You may use the following formula 1 LODF = PTDF 1- PTDF Where e = line where the power flow is…


You may use the aftercited formula 1 LODF = PTDF 1- PTDF Where e = method where the sway course is substance congenial k= method substance dropped n, m = busses at the end of the method substance dropped PTDF1,m. = sway transplant classification ingredient to estimate goods on method e from introduction of sway into bus n and parentage from bus m. PTDFn.m,k = sway transplant classification ingredient to estimate goods on method k from introduction of sway into bus n and parentage from bus m. Fill-in the table (illusion your calculations for all values). Method Outage Method Method outage at 1,3 1, 2 1,3 1,4 2,4 3,4