SOLUTION: ITS 63151 University of New Haven Five Key Lessons and Importance Essay
Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition Information Technology and Organizational Learning Managing Behavioral Change in the Digital Age Third Edition Arthur M. Langer CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Investigate Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2018 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an sculpture of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa duty No vindication to primary U.S. Government exertions Printed on acid-free paper International Standard Bulk Number-13: 978-1-4987-7575-5 (Paperback) International Standard Bulk Number-13: 978-1-138-23858-9 (Hardback) This bulk contains counsel obtained from legitimate and exceedingly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts entertain been made to announce veritable postulates and counsel, but the creator and announceer cannot assume province for the nerve of all embodieds or the consequences of their use. 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Visit the Taylor & Francis Web standing at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web standing at http://www.crcpress.com Contents xi Fo re wo rd Acknowledgments xiii xv Author Introduction C h a p t e r 1 Th e “ R av e l l” C o r p o r at i o n Introduction A New Approach The Blueprint for Integration Enlisting Support Assessing Progress Resistance in the Ranks Line Skillful-treatment to the Rescue IT Begins to Reflect Defining an Identity for Counsel Technology Implementing the Integration: A Agitate internally Trust and Reflection Key Lessons Defining Reflection and Tuition for an Organization Working internally a Clear Goal Commitment to Quality Teaching Staff “Not to Know” Transformation of Culture Alignment delay Administrative Departments Conclusion xvii 1 1 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 12 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 v vi C o n t en t s C h a p t e r 2 Th e IT D i l e m m a Introduction Recent Background IT in the Organizational Context IT and Organizational Structure The Role of IT in Duty Strategy Ways of Evaluating IT Executive Attainments and Skillful-treatment of IT IT: A View from the Top Section 1: Foremost Adherent Perception of the Role of IT Section 2: Skillful-treatment and Strategic Issues Section 3: Measuring IT Performance and Activities General Results Defining the IT Dilemma Recent Developments in Operational Excellence C h a p t e r 3 Te c h n o l o gy a s a Va r ia b l e O r g a n i z at i o n a l D y n a m i s m and 21 21 23 24 24 25 27 28 29 32 34 35 36 36 38 Responsive Introduction Technological Dynamism Responsive Organizational Dynamism Strategic Integration Summary Cultural Assimilation IT Construction Communications delay “ Others” Movement of Traditional IT Staff Summary Technology Duty Cycle Feasibility Measurement Planning Implementation Evolution Drivers and Supporters Santander versus Citibank Information Technology Roles and Responsibilities Replacement or Outsource C h a p t e r 4 O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Th e o r i e s Te c h n o l o gy Introduction Learning Organizations Communities of Practice Learning Preferences and Experiential Learning Social Dismode and the Use of Language Identity Skills 41 41 41 42 43 48 48 49 49 51 52 53 53 54 55 57 58 60 60 61 and 63 63 72 75 83 89 91 92 vii C o n t en t s Emotion Linear Outgrowth in Tuition Approaches 92 96 C h a p t e r 5 M a n a g i n g O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Te c h n o l o gy and The Role of Verse Management Line Managers First-Line Managers Supervisor Management Vectors Knowledge Management Ch ange Management Change Skillful-treatment for IT Organizations Social Networks and Counsel Technology C h a p t e r 6 O r g a n i z at i o n a l Tr a n s f o r m at i o n Bal an ce d S c o recard and the Introduction Methods of Ongoing Evaluation Balanced Scorecards and Discourse Knowledge Creation, Culture, and Strategy C h a p t e r 7 V i r t ua l Te a m s and Outsourcing Introduction Status of Potential Teams Management Considerations Dealing delay Multiple Locations Externalization Internalization Combination Socialization Externalization Dynamism Internalization Dynamism Combination Dynamism Socialization Dynamism Dealing delay Multiple Locations and Outsourcing Revisiting Political Discourse Identity Skills Emotion C h a p t e r 8 S y n e r g i s t i c U n i o n o f IT a n d O r g a n i z at i o n a l L e a r n i n g Introduction Siemens AG Aftermath ICAP 109 109 111 111 111 112 116 120 123 134 139 139 146 156 158 163 163 165 166 166 169 171 171 172 172 173 173 173 177 178 179 180 181 187 187 187 202 203 viii Chapter 9 C o n t en t s Five Years Later HTC IT History at HTC Interactions of the CEO The Process Transformation from the Transition Five Years Later Summary 224 225 226 227 228 229 231 233 Fo rmin g 239 239 239 241 241 242 a C y b e r S e c u r i t y C u lt u r e Introduction History Talking to the Board Establishing a Assurance Culture Understanding What It Resources to be Compromised Cyber Assurance Dynamism and Responsive Organizational Dynamism Cyber Strategic Integration Cyber Cultural Assimilation Summary Organizational Tuition and Application Development Cyber Assurance Risk Risk Responsibility Driver /Supporter Implications C h a p t e r 10 D i g i ta l Tr a n s f o r m at i o n C o n s u m e r B e h av i o r and Changes in Introduction Requirements extraneously Users and extraneously Input Concepts of the S-Curve and Digital Transformation Analysis and Design Organizational Tuition and the S-Curve Communities of Practice The IT Leader in the Digital Transmutation Era How Technology Disrupts Firms and Industries Dynamism and Digital Disruption Critical Components of “ Digital” Organization Assimilating Digital Technology Operationally and Culturally Conclusion C h a p t e r 11 I n t e g r at i n g G e n e r at i o n Y E m p l oy e e s A c c e l e r at e C o m p e t i t i v e A d va n ta g e 242 243 245 246 246 247 248 250 251 251 254 258 260 261 262 264 264 265 267 268 to Introduction The Employment Challenge in the Digital Era Gen Y Population Attributes Advantages of Employing Millennials to Aid Digital Transformation Integration of Gen Y delay Baby Boomers and Gen X 269 269 270 272 272 273 C o n t en t s Designing the Digital Enterprise Assimilating Gen Y Talent from Underserved and Socially Excluded Populations Langer Workforce Maturity Arc Theoretical Constructs of the LWMA The LWMA and Possession Research Implications for New Pathways for Digital Talent Demographic Shifts in Talent Resources Economic Sustainability Integration and Trust Global Implications for Sources of Talent Conclusion C h a p t e r 12 To wa r d B e s t P r a c t i c e s Introduction Chief IT Executive Definitions of Maturity Stages and Configuration Variables in the Foremost IT Adherent Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Chief Adherent Officer CIO Trodden Reporting to the CEO Outsourcing Centralization versus Decentralization of IT CIO Needs Advanced Degrees Need for Standards Risk Management The CEO Best Practices Technology Arc Definitions of Maturity Stages and Configuration Variables in the CEO Technology Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Middle Management The Middle Skillful-treatment Best Practices Technology Arc Definitions of Maturity Stages and Configuration Variables in the Middle Manager Best Practices Arc Maturity Stages Performance Dimensions Summary Ethics and Maturity C h a p t e r 13 C o n c l u s i o n s Introduction G lo s sa ry References Index ix 274 276 277 278 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 287 287 288 297 297 298 299 305 306 306 307 307 307 313 314 314 315 316 323 325 325 326 327 333 339 339 357 363 373 Foreword Digital technologies are transforming the global dispensation. Increasingly, firms and other constructions are assessing their opportunities, amplifying and delivering products and labors, and interacting delay customers and other stakeholders digitally. Established companies acknowledge that digital technologies can succor them end their dutyes delay greater expedite and inferior costs and, in sundry occurrences, volunteer their customers opportunities to co-design and co-product products and labors. Many start-up companies use digital technologies to amplify new products and duty models that demolish-in-pieces the offer way of doing duty, insertion customers detached from rooteds that cannot fluctuate and mold. In novel years, digital technology and new duty models entertain demolish-in-piecesed one perseverance behind another, and these amplifyments are quickly transforming how mob join, gather, and exertion. Against this backdrop, the third edition of Arthur Langer’ s Information Technology and Organizational Tuition is most grateful. For decades, Langer has been studying how rooteds mold to new or changing provisions by increasing their ability to inoppidan and use advanced counsel technologies. Most constructions do not adopt new technology abundantly or early. Organizational inertia and embedded legacy schemes are potent forces exertioning counter the preoption of new technology, smooth when the advantages of improved technology are typeal. Investing in new technology is sumptuous, and it claims xi x ii F o re w o rd aligning technology delay duty strategies and transforming oppidan cultures so that construction allots use the technology to beconclude further efficient. Information Technology and Organizational Tuition addresses these expressive issues— and greatly further. There are foul-mouthed features of the new edition that I would relish to inhale study to that, I think, contrive this a estimable bulk. First, Langer adopts a behavioral perspective rather than a technical perspective. Instead of solely volunteering typeative education about technology preoption, he shows how investigate gathering scheme and principles can be used to inoppidan technology into the construction. His argument ranges counter the dynamic gathering organization, beneathstandledge skillful-treatment, fluctuate skillful-treatment, communities of possession, and potential teams. Second, he shows how an construction can agitate further technology alignment to gentleman technology integration. Disunite of this way involves redefining the traditional aid role of the IT office to a leadership role in which IT helps to press duty temporization through a technology-based gathering construction. Third, the bulk contains occurrence studies that contrive the embodied conclude brisk. The bulk begins delay a inclusive real-life occurrence that sets the amount for the issues to be rooted, and smaller occurrence illustrations are scattered throughout the chapters, to contrive concepts and techniques abundantly beneathstandable. Lastly, Langer has a lucre of habit that he brings to his bulk. He departed further than 25 years as an IT consultant and is the fobeneath of the Center for Technology Management at Columbia University, where he troddens certificate and adherent programs on diverse demeanours of technology reversal and management. He has unconfused a gigantic capacityal netexertion of technology adherents whose companies obey as gathering laboratories for his students and knowledge. When you acknowledge the bulk, the beneathstandledge and insight gained from these habits is early conspicuous. If you are an IT capacityal, Counsel Technology and Organi zational Tuition should be claimd acknowledgeing. However, anyone who is disunite of a rooted or influence that wants to capitalize on the opportunities granted by digital technology succeed advantage from acknowledgeing the bulk. Charles C. Snow Professor Emeritus, Penn State University Co-Editor, Journal of Construction Design Acknowledgments Many colleagues and clients entertain granted suggestive aid during the amplifyment of the third edition of Counsel Technology and Organizational Learning. I owe greatly to my colleagues at Teachers College, namely, Professor Victoria Marsick and Lyle Yorks, who guided me on sundry of the theories on constructional gathering, and Bigot Lee Knefelkamp, for her ongoing mentorship on adult gathering and amplifymental theories. Bigot David Thomas from the Harvard Duty School besides granted estimable control on the multifold issues exclusive dissimilarity, and its concern in exertionforce amplifyment. I esteem the oppidan adherents who agreed to disuniteicipate in the studies that undisputed me to allot gathering theories to actual organizational possessions. Stephen McDermott from ICAP granted inestimable input on how foremost adherent officials (CEOs) can achievementfully gather to handle emerging technologies. Dana Deasy, now global foremost counsel official (CIO) of JP Morgan Chase, contributed enormous counsel on how oppidan CIOs can combine technology into duty temporization. Lynn O’ Connor Vos, CEO of Grey Healthcare, besides showed me how technology can product trodden monetary receipts, distinctly when the CEO is actively disorderd. And, of mode, endow you to my admirable students at Columbia University. They abide to be at the heart of my impulse and love for writing, education, and erudite knowledge. x iii Author Arthur M. Langer, EdD, is bigot of capacityal possession of skillful-treatment and the troddenor of the Center for Technology Management at Columbia University. He is the academic troddenor of the Adherent Masters of Knowledge program in Technology Management, fault chair of alms and adherent advisor to the dean at the School of Functional Studies and is on the alms of the Department of Construction and Leadership at the Graduate School of Education (Teachers College). He has besides obeyd as a allot of the Columbia University Alms Senate. Dr. Langer is the creator of Guide to Software Development: Designing & Managing the Life Cycle. 2nd Edition (2016), Strategic IT: Best Practices for Managers and Executives (2013 delay Lyle Yorks), Counsel Technology and Organizational Tuition (2011), Analysis and Design of Information Systems (2007), Applied Ecommerce (2002), and The Art of Analysis (1997), and has misty announceed tenets and papers, relating to digital transmutation, serfault gathering for beneathserved populations, IT constructional integration, mentoring, and staff amplifyment. Dr. Langer consults delay corporations and universities on counsel technology, cyber assurance, staff amplifyment, skillful-treatment transmutation, and curriculum amplifyment environing the Globe. Dr. Langer is besides the manager and fobeneath of Workforce Opportunity Services (www.wforce.org), a non-profit political venture xv xvi Au t h o r that provides scholarships and careers to beneathserved populations environing the universe. Dr. Langer earned a BA in computer knowledge, an MBA in accounting/finance, and a Doctorate of Education from Columbia University. Introduction Background Information technology (IT) has beconclude a further suggestive disunite of workplace operations, and as a end, counsel schemes personnel are key to the achievement of oppidan enterprises, distinctly delay the novel goods of the digital treatment on whole demeanour of duty and political activity (Bradley & Nolan, 1998; Langer, 1997, 2011; LipmanBlumen, 1996). This digital treatment is defined as a arrange of “ demolish-in-piecesion.” Indeed, the big investigation oppositeness sundry enterprises today is, How can adherents prevent the unlocked-for threats brought on by technological advances that could pillage their duty? This bulk focuses on the life-supporting role that counsel and digital technology constructions demand to illustrate in the mode of constructional amplifyment and gathering, and on the growing demand to combine technology fully into the wayes of exertionplace constructional gathering. Technology personnel entertain covet been criticized for their impecuniosity to capacity as disunite of the duty, and they are repeatedly seen as a assembly beyond the oppidan type (Schein, 1992). This is a example of cultural assimilation, and it represents one of the two elder fronts that constructions now complexion in their efforts to gain a retain on the new, growing effectiveness of technology, and to be competitive in a global universe. The other elder x vii x viii In t r o d u c ti o n front concerns the strategic integration of new digital technologies into duty verse skillful-treatment. Because technology abides to fluctuate at such a quick tread, the ability of constructions to end delayin a new paradigm of dynamic fluctuate emphasizes the demand to inure possession gathering as a way to build competitive gathering constructions in the twenty-first century. Information Technology and Organizational Tuition combines some of the indispensable issues demeanour on IT today delay concepts from organizational gathering scheme, providing inclusive control, based on real-activity duty habits and embodied knowledge. This bulk besides focuses on another demeanour of what IT can medium to an construction. IT represents a broadening configuration of duty activity that affects wholething we do internally an construction. This new existence is shaped by the increasing and unalterable dissemination of technology. To maximize the advantage of its encroaching closeness in wholeday duty affairs, constructions succeed claim an optimal beneathstanding of how to combine technology into wholething they do. To this end, this bulk seeks to demolish new foundation on how to bearing and conceptualize this prominent issue— that is, that the optimization of counsel and digital technologies is best pursued delay a coeval implementation of constructional gathering concepts. Furthermore, these concepts cannot be implemented extraneously utilizing theories of strategic learning. Therefore, this bulk takes the standing that technology literacy claims specific and assembly strategic gathering if it is to transform a duty into a technology-based gathering construction. Technologybased constructions are defined as those that entertain implemented a resources of achievementfully integrating technology into their way of constructional gathering. Such constructions acknowledge and habit the existence of technology as disunite of their wholeday duty capacity. It is what sundry constructions are business “ life digital.” This bulk succeed besides ponder some of the sundry real constructional gathering theories, and the unadorned examples that entertain occurred delay companies that entertain used them, or that entertain failed to use them. Thus, the vestibule of technology into constructions actually provides an convenience to reassess and reallot sundry of the past concepts, theories, and possessions that entertain been used to aid the concern of constructional gathering. It is expressive, however, not to disorder this missive delay a deduce for promoting constructional In t r o d u c ti o n xix lear ...
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