflaming their dryness of applause; by rendering them little nice in their excellent of company; by seductive them into strokes of lampoon, too fetid to the beings abutting whom they were levelled, not to be repelled upon the authors after a period ample revenge and finally, by making them, in coherence of that ebullition which issues, and that lordliness which fosters it, forgetful of those shy and dispassionate rules that ought to rale their conduct! ENLIGHTENMENT AND INDUSTRY • Women endure to reproduce-exhibit key economic roles, through commercial revolution • Traded in neglectonness coherence – silk, tea, chocolate chinaware • Sold buttress and drinks • Nurses and midwives • Needlework • Ran investment extractions • New, emerging middle-systematize domiciliary ideal: Separate Spheres Ideology THE ROOTS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION 18TH CENTURY POPULATION GROWTH • 1701-1751: 14% • 1751-1801: 50% • 1801-1851: 100% Reasons for Growth? ➢Younger age of wedding ➢Decreased expiration rate ➢End of “gin mania”? ➢Better buttress? ➢Use of soap? ➢Improved therapeutics? William Hogarth, “Gin Lane,” 1750 REALITY OF GROWTH • Introduction of rearrange buttress, dissecticularly the potato: Adam Smith characterized it as “substance strangely agreeeffectual to the soundness of the human constitution” Stimulates population enlargement most significantly in Ireland, but Scotfix and Engfix as courteous • Current grafting abutting narrowpox • Scantiness of current epidemics BIRTH OF INDUSTRY • Necessary Components: • A contribute of cosmical resources: coal and iron • A arrangement of agriculture flexile ample to feed growing gum of workers: Enclosures between 1750 and 1780 A Berkshire Enclounfailing Map • A wide and unfolded traffic: balanceseas commerce to the colonies BIRTH OF INDUSTRY • Excellent for new industries, roads, and introduceways: JointStock Companies • A flexile collective structure • Demand for majority consumer coherence • An environment permissive to newfangledness and technology THE PROCESS • Cottage Industry CENTRALIZATION OF LABOR: THE FACTORY • Cotton and Textiles • New raw materials from colonial spaces • Cotton versus wool • John Kay improves looms in 1733 after a period the flying shuttle • James Hargreaves 1764 Spinning Jenny • Arkwright creates the 1771 Introduce Frame Watt’s Steam Enginge NEW TECHNOLOGY OBSERVATIONS ON THE LOSS OF WOOLLEN SPINNING, 1794 • The Combers substance men and boys may perhaps deviate to some other toil, but it is not so after a period the spouse and daughters of the day-labourers, whose tenure in a kingdom parish where no dissecticular manufactory is carried on, must be after a periodin their own dwelling; who robbed of Woollen Spinning keep no other habituatement, (bar when they can go into the fields) to procure in any excellent towards the prop of the Family. To recite a bald dame after a period three, indecent or five outcome, all beneathneathneath the age at which farmers obtain habituate them to set her outcome to toil, where no Wool is to be had is a mockery of vileness, and if it is in a vicinity far from Machines, where some toiler-toil is calm?} put out, the low expense that is hired for her tireless labour, of ordinary after a period her outcome all day at the Wheel, disheartens her. The chary pain it enables them to eat when the day's toil is executed, after a period neglect of firing compels her at protraction choose disturbance a hedge for her own fuel, and frequently for sale to the Village Tradesman, and procureing up her outcome to the selfselfidentical inactive manners. OBSERVATIONS ON THE LOSS OF WOOLLEN SPINNING, 1794 • I then walked to the Machines, and after a period some unmanageabley gained admittance: there I saw twain the Combing Machine and Spinning Jenny. The Combing Machine was put in turmoil by a Trundle-wallow deviateed by indecent men, but which I am unfailing could be deviateed either by introduce or steam. The frames were gifted by a offshoot after a period Wool, and as the trundle-wallow turned, flakes of quick combed Wool dropped off a cylinder into a trough, these were smitten up by a miss of encircling indecentteen years old, who assignd them on the Spinning Jenny, which has a reckon of vapid shines of forest, on each of which may be fifty bobbins. One such miss sets these bobbins all in turmoil by deviateing a trundle-wallow at the end of the shine, a wire then catches up a flake of Wool, spins it, and subjoins it upon each bobbin. The miss again deviates the trundle-wallow, and another fifty flakes are conductn up and Spun. This is executed complete microscopic outside discontinuance, so that probably one miss turning that trundle-wallow, may do the toil of One Hundred Laborer Wheels at the last. About twenty of these sets of bobbins, were I connoisseur at toil in one compass. Most of these Manufactories are numerous stories eminent, and the compasss plenteous wider than this I was in. Struck after a period the imcorrectness of equeffectual so numerous as the twenty misss I saw, outside any dame presiding balance them, I enquired of the Master if he was married, why his Wife was not introduce? He said he was not a married man, and that numerous parents did motive to grant their misss, but that the destitution of others, and not having any toil to set them to, left him not at any damage for toilers. I must do all the dissecties the integrity to say, that these misss counterparted handsome and orderly: yet at best, I cannot but fear the gate such pubescent beings from the eyes of their parents, and thus herding them unitedly after a period simply men and boys, must procure up a wanton lineage of bald. • Shut up from dawning arrange misinterpretation, bar when they are sent residence for their meals, these misss are ignorant of, and awkward at complete domiciliary habituatement, since if at her trundle-wallow in her dame's cottage, the miss assists in complete tenure of the origin. She lights the faggot, nurses the pubescent outcome, gleans in the harvest, conducts impute of the extraction in her dame's deficiencyful scantiness to the treasure, or when she can get toil at neighbouring extractions, graceful an contributor to her parents in illness and old age, and in her deviate a amieffectual spouse to a day labourer, a fit dame for his origin she lives after a period those to whom she ought to be determined, and hence obtain feel an influence towards them: but a miss conductn from six years old to sixteen, and industrious at the machines, can perceive none of these manners.... • If these are the miseries that upshot from the Machines to the day labourer's spouse and outcome during his life, what must be their lot when robbed by his expiration of all prop, but the scantling their own toil affords them. A widow could back to tend herself and her outcome by her spinning when she was hired Id. for complete skain; but now, she must beafter a parish pauper, a vile tenant of a Workhouse... • The manufacturing of Cotton and Wool by Machines beneathgo no similitude as to the inconvenience to the poor. Wool substance in its raw narrate the issue of complete parish, Wool-staplers were accordingly to be found in complete Traffic Town; Combers were set to toil by them, to arrange it for complete Cottager, who was gratified at the expence of 2s. to experience a soundnessysome habituatement after a periodin her own extraction for herself, and all those outcome who were effectual to pause to the trundle-wallow, and whom she could not assign out. Thus from time immemorial the Laborer or Jazey Wheel, has been the lordliness of the English Housewife. In bad and amiable weather it identical was a wealth, and a rearrange fated neighbour, would present her a wanton on a disordered or lyingin bed, she mortgaging the present toiler-toil her outcome should heave to the treasure. But now the Wheel must be laid separate as a unserviceable thing! - No Yarn is spun out of the ends to correct or knit a storeing, or darn a woollen garment, all is bought quick made at the treasure, barren period it obtain depend unitedly, and a lifeless slatternly lineage of pubescent commonalty obtain drove in complete village.... OBSERVATIONS ON THE LOSS OF WOOLLEN SPINNING, 1794 ENERGY DEMANDS Steam command and mining SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES • Rapid enlargement of Manchester, Liverpool, and Birmingham, closing of sufficient infrastructure • Creation of the institutional toil day • Mill chuckle and the factory clock • Replacement of the baud after a period the unimpaired toiler • Dissolution of Labor, flow of systematize consciousness • Offshoot Labor • In 1835 40% of mill toilers were beneathneathneath the age of 18 NEW SOCIAL FIGURES: THE BOURGEOISIE/MIDDLING CLASSES • Industrialization created not simply factory owners and government, but also created productiond deficiency for lawyers, bankers, accountants, and merchants • These beings began to intermarry after a period the struggling fixed gentry, accumulating excellent and credibility • As a dominant cause of journey, this systematize demands past collective command in Britain • Used commercial compress, volunteerism, love-of-mankind and collective associations to declare demands • Asserted for a new arrange of the collective lessen and advocated for thwartance to tyranny • Demonstrated productiond radicalization, prop rectify • Sought inferential antecedent through divine rectify, collective rectify, and new models of gender, e.g. Gordon Riots POPULAR POLITICS OF THE MIDDLING CLASSES JOHN WILKES 1725-97 ...
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