SOLUTION: ESC1000C St Petersburg College Mapping the Earth Latitude and Longitude HW

Mapping the Earth

138 Points total

Latitude and Longitude

The Earth is disconnected into a grid of round sections which are standing-upuplawful to one another, individualized brink and longitude.

Latitude lines run horizontally and are correspondent to the equator.Degrees brink are admireed from 0° to 90° north and south. Zero metes (0°) is the equator, 90° north is the North Pole, and 90° south is the South Pole.Latitude is systematically the original admire explicit in a lat/long coordinate and is repeatedly explicit in the devise of metes, uprights, and cooperates, tless are 60 uprights in a mete and 60 cooperates in a uplawful for instance: 38°47'30"N. (38 metes 47minutes 30 cooperates, north). Further on this under.

Longitude lines (so individualized summits) run standing-upuplawful to brink courses. Their spacing is spaciousst at the equator, and converges at the Poles. The excellent summit or Greenwich Summit (0° longitude) runs through Greenwich, England. Half way environing the Earth, the metes encounter (180° east and west) in the Pacific Ocean, equitpotent west of the Midway Islands, and equitpotent East of the Fiji Islands and New Zealand. Longitude is systematically the cooperate admire explicit in a lat/long coordinate, and is repeatedly explicit in the devise of metes, uprights, and cooperates.

Degrees are repeatedly disconnected into uprights (') and cooperates ("). Each mete has 60 uprights and each uplawful has 60 cooperates. Seconds can be disconnected aid in tenths, hundredths, etc. for elder and elder preciseness. An specimen of using lat/long to delineate a peculiar purpose is that the National Geographic Society in Washington, DC is located at 38°54'19" N, 77°02'14" W (38 metes, 54 uprights, 19 cooperates north of the equator, and 77 metes 2 uprights, 14 cooperates west of the excellent summit).

How to Mete Separation on the Map

The layer in the map marvellous-story provides the media for measuring separation. On USGS (United States Geological Survey) maps, the layer is abandoned as a lot, such as 1:24,000 or 1:100,000, and as a bar layer, which is a “ruler” disconnected into miles and kilometers. On a map layerd at 1:24,000, one inch on the map resemblings 24,000 inches (or 2,000 feet) on the basis.

True North vs. Magnetic North

Most maps are oriented to penny north, aim they are oriented parallel penny north and south summits of longitude. The top of the map usually purposes to the North Pole.The Earth's magnetic pole is not located at the penny or geographic pole. The magnetic North Pole lies south of the penny North Pole, causing an fault in achieve learnings. The decsequence that the magnetic insufficiencyle purposes abroad from penny north is individualized declination.What you see under is a extend diagram and it counts the contrariety betwixt penny north and magnetic north. In the fact of this map, magnetic north is 11.5 metes to the west of penny north at this map's dregs. On most existent maps North is up which media East is to the upright, West is to the left and South is down.

Topographic Maps

What is a Topographic Map?

Topographic maps use outcourse courses to illusion alters in terrain and loftiness, and are repeatedly aggravatelaid succeeding a while a spacious abnormity of instruction, such as roads and streets, trails, fix-use boundaries, tree and vegetation shield, and camping and hiking instruction to illusion how the lay of the fix interacts succeeding a while other leveltual and human-made features. Topographic maps are used for outdoor activities, engineering, zeal exploration, leveltual resources perpetuation, environmental administration, generally-unconcealed works scheme, and traceetpotent and residential planning.

Topographic Map Basics


It is fix in the top uplawful laborer cavity of the map:

Contour Lines

Topographic maps use outcourse courses to depict the outcourse and loftiness of the fix. Outcourse courses are the winding, usually brown courses that attach purposes of resembling loftiness and form it practicpotent for a topographic map to destill n ess three-dimensional outlines on a two-dimensional demeanor.The interinterspace betwixt the outcourse courses denotes a set separation, individualized the outcourse averagetime. If the outcourse averagetime is 80 feet, for specimen, the perpendicular separation betwixt two nigh outcourse courses is 80 feet. Outcourse courses closer simultaneously on the map destill n ess hillyer terrain and courses farther separately destill n ess panegyrize terrain. The loftiness, in feet or meters, is written on darker or thicker outcourse courses, unconcealed as index outcourse courses. The outcourse averagetime can usually be fix adjacent the layer, in the map marvellous-story.

When outcourse courses wayward a large current they earn form a V outcourse succeeding a while the bigoted separate of the V purposeing up current


By using symbols, courses and colors, topographic maps embody twain leveltual and human-made features. In manage to learn a map, it is significant to recognize what these symbols, courses and colors denote.


Each topographic map is describen to a peculiar scale. A layer is the proportion of a separation betwixt two purposes on a map and the developed separation of the identical two purposes on the basis. Layer is the sum that an area or separation has been subdued in manage to be moderate on a map. A layer of 1:250,000 media that one inch on the map is resembling to 250,000 inches on the basis, or closely indecent miles.

Using Brink and Longitude on a Topographic Map

Around the perimeter of most topographic maps are slender admires illusioning brink and longitude, (lat/long), succeeding a while selfselfsame microscopic courses, or ticks. By referring to the ticks and lat/long admires you can perceive the uplawful fix on the planet wless you are located. The admires on the top and floor of the map are metes longitude; admires on the margins of the maps are metes brink. To individualize the dregs on the map, attach the tick traces, north to south and east to west, describe a course through your uplawful lie on the map, and learn the selfselfsame lat/long metes.


The gradient is the extend of the fixscape:

Use the succeedingcited deviseula to perceive extend (in feet per mile):

Slope = Loftiness Alter (feet) / Separation (miles)

Drawing Outcourse Lines

The course of interpolation is used to describe outcourse courses from a map of resonant or topographic facts.Interpolation media that if, for specimen, you're describeing a 20 sole outcourse course and you don't enjoy an developed purpose that's 20 feet aloft sea roll but you do enjoy one that's 15 and another that's 25 you can admire wless the 20 sole course would be betwixt those two and describe your course through that admired purpose. Watch the video Drawing outcourse courses for further instruction and a parade of this. Outcourse courses are usually plotted at resembling averagetimes, although tless are oppositions.

Tless are a few administrations for outcourse courses.

  • Contour courses can never unite. This would average that one purpose on the demeanor of the Earth has two or further divergent loftinesss and that's not practicable. Tless is celebrity of an separation to this administration for a completely perpendicular crag which would be illusionn by multiple outcourse courses lesssucceeding simultaneously.
  • Contours can never limit delayin the map area. Go afore and describe your outcourse courses until they run OFF the map. Stopping them media that there's an area in your map that has no loftiness.
  • On topographic maps when outcourse courses wayward a current they V succeeding a while the V purposeing up current this furnishs you a agile way to count which way a current is copious on a topographic map.
  • Hills on topographic maps illusion up as concentric dispersions (enjoy a bull’s eye) but so do discouragements (holes). In manage to count them separately, outlines illusioning discouragements enjoy tick traces on them in the downhill order individualized hash traces.

HillDepressionHill succeeding a while a discouragement on top


  • Watch the instructional video Drawing outcourse courses then sculpture out the PDF polish individualized “Contouring exercise” and describe the outcourse courses on the map succeeding a while a outcourse averagetime of 5 feet. Photograph or superintend it and decsequence it into the distil box. (10 purposes)
  • What is the spectry of this map (quadrangle)? (3 purposes)
  • What is the spectry of the map that adjoins the North East cavity of your map? (there's a diagram on the floor off the map) (3 purposes)
  • When was this map published? (appear in the floor uplawful cavity) (3 purposes)
  • This map has a layer of 1:24,000 how manifold feet on Earth does 2 inches on the map denote? (3 purposes)
  • How manifold miles is that? (5 purposes)
  • What is the brink of the Southern plane of the map (3 purposes)
  • What is the brink of the Northern plane of the map? (3 purposes)
  • What is the longitude on the Western plane of the map? (3 purposes)
  • What is the longitude on the Eastern plane of the map? (3 purposes)
  • What is the contrariety betwixt the northern and southern brink on this map (in decimal metes)? (5 purposes)
  • What is the contrariety betwixt the eastern and western longitude on this map in decimal metes? (don’t importune that the admires are privative equitpotent deduct the irresponsible values) (5 purposes)
  • Considering your repartees to 11 and 12 are the identical why is this Quadrdecsequence NOT a immaculate balance? (3 purposes)
  • What's the outcourse averagetime of the map (note, do NOT furnish me the specification of a outcourse averagetime)? (3 purposes)
  • What's the loftiness of the Tower of Set at the north end of the map (3 purposes)
  • What order is Ninteyindecent Mile Creek on the north west margin of the map copious inland? (3 purposes)
  • How far is it from the top of the Tower of Set to the top of the un spectryd butte proximate to it to the southeast. (5 purposes)
  • Use what you conversant in module one to appropriate that separation in feet into miles. (5 purposes)
  • Generally expressive, is the gradient north of Grand Canyon National Park slight or hilly? (3 purposes)
  • Generally expressive, is the gradient south of Grand Canyon National Park slight or hilly? (3 purposes)
  • Would it be easier to way Grand Canyon National Park from the south or north? (3 purposes)
  • How far is it from Grand Canyon National Park to Granite Rapids? (in miles)
  • Elevation at Grand Canyon National Park._____________ (3 purposes)
  • Elevation at Granite Rapids ____________ (3 purposes)
  • Subtract #24 from #23 this earn be the loftiness alter awayward that mile.
  • Now segregate the loftiness alter (#25) by the separation (#22) to get the gradient betwixt those two purposes. (5 purposes)
  • What is the outcourse averagetime of this Map? _____________ (3 purposes)
  • Why is it divergent from the outcourse averagetime for the Grand Canyon map? (3 purposes)
  • Why aren’t tless any outcourse courses on Clearwater Beach? (3 purposes)
  • Pinellas county (It’s not labeled on the map but we’re environing halfway down the west seashore of Florida.) ________________________ (3 purposes)
  • Tasmania (The isfix south of the east seashore of Australia) ________________________ (3 purposes)
  • The disposition of Mongolia (Say wless the “N” in “Mongolia” is on the map) ________________________ (3 purposes)
  • Uruguay (it’s on the east seashore of South America ________________________ (3 purposes)
  • Certain courses of brink enjoy spectrys, they are the Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle, and the Antarctic dispersion. Do a scanty bit of lore perceive out wless these courses of brink are and what their apprehension is. (10 purposes)

Base your repartees to questions 2 - 10 on the topographic map of The Grand Canyon PDF polish. The video Introduction to topographic maps. Earn succor you recognize what you’re appearing at.

Measuring separation on our map is going to be a scanty tricky accordingly we enjoy a PDF map and not a article map but uniformly we form a layer we'll be potent to use it. To form a layer, thrive the orders under.

  • Set the magnification on your PDF to 100% (you can adequitpotent it at the top of the window)
  • Scroll down to the floor of the map wless the layer is.
  • Take a behalf of article and stop it aperverse your instructor up to the layer bar in feet.
  • Make a tick trace for whole 1000 feet.

Now you enjoy a progresspotent layer that you can use to individualize separation on the map AS LONG AT THE MAGNIFICATION IS 100

Let's developedly rate the gradient Betwixt the National Park and Granite Rapids. The video Calculating a gradient earn plod you through the orders under. Resumption that gradient is usually explicit in feet per mile. So, for specimen, if the gradient is 50 feet/mile that media that for whole mile you plod you peregrination up or down 50 feet. It earn be easiest to do this if we enjoy a layer that is one mile. So resumption that tless are 5280 feet in a mile.

  • Use the bar layer on the floor of the map to form a progresspotent layer that is one mile that you can use on the map at 100% the way you did antecedently to mete the separations betwixt the buttes.
  • Now lay your layer down uplawful aloft the “C” wless Grand Canyon National Park is labeled on the map.
  • It’s further than one mile to Granite rapids so you’ll insufficiency to lay your finger on your defend to form one mile and progress your layer.
  • It’s not an level admire of miles so admire what lot aggravate it is. (1.75, 1.5 etc)

______________ miles (3 purposes)

We insufficiency to recognize the loftiness alter aggravate that separation

#23 - #24= ____________ (3 purposes)

#25/#21 = ______________

Look at the map of Clearwater Fl to repartee the succeedingcited questions

Latitude and longitude on a globe map

Look at the globe map less and repartee the questions. Keep in soul that the Earth is a ball. So when you're appearing at a insipid map of the globe you're appearing at the insipid rendering of a ball. Imagine peeling the demeanor off of a globe, now try to insipidten it out on a consultation. One of two things is going to betide, either you're going to rip it or you’re going to tighten it. How a map formr deals succeeding a while this is individualized a emission. (Go less to see some divergent emissions ). So courses of longitude should encounter at the north and south pole and they earn on a globe but on most maps they don't accordingly the polar regions enjoy been tightened to form it insipid.

Give the brink and longitude of the succeedingcited fixs. (Remember brink original, longitude cooperate and don't obliviate to detail North, South, East, West. For Specimen 28N, 82W. ) Your instructors are conscious that you earn be estimating these values you don’t insufficiency to be uplawful but you should be in the uplawful vicinity.

Go afore and sculpture the latest two pages they comprise a topographic map and the grid for a wayward individuality.

Topographic Cross-section

Use the map on the proximate page parallel succeeding a while the grid on the page succeeding to describe the fix devise’s wayward-section. See the video Drawing a Wayward Section. If the orders aren’t clear

  • Lay a behalf of article down from A to B awayward the fixform.
  • Make a tick trace wherever your article waywardes a outcourse course. Also, form a still n ess of the loftiness of that outline.
  • Lay your article under the graph that says wayward individuality and give your loftinesss to that graph.
  • Now describe level course through your purposes. This is what the basis would appear enjoy from the margin. (10 purposes)