SOLUTION: PasadenaCity College Cell Signaling Communication Integration and Homeostasis Discussion


• Cell Signaling • Communication, Integration and Homeostasis 1 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Cell Signaling • Examples • Transmit nerve impulses • Start mitosis for wound healing • Stimulate secretion of fluids due to hormone levels • Motion of cells associated delay the immune arrangement 2 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Communication • Electrical • Chemical • *** twain can act aggravate weak or crave distances • Target cell • Physiological confutation or operation 3 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Electrical • Occurs accordingly there is • Exchange of ions betwixt 2 cells • Gap junction: topical possessions • Synapses • A neuron (operation germinative) • Neurotransmitter • Neurohormones • Nervous arrangement: fixed, keep-aparticular, remote target 4 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Fig. 6.1. Communication in the body: Local communication 5 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 6.1 Communication in the Body: (d)-(f) Crave Distance Communication Nervous System Electrical signal Target cell Neuron Cell without receptor Cell with receptor Target cell No confutation Blood Response Neuron 6 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Chemical Communication • Autocrine • Paracrine • Endocrine arrangement: • act aggravate crave distances, diffuses into the target cell Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 7 Figure 6.1. Communication in the body: Local communication 8 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication in the body: Crave distance varicosity 9 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 5.2 Receptor Specificity Not all cells express the selfselfselfsame receptors. This selective expression controls to specificity in the systems. The confutation of individual cells delay the selfselfselfsame receptor also vary naturalized on the cell type, intracellular signaling cascade coupling, and other simultaneous notables being current. 10 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Notable Pathways • Notable molecule (ligand) • Receptor • Intracellular notable • Target protein • Response • First vs. second messenger 11 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Receptors • Cytosolic and Nuclear • Lipophilic ligands penetrates the cell • Often activates genes (produces new protein) • Slower confutation • Cell membrane • Lipophobic ligand cannot penetrate cell • Activates solid proteins • Fixed confutation Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 12 Figure 6.3(a)-(b) Target cell receptors may be on the cell demeanor or internally the cell (a) Intracellular Notable Receptors (b) Cell Membrane Receptors (a) Intracellular Notable Receptors (b) Cell Membrane Receptors Receptor in cytosol Lipophilic notable molecules diffuse through the cell membrane. Receptor in nucleus Extra cellular notable molecule binds to a cell membrane receptor. Binding triggers Binding to cytosolic or nuclear receptors triggers Rapid cellular responses Slower confutations related to changes in gene distillation 13 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Cell membrane Receptor Classes • Ligand- gated means • Receptor-enzymes • G-protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) (2) • Integrin 14 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 6.3(c) Target cell receptors may be on the cell demeanor or internally the cell (c) Four Categories of Membrane Receptors (c) Four Categories of Membrane Receptors Extracellular Signal molecules ECF Channel Receptor Integrin Receptor Cell membrane G protein ICF Anchor protein Enzyme Cytoskeleton Receptor-channel Ligand costive opens or closes the means. G protein–coupled receptor Ligand costive to a G protein–coupled receptor opens an ion means or alters enzyme distillation. Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Catalytic receptors Receptor-enzyme Integrin receptor Ligand costive to a receptor-enzyme activates an intracellular enzyme. Ligand costive to integrin receptors alters enzymes or the cytoskeleton. 15 Figure 5.5 Receptors that are Ligand-Gated Channels 16 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 5.5 Receptors that Character as Enzymes 17 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 22.16 Insulin’s cellular mechanism of action Extracellular fluid 1 Insulin binds to tyrosine kinase receptor. 2 Receptor phosphorylates insulin-receptor substrates (IRS). 1 GLUT4 Cytoplasm 3 Insulin Second courier pathways alter protein construction and solid proteins. 2 IRS IRS P 3 Nucleus 4 Transport activity Second messenger pathways 4 5 Membrane ecstasy is mitigated. Transcription factors Cell metabolism is transitional. Enzymes or 5 Changes in metabolism 18 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 5.5 G Protein-Coupled Receptors 19 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • G-Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR) • Main notable transducers and character by: • Activate enzymes - (alpha subunit) • Paraphrase enzyme activation • Adenylyl cyclase-cAMP construction • Activates protein kinases and cascade arrangement • Open ion meanss • Beta-gamma subunits • Membrane germinative change Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 20 Figure 5.6 Cyclic AMP Second-Messenger System 21 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 22 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Signal transduction using ion meanss 23 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Signal transduction • Notable Transduction • Transforms notable zeal by • activating: • (1) Protein kinase • phosphorylation • (2) Second courier • Activate protein kinases Cell confutation • Phosphorylation • Activate calcium indemnify • Open ion meanss Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 24 Figure 6.5 Biological notable transduction (a) Basic Notable Transduction (b) Transduction Pathways First messenger Signal molecule Extracellular fluid Signal molecule binds to binds to Transducer Membrane receptor protein Membrane receptor initiates Signal transduction by proteins activates Ion channel Amplifier enzymes Intracellular notable molecules Second messenger system alter Target proteins Second courier molecules Protein kinases Increase intracellular Ca2+ Phosphorylated proteins Calcium-binding proteins Targets create Response alter Response Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Intracellular fluid Cell confutation 25 Table 5.2 Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reiter-ation or exhibit. TABLE 5.2 Summary of Common Mechanisms by Which Receptor Activation Influences Ion Channels The ion means is keep-akeep-apart of the receptor. A G protein at-once gates the ion means. A G protein gates the ion means inat-once via genesis of a second courier such as cAMP. 26 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Notable Amplification • Small notable produces ample cell confutation • Receptor/transducer activates • Paraphrase enzyme • Cascade arrangement • Cell confutation 27 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 5.8 Model of Notable Amplification Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 28 Figure 6.6(c) Notable Transduction: Cascades and Amplification (c) Second courier pathways Second Messenger Made from Amplifier enzyme Linked to Action Effects cAMP ATP Adenylyl cyclase (membrane) GPCR* Activates protein kinases, especially PKA. Binds to ion meanss. Phosphorylates proteins. Alters means gap. cGMP GTP Guanylyl cyclase (membrane) Receptorenzyme Activates protein kinases, especially PKG. Phosphorylates proteins. Guanylyl cyclase (cytosol) Nitric oxide (NO) Binds to ion meanss Alters means gap. Releases Ca2+ from intracellular stores. See Ca2+ possessions adown. Activates protein kinase C. Phosphorylates proteins. Binds to calmodulin. Alters enzyme distillation. Exocytosis, muscle contraction, cytoskeleton motion, means gap. Nucleotides Lipid Derived* IP3 DAG Membrane phospholipids Phospholipase C (membrane) GPCR Ions Ca2+ Binds to other proteins. *GPCR = G protein–coupled receptor. IP3 = Inositol trisphosphate. DAG = diacylglycerol. 29 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Calcium as a Second Messanger 30 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Receptors • Calcium as a Second Courier and its indemnify • (1) G-protein can activate IP3 (Inositol triphosphate construction) • Causes Ca++ indemnify from the ER • Calcium can activate protein kinases • (2) Voltage gated calcium meanss open • Extracellular calcium penetrates the cell • Causes Calcium-induced-calcium release • Calmodulin activation Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings 31 Figure 5.10 Mechanism By Which An Activated Receptor Stimulates the Enzymatically Mediated Breakdown of ???? to Yield ??? and DAG 32 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Mechanism By Which An Activated Receptor Stimulates the Enzymatically Mediated Breakdown of ???? to Yield ??? and DAG 33 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 6.11 Calcium as an intracellular courier Extracellular fluid Ca2+ Electrical signal Voltage-gated Ca2+ means opens. Ca2+ indemnifyd from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ Chemical signal Ca2+ binds to proteins. Calmodulin Ca2+ in cytosol increases. Other Ca2+costive proteins Intracellular fluid Alters protein activity Exocytosis Movement 34 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Communication • Integral Proteins as Receptors • Cell membrane receptors • Modulated • Competition for the costive site • Specificity • Up and down regulation 35 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Modulation of Notable Pathways by Ligands • Integral Proteins as Receptors (cell memb recept) • Problems • Multiple ligands activation • Ligand as an Agonist- incline on receptor • Ligand as an Antagonist-block receptor activity Figure 6-14: Agonists and antagonists 36 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Figure 6.13 Receptor agonists and antagonists The primary ligand activates a receptor. An agonist also activates the receptor. Response An antagonist blocks receptor activity. No response 37 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Summary of terms 38 Copyright Copyright©©2004 2004Pearson PearsonEducation, Education,Inc., Inc.,publishing publishingas asBenjamin BenjaminCummings Cummings Physiology Part #3 1. Depict what is Inositol triphosphate (IP3), how it is formed and what is its consequence once it is formed. 2. Clear-up what is a cascade arrangement and its character? 3. Review slide # 10 in the Cell notableing Nursing Dissertation endowment and clear-up what is the significance of the slide? 4. Depict your conception of paraphrase and transduction. 5. Depict in particular how the GPCR (G-protein involved receptors) operation their consequence. Part #5 1. List the events that control to a chemical synapse betwixt a pre and a post-synaptic neuron. 2. List the countenances observed in an Operation Potential. Involve as keep-akeep-apart of the countenances the ions that operation each countenance and the changes to the membrane of a neuron. If there is speciality of the channels associated delay meanss, reach firm to involve it. 3. Clear-up the destruction betwixt terrestrial and spatial summation and how they beget a stronger graded germinative that controls to an operation germinative. 4. Depict the destruction(s) betwixt propagation in a myelinated and an unmyelinated axon. 5. Depict your conception of a graded germinative. Part 6 Review slides 49 and 50 from the sensory physiology Nursing Dissertation and clear-up what the slides depict and how is the character/process elegant. 6. Review slides 30 and 31 from the sensory physiology Nursing Dissertation and depict how the coding for smell is initiated. 7. Depict your conception as to why the vestibular arrangement sends inconstruction to the vestibular nuclei 8. Depict the destruction betwixt tonic and phasic receptors (inactive vs. speedily adapting receptors). Provide an model of each so that I apprehend you imply the concept. 9. Clear-up your conception of the bleaching and renovation processes. Use slides 69-71 ...
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