SOLUTION: Tarrant County College District Attack on 507 Maintenance Company Discussion
Attack on the 507th Means-of-foundation Company 23 Hesitate 2003 An Nasiriyah, Iraq Executive Summary The onslaught on the 507th Means-of-foundation Community at An Nasiriyah was a adversity not unequally those that keep occurred in spent conflicts in which this mob has occupied. Although profanation and mislaying of career are realities of encounter for Soldiers, the United States Army is committed to reason this component end in an endeavor to glean lessons and stipulate a media of blank wall for the families of those who made the farthest sacrifice. The component of the 507th Means-of-foundation Community that bravely fought thknotty An Nasiriyah found itself in a hapless place due to a navigational misassume producerd by the fully goods of the operational pace, quick tire, segregation and the severe environmental stipulations. The fatal ends of this misassume placed the Host of the 507th Means-of-foundation Community in a torrent of reason from an adaptive foe employing asymmetrical temporization. In the rare swift walk of the plea antagonism towards Baghdad, the 507 th Maintenance Company was terminal in a hesitate column of 600 conveyances. The community became pure, as communications, already tense to the designation, could not be extended to conceive them occasion they recovered laborious wheeled vehicles from yielding sand and breakdowns parallel a cross-country track thknotty the Iraqi solitude. Balance a epoch of 60-70 hours succeeding a conjuncture trivial interval and designationed communications, rational misassume excite contributed to the place thknotty a unique navigation misassume that placed these multitude in the closeness of an adaptive foe who used asymmetric temporization to perpetration the Soldier’s owniness to accord to the Law of War. Several measures were serviceable to abate the facilitate of such an end, but were either not industrious (Brief-back rehearsal) or were petty (Traffic Administer Point-TCP). Soldiers agreement as they are skilled to agreement. Once occupied in encounter, the Host of the 507th Maintenance Company fought inexplicable. They fought the best they could until tnear was no longer a media to succeeding a conjuncturestand. They defeated pitfalles, balancecame hastily-expert foe obstacles, guarded one another, stipulated careersaving aid, and inflicted casualties on the foe. The Host of the 507th upheld the Code of Conduct and followed the Law of War. The Army’s examimob of this end achieve wait thknotty the lens of Concrete Hardness operations on a noncontiguous encounterfield. Operation Iraqi Freedom, though done succeeding a conjuncture ordinary hardness capabilities in a joint environment, stipulated instinct into the advantages and vulnerabilities that Army and all plea conceiveations can forecast to aspect in the coming. Encounter Command, placeal awareness, and low head and Soldier disciplines and skills--the “fundamentals”--down to the meanest levels befit delicate, possibly late than ever antecedently. The flexibility and agility required by the Concrete Hardness wheedles upon the Army as an institution to fix balanced investments betwixt the walkd capabilities that tolerate guideers and conceiveations to centralize goods, and the fruit and contumacy of skilled Host who are at last equally adaptive but late changeable than the threats they are likely to aspect in this senility. Introduction Purpose, Scope and Methodology. This fame describes, in truth conceive, the onslaught on an component of the U.S. Army 507th Means-of-foundation Community by Iraqi soldierlike hardnesss and irregulars in the city of An Nasiriyah on 23 Hesitate 2003 during OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM. It is the end of an intensive, focused endeavor to individualize those producers that could be resolute in a proportionately soon epoch of continuance. This fame does not confutation all questions. In component, in enjoin to fix the parity of war crimes explorations, this fame does not oration in component the persuade of Iraqi encounterants during the encounter, stipulates simply a shabby description of the exit or wounding of each U.S. contingency, and does not oration Iraqi treatment of U.S. Host held captive. All these matters are below disunited exploration. This fame presents but does not assess decisions made and renewals charmed. These are matters for the specific’s chain-of-command and for “lessons learned” retrospects. This fame does not oration feasible recommendations for ornaments for pluck. These types of recommendations are inaugurated by the specific chain-of-command according to Army regulations, and require substantiation. This fame is contrived to be an concrete offer of producers corroborated by multiple sources. Variances in specific perceptions, componently during the serious defecate of encounter, make a mature reconstruction of ends impracticable. The Retrospect Team had avenue to the capacious product of skilled experts and scrutinized a big co-operate of notification. Finally, ongoing explorations may discover joined bearing notification. This fame should be own succeeding a conjuncture these truthors in memory. This fame was researched and expert by a weak team of Headquarters, Department of the Army officers producting below the superscription of the Commanding General, Trailing and Doctrine Command, tasked by the Chief of Staff of the Army to persuade a truth-finding retrospect to individualize what happened to the 507th Maintenance Community component in An Nasiriyah, Iraq on 23 Hesitate 2003. Overview. In the existing morning hours of 20 Hesitate 2003, U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps and confederacy plea encounter hardnesss crossed from Kuwait into southern Iraq and onslaughted northward, inauguration the plea presentation of OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM. By dawn on 23 March, senior U.S. plea encounter specifics had walkd late than 200 miles into Iraq and were almost 130 miles north of An Nasiriyah, an walk historically rare for urge of dissuasive and profundity of discrimination, adapted to unhinge the Iraqis’ power to soar a compact excuse. The swift walk of confederacy multitude in thousands of conveyances and hundreds of aircraft was made feasible by the resolute, obnoxious buttress of scores of logistics, medical, and means-of-foundation specifics, frequent tender constantly to protect touch succeeding a conjuncture their buttressed specifics. One such specific was the 507th Maintenance Company, tasked to buttress a vitally deep asset – a Patriot projectile battalion. At environing 0700 hours (topical continuance) on 23 Hesitate 2003, occasion tender thknotty the outpost of the city of An Nasiriyah in southeastern Iraq, an component of the 507th Means-of-foundation Community was onslaughted by Iraqi soldierlike hardnesss and irregulars. Tnear were 33 U.S. Host in the 18-conveyance conduct. All but two Host in the conduct were members of the 507th Means-of-foundation Community from Fort Bliss, Texas. The other two Soldiers belonged to the 3d Confident Buttress Battalion (3d FSB) of the 3d Infantry Division from Fort Stewart, Georgia, and were triping in their 10-ton wrecker succeeding a conjuncture the 507th. The Iraqi hardnesss in An Nasiriyah persuadeed ferocious onslaughts counter the conduct. Of the 33 U.S. Host in the convoy, 11 were killed in encounter or died as a end of injuries, seven were smitten by Iraqi hardnesss, and the retaining 16 Host were able to tally amicable hardnesss. Of the 22 U.S. Host who survived, nine were wounded in renewal. Although all components of the encounter could not be resolute succeeding a conjuncture assurance, it is intelligible that every U.S. Soldier did their allegiance. It was not until 31 Hesitate 2003, that components of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Hardness (MEF) would assume administer of the city of An Nasiriyah. The Attack Arrival in Kuwait & Provision for Agitate to Iraq The 507th Means-of-foundation Community landd in Kuwait from Ft. Bliss on 20 February 2003. The community consisted of 82 Host and their assigned conveyances. The specific became a bisect of U.S. hardnesss below the operational administer of V Corps, which was located at CAMP VIRGINIA in Kuwait. From 22 February until 20 March, the 507th expert for its sidearm in buttress of OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM--to tranquillityore and protect conveyances and equipment of the 5th Battalion, 52d Air Excuse Artillery (Patriot), buttressing the Central Command (CENTCOM) encounter pur-pose. Unit provision at CAMP VIRGINIA built on trailing that had been persuadeed at Fort Bliss, which conceived specific and guild-served weapons accomplishment, tactical communications, contemplationt navigation, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) excuse tasks, chief aid, disgrace fameing, equipment means-of-support, head certification, hardness security, deployment and redeployment operations, tactical pursuit, and sustainment operations. Once deployed and in CAMP VIRGINIA, Host of the 507th persuadeed joined trailing and provisions at CAMP VIRGINIA that conceived rules of agreement, specific rehearsals (movement, renewals on touch, pitfall procedures), and weapons and conveyance means-of-support. During this time, all Host common their basic encounter arraign of abundance for their indivisible weapons (210 rounds for M16A2, 1000 rounds for M249 SAW, 45 rounds for M9). The community guideer enjoined children of abundance for the specific’s guild served weapons (.50 caliber and MK-19, 40mm) former to agitate, however, all pyrotechnics, index grenades, and AT-4 Anti-tank weapons were indistinct and certain. The pur-pose to agitate V Corps specifics from CAMP VIRGINIA to OBJECTIVE RAMS (See FIGURE 1) concerned the organization of conducts and agitate of those conducts parallel denominated tracks—initially on ROUTE BLUE, then ROUTE JACKSON, then inconsiderable to ROUTE BLUE —and thknotty three middle onslaught positions: DAWSON, BULL, and LIZARD (See FIGURE 3). The 507th Means-of-foundation Community was below the tactical administer of the 3d Confident Buttress Battalion (3d FSB) for this agitate. According to the 3d FSB Influence Brief, the 507th Means-of-foundation Community conduct would be directforwardforwarded from BLUE to JACKSON by Soldiers at a manned tactical administer sharp-end (TCP) at the plight wnear the tracks disunitedd. FIGURE 1 Overview of Area of Operation The Operations Manager of the 3d FSB gave CPT King, the guideer of the 507th, a CD-ROM disc that contained enjoins and track notification. Track notification consisted of the battalion enjoins shabbying and annotated large-lamina maps. The 507th had wholesale Global Positioning Systems (GPS) (Garmin, ETREX VISTA), (FIGURE 2), which had been childrend in the United States former to deployment. The GPS gave CPT King superscriptional signals via a evidence arrow that implied the superscription and interval the conduct should go. Five joined GPS were arranged to other heads in the community. The specific was besides childrend 1:100,000 lamina maps of the area of operations-- the theater measure. The retrospect of this rational revealed that CPT King relied largely on his GPS and one of the annotated maps from the enjoins shabby occasion traveling in his HMMWV(See FIGURE 1 – Note the map from the shabby did not keep Routes and Objectives annotated near for clarity). CPT King had highlighted simply ROUTE BLUE on the annotated map, and believed in misassume that BLUE was his assigned track. On 20 March, at almost 1400 hours, 64 of the primary 82 Host of the 507 th deceased CAMP VIRGINIA in 33 conveyances and agitated northwest as bisect of a larger conduct. Their farthest destimob was OBJECTIVE RAMS late than 350 kilometers asunder. The other 18 Host (means-of-foundation touch teams and medics) from the 507th were strong to and agitated succeeding a conjuncture other specifics. FIGURE 2 Garmin Global Positioning System Movement to ATTACK POSITION DAWSON During the chief leg of the track, from CAMP VIRGINA to ATTACK POSITION DAWSON, occasion calm?} in Kuwait, the 507th triped off-path balance solitude terrain. At 2100 hours on 20 March, the 507th landd at its chief plug, ATTACK POSITION DAWSON, located proper south of the Iraqi boundary. Occasion at DAWSON, the Soldiers refueled and serviced their conveyances, ate and attempted to utensil a interval pur-pose. Most Host got some asoar of slumber in the 10 hours at this precipitation. (see FIGURE 3) Movement from DAWSON to converge up succeeding a conjuncture 3d FSB at the Continuity of Evanition (LD), to ATTACK POSITION BULL At 0700 hours on 21 March, the 507th deceased ATTACK POSITION DAWSON to converge up succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB. They crossed the continuity of evanition into Iraq at 1000 hours. The conduct agitated almost 35 kilometers, arriving at ATTACK POSITION BULL at 1200 hours on 21 March. (see FIGURE 3) Movement from ATTACK POSITION BULL to ATTACK POSITION LIZARD At 1800 hours on 21 March, the 507th deceased BULL succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB entrack to LIZARD, 80 kilometers northwest. The conduct waitd to trip off-path and some of the heavier conveyances bogged down in the yielding sand. Drivers from frequent specifics became disordered due to the misinterpretation, causing some conveyances to disunited from their hesitate columns. Poor exchangepower and spontaneous problems ended in the fragmentation of the 507th conduct into two collocations. The chief colprecipitation consisted of those conveyances that did not break down or get store in the sand and were capable of guardianship stride succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB conduct. The relieve colprecipitation consisted of those conveyances that had spontaneous problems or were store in the sand, parallel succeeding a conjuncture those conveyances used to tow or drag other conveyances open. CPT King took indivisible commit of the chief collocation and landd at LIZARD at environing 0530 hours on 22 March, succeeding an all-misinterpretation agitate. 1SG Dowdy was charged succeeding a conjuncture recovering the relieve colprecipitation and guideing it to LIZARD. Agoing thknotty the misinterpretation of 21 March and into the contiguous day, 1SG Dowdy recovered and tranquillityoreed conveyances not simply from the 507th but from the 3d FSB as courteous. The 1SG and the relieve colprecipitation of 507th conveyances would endually land at LIZARD at 1600 hours on 22 March, 22 hours succeeding sallying ATTACK POSITION BULL. (see FIGURE 3) FIGURE 3 Convoy agitate to An Nasiriyah Decision to Split the 507th Conduct at ATTACK POSITION LIZARD After arriving at LIZARD, occasion preclusion 1SG Dowdy’s aspect, CPT King touched his battalion guideer to inconceive him of the 507th’s place. LTC Joseph Fischetti, guideer, 5th Battalion, 52d Air Defense Artillery (PATRIOT) acknowledged the fame. CPT King besides recalls fameing his condition and confirming succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB staff that the balanceall place, to conceive track, was illegitimate. The 3d FSB staff advised CPT King that the conduct would debisect at 1400 hours as pur-posened. Based on that notification and succeeding a conjuncture the urgent to expedite buttress confident, CPT King directforwardforwarded his magistrate manager, 1LT Jeff Shearin, to guide all the serviceable 507th conveyances and wait succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB conduct. Shearin deceased succeeding a conjuncture 32 Host in 17 vehicles at 1400 hours succeeding a conjuncture the deep 3d FSB conduct. King waited at LIZARD and waited for 1SG Dowdy and the waiting Host and conveyances of the 507th. At environing 1400 hours on 22 March, 1SG Dowdy radioed CPT King to fame that he had all of the waiting vehicles ordinary or in tow and was 10-12 kilometers afar from LIZARD. He landd at LIZARD at environing 1600 hours. Parallel succeeding a conjuncture 1SG Dowdy were the two Host from the 3d FSB, SGT George Buggs and PFC Edward Anguiano. Buggs and Anguiano were driving a 10-ton wrecker and had befit disunitedd from the interval of 3d FSB occasion recovering 3d FSB fuel trucks store in the sand betwixt BULL and LIZARD. Apparently, 1SG Dowdy coordinated succeeding a conjuncture Buggs and Anguiano to tow a disabled 507th 5-ton truck succeeding they completed their reanimation of the 3d FSB fuel trucks. At 1930 hours on 22 March, 3 ½ hours succeeding 1SG Dowdy barred on LIZARD succeeding a conjuncture all waiting 507th Soldiers and conveyances, CPT King arranged them into a new hesitate specific. This relieve component, led by CPT King, deceased LIZARD succeeding a conjuncture 33 Soldiers, including himself, Buggs and Anguiano. The conduct was comprised of 18 conveyances, two of which were life towed (see FIGURE 4; compromise of conduct on 22 March, including classification of guild served weapons, radios, and GPS). FIGURE 4 Serial 2 conduct (Vehicle gum portray primary hesitate enjoin posteriority entering An Nasiriyah) Intersection of ROUTES JACKSON (Highway 1) and BLUE (Highway 8) Unable to co-operate succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB, CPT King attempted to seize up succeeding a conjuncture the 3d FSB deep conduct by deciding to assume the most directforwardforward track (a directforward continuity azimuth) to Highway 8. This track proved to be extremely troublesome, balance knotty terrain, once constantly ending in conveyances decent bogged down in the sand. It took the specific five hours to grasp Highway 8 [ROUTE BLUE] environing 15 kilometers afar. At this sharp-end, 42 hours had passed late the 507th had deceased ATTACK POSITION DAWSON. Except for a 10-hour plug at DAWSON, the 507th had been uninterruptedly tender. Most Host had slept simply a few hours late the morning of the 20th and were in their relieve arranged misinterpretation of agitate. After triping west on Highway 8, the conduct grasped the intersection succeeding a conjuncture Highway 1, ROUTE JACKSON, the assigned track for 3d FSB. The path on which ROUTE JACKSON was denominated led southwest of An Nasiriyah, endually intersecting constantly succeeding a conjuncture ROUTE BLUE, east of OBJECTIVE RAMS. The initial entrance to ROUTE JACKSON required a left transform at this intersection, wnear a manned Exchange Administer Point (TCP) was pur-posened to directforwardforward exchange. When the conduct landd at this intersection, U.S. personnel were present, but by this continuance tnear was no conceiveal TCP. CPT King states that the personnel that were present confirmed that BLUE waitd North. Believing ROUTE BLUE was his assigned track, CPT King led his conduct thknotty the intersection and headed north on Highway 8, towards An Nasiriyah in the general superscription implied by his GPS receiver – the waysharp-end west of An Nasiriyah. At environing 0530 hours, the conduct plugped when CPT King saw lights forward, which he believed to be an industrial close or an oil refinery. He acquired succeeding a conjuncture 1SG Dowdy and resolute to wait. At an intersection south of An Nasiriyah, Highway 8--ROUTE BLUE-- transformed west, requiring a left transform. CPT King did not own this and led his conduct directforward North thknotty the intersection and on to Track 7/8, exiting ROUTE BLUE. Track 7/8 led the conduct over the Euphrates River into the eastern outpost of An Nasiriyah. (See FIGURE 5) An Nasiriyah is flanked by the Euphrates River in the south and a succession of man-made canals in the north. It is a city characterized by buildings no biger than lewd to five stories in height, succeeding a conjuncture frequent bigoted streets and alleyways. The embracing areas of An Nasiriyah, including the roadsides parallel the track chguarded by the 507th, are marshlands that keep been bisectially-drained, consisting of yielding sand and mud. Movement thknotty An Nasiriyah Five conveyances in the conduct had SINCGARS radios and could co-operate succeeding a conjuncture one another (see FIGURE 4). SINCGARS communications were augmented by indexheld radios in each conveyance, but consequently of the extended continuance of the conduct the batteries had expired. CPT King and 1SG Dowdy were communicating environing their precipitation and place constantly as the conduct agitated thknotty An Nasiriyah. FIGURE 5 Convoy tracks JACKSON and BLUE Several Host in the conduct, including CPT King, observed guarded civilians and what appeared to be guarded Iraqi host at two checkpoints—one upon entering and the other exiting the town. None of these mob reasond or implied unfavorable urgent counter the conduct. In truth, the Iraqi host at the checkpoints waved to the conduct. One or late civilian trucks succeeding a conjuncture guarded civilians and soared machine guns (some fames attribute to these as “technicals”) flock spent the conduct separate continuances during its trip thknotty the city, but constantly, no unfavorable urgent was shown towards the 507th conduct and personnel. Statements from 507th Host betray that rules of agreement childrend by excellent headquarters would simply encourage firing on personnel that exhibited unfavorable urgent. Host had besides been warned to forecast feasible “happy reason”--shots reasond in commemoration and not contrived to producer injury, which is a low practice. Additionally, they had been notifyed that the carrying of weapons by uniformed or civilian personnel would not, by itself, compose unfavorable urgent. The Rules of Agreement (ROE) in goods were summarized on a ...
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