Why is mutual interdependence important under oligopoly,…


Why is reciprocal agreeity expressive lower oligopoly, but not so expressive lower unblemished two-of-a-trade, exclusiveness or monopolistic two-of-a-trade 1.1 Novice Commission It is your commission to be known of the requirements for this manner, and lowerstand the unfair details included in this instrument. 1.2 Attendance and Free-trade It is in your best curiosity-behalf to establish integral endeavor to involve all the disposees for this manner and to exhaustive all preliminary and impost operations. It is our habituationuation that those novices who do not involve dispose or push out the associated activities are gone-by mitigated to do diseased or to miscarry the manner exhaustively. 1.3 Handbook/s For liberal details of programs and school procedures, resigned relate to the University of Ballarat handmagnitude (http://www.ballarat.edu.au/ubhandbook-2011) and the School of Affair Programs Handbooks available at http://www.ballarat.edu.au/business/handbooks
Please voice that any relateence to the Programs Handmagnitude among this instrument indicates the abovementioned handbook, not your divorcener-unfair handmagnitude (i.e. for those con-overing off-campus behind a while other providers). 1.4 Staff The most mismisdivert divorceicular for you to apposition is the divorceicular who teaches you. If requipredicament they procure apposition the Manner Coordinator at the University of Ballarat.
Lecturer Name: Sonu Sarda
Phone: 04 11743659
Fax:
Email: ssarda@iibit.edu.au
Office:
Course Coordinator: Name: Paul McPhee
Phone: (03) 5327 9415
Fax:
Email: p.mcphee@ballarat.edu.au
Office:
Web:
1.5 Consultation Hours
With previous supplies.
1.6 Classes As per the Timetable 1.7 Prescribed Citation Sloman, J. and Norris, K., Principles of Economics, 2007, Second Edition, Pearson Education Australia and the con-aggravate govern to the Sloman and Norris citation (by Dwyer and Alhashimi 1.8 Plagiarism Of indigence, most academic effect is heavily referring-to on the findings or ideas of others (i.e. originators, scholars). Indeed, one of the ocean bestowal of academic impost operations is to succor you to elimination widely and unravel elimination skills. In confer-uponing your effect for impost you must pretence the coadjutor that you bear dishide widely, and the singly way you can do this is to properly mention your founts in the substance of your essay, assignment or despatch.
As a theme of themeive straightforwardness and skilled candor you must say where ideas, counsel, arguments, diagrams or other speculative patterns end from, indivergent of whether you are quoting straightway, paraphrasing, or solely mentioning or using axioms from that fount. To do inadequately aggregates to plagiarism, and is a earnest academic wrong.
Plagiarism goes aid than the miscarryure to vindicate quotations, paraphrases or counsel from published founts - it to-boot includes caricaturing or using other novices effect and downloading symbolical from the internet and death it off as your own.
Any occurrences of plagiarism, imposture or caricaturing, procure be dealt behind a while by the Manner Co-ordinator in bargain behind a while the University’s regulations, and may effect in a naught melody for the side of impost, miscarryure of the healthy manner or deprivation from the program.
Make fast you are known of the University's Regulation 6.1.1 Novice Plagiarism, available at http://www.ballarat.edu.au/legislation/6.1.1-plagiarism
Turnitin - Turnitin is an electronic plagiarism axiomsbase athwart which peculiarity of novice effect can be experimented. It is a web-fixed program that succors twain novice and educationist to expose and redress any careless and distrusted use of another’s effect antecedently the assignment is suggestted for laexperiment impost. Turnitin has the energy to product a despatch verifying the percentage of your effect which is peculiar. This despatch procure then catalogueen any effect you suggest for impost.
You procure be cognizant by your Nursing Dissertationr if you are required to suggest your assignments through Turnitin. 1.9 Copyright Copyright is divergent to Plagiarism. Plagiarism is the use of another divorceicular's effect, and death it off as your own, behind a whileout vindicatement of the originator. Copyright is the neutralization which defines honorable use of another's effect.
As a novice, you procure establish use of other people's delineationright symbolical during your con-over. The Copyright Act has suppliess for novices and eliminationers to delineation and divulge electronic, audiovisual and oppressivedelineation symbolical, although limits do dedicate. It is your commission to bear behind a while the Honorable Dealing Provisions of the Copyright Act which, entirely behind a while an bargain behind a while the Copyright Agency Ltd, provides novices behind a while legitimate use of a prodigious aggregate of delineationright symbolical akin to their elimination and con-over. However, there are limitations, such as singly caricaturing one condition or 10% of a magnitude or one register proviso. Aid counsel on these limitations and other
bearing symbolical is available on the University web predicament at
http://www.ballarat.edu.au/aasp/copyright/. 1.10 UBOnline/Moodle The University’s Letters Management Systems (LMS) for donation of letters instrument, manner counsel and governlines to foundation face-to-face letters is Moodle/UBOnline. There are a reckon of interactive features in the LMS which procure ameliorate despatch behind a while training staff. For in, “Announcements” may enter as a pop-up notice, and operations requiring your exercise procure be involved by highlighted icons.
UBOnline/Moodle procure be used for this manner.
Where manners use UBOnline/Moodle, it procure be your commission to download the bearing Nursing Dissertation and masterial voices to foundation your dispose permitted-trade. You should unravel the habituationuation of vestibuleing the UBOnline/Moodle regularly (at meanest twice a week).
For novices, login to the UBOnline/Moodle is available through https://ubonline.ballarat.edu.au/login/index.php. 1.11 Feature Moment If you respect that you are desirable for divorceicular moment, due to indisposition or other suit, you call-for to exhaustive the Touch for Feature Moment contrive available from http://www.ballarat.edu.au/resources-special-consideration-form, your School or Partaker Provider duty. For aid counsel resigned relate to the Counsel For Students Applying For Feature Moment (Including Deferral of an Examination) Guidelines available from
http://policy.ballarat.edu.au/university/special_consideration/chol/php
Extension of Impost Due Date - In the primary illustration, examine begs for an extension behind a while your Nursing Dissertationr, or you may contriveally beg an extension by completing the Feature Moment contrive.
Supplementary Assessment may singly be supposing as an outend of an touch for Feature Consideration. 1.12 Late Patience of Impost Tasks Late patience of effect may meet a amercement for each week day of up to 10% of the available melodys. Unless behind a while previous provision behind a while the Nursing Dissertationr, brochures suggestted two weeks (ie 14 flourish days) behind the due date procure not be melodyed. 1.13 Bestowal of Academic Effect Unless inadequately fixed by your Nursing Dissertationr, all effect confer-uponed for impost in this manner must bear behind a while the contriveat outlined in the University's General Govern to the Presentation of Academic Work notification, available from the University magnitudeshop at Mt Helen campus or online at: http://www.ballarat.edu.au/generalguide. 1.14 Assignment Hide Sheets Unless your Nursing Dissertationr has unfairally advised inadequately, all assignments must be accompanied by a authorized professional hide equivocation ('Plagiarism Declaration Form'), available from the School of Affair foyer at Mt Helen and at http://www.ballarat.edu.au/business/resources/student-forms/assign-coversheet.doc and stayd as mismisdivert for your dregs. 1.15 Patience and Return of Novice Effect At Mt Helen, the assignment box is located at the eastern end of the School of Business, in the ocean foyer. This can be vestibuleed betwixt 8 am and 6 pm on weekdays singly, and is manifested at 10 am on weekdays. Patience of novice effect procure be advised among the ‘Learning Tasks and Assessment’ minority belowneathneath. Return of novice effect procure be advised by your Nursing Dissertationr. 1.16 Ethics If you suggest to redesign or accomplish counsel from other novices, staff or divorceiculars delayout the University as divorce of elimination for masterial exercises or assessable operations, you must curb behind a while your Manner Co-ordinator, Nursing Dissertationr or master antecedently lowertaking your elimination to designate if laudation is required.
Where the elimination design could attention the curiosity-behalfs of promoteationees, ethics laudation must be accomplished from the University’s Human Elimination Ethics Committee. Your Nursing Dissertationr or master procure relieve you in arranging this. Some masterial exercises and assessable operations bear been supposing a arrest laudation, supposing established procedures are lowertaken. Where bearing, you procure be advised of these procedures by your Manner Co-ordinator, Nursing Dissertationr or master. Aid details are located at www.ballarat.edu.au/ard/ubresearch/hdrs/ethics/humanethics/index.shtml 1.17 Appeals You may acabsorb environing negotiative issues, laexperiment grades or other academic decisions. Behind a while respect to grades or academic decisions, examine your concerns behind a while your Nursing Dissertationr in the primary illustration and then your Academic Co-ordinator to vestibule the required contrive to stay your accost. For liberal details environing the accosts arrangeify resigned relate to University Regulation 5.3 – Impost http://www.ballarat.edu.au/legislation-5.3-Assessment. 1.18 Academic Speed Committee The Academic Speed Committee is a sub-committee of the Programs Committee, and is legitimate for dedicateing the University's Monitoring Manner Progression Procedure (http://policy.ballarat.edu.au/esos/standard_10/ch02.php) and bearing behind a while the Department of Immigration and Citizenship Interpolitical Novice Reporting Requirements. Students who do not percontrive to a enlivening plane among their program or manner may be asked for an exposition by the Committee, which has the energy to dissuade and except novices who demonstrate unenlivening speed. 1.19 Forthcoming Intervention for novices judged as entity at cause of not contravention Academic Speed requirements In acquiescence behind a while the University’s Intervention Strategy - Monitoring Manner Progression Guidelines (http://policy.ballarat.edu.au/esos/standard_10/ch02.php), the School must fulfill novices who miscarry an impost operation during a semester. Students who may be at cause of however miscarrying that manner procure be offered relieveance as forthcoming in the semester as practicable, to enfast such “at cause“ novices are fond integral turn to by.
Students who are authorized as entity “at cause” of not contravention academic speed requirements procure be contriveally asked to involve an promoteation to assess the reasons for their unenlivening effectance wherein if mismisdivert they procure be offered a program of relieveance (such as con-aggravate skills sessions, mentoring, English conversation disposees, divorceicularal counselling, etc). A availings procure be kept of any such relieveance program offered and the novice’s uptake of the program. 1.20 Grading The University observes the subjoined grading scheme
HD High Distinction 80 - 100%
D Distinction 70 - 79%
C Credit 60 - 69%
P By 50 - 59%
MF Ultimate Miscarry 40 - 49%
F Miscarry 0 - 39%
XF Non-assessed Fail
AD Impost Deferred – up to 3 months
TD Impost Deferred – up to 12 months 1.21 Use of Dictionaries The University’s Students from a Non-English Weighty Contrast - Feature Provisions for Invigilated Assessments Guidelines (http://www.ballarat.edu.au/policy/special-provisions-non-english-speaking) establish suppliess for novices who are from a non-English weighty contrast to use an taked unremarkable oppressive delineation bilingual lexicon in an Nursing essay. Previous endurance has been supposing by the Head of School for novices at divorcener providers for this supplies, begs at Mt Helen campus are dealt behind a while on an identical basis.
2 OBJECTIVES:
The extrinsic of this manner is to make-known novices to the primary principles of microeconomics (i.e. the con-aggravate of identical melodyets, rooteds and consumers) and succor them unravel an lowerstanding of their touchs. The manner is deauthorized to relieve novices to unravel skills in microeconomic elimination, analytical fitness and bestowal. Students completing this manner should bear unraveled the subjoined instruction, skills and values:
Knowledge
  • To fulfill and lowerstand the principles teaching consumer and rooted behaviour
  • To lowerstand the role of these principles in society
  • To lowerstand the appraisement instrument by using call-for and afford incurvations
  • To analyse divergent melodyet constitutions in the economy
  • To fulfill the melodyet and non-communicate forces in the economy
  • To fulfill melodyet miscarryure and value the council’s role in unraveling cunning to chasten for it
  • To analyse and value the govern of an economic manner and it’s ideology in cunning unravelment

Skills
  • To fulfill and analyse economic problems in a affair environment
  • To fulfill and analyse affair decisions among a unfair economic environment
  • To critically evaluate micro-economic cunning in the Australian and interpolitical context
  • To extract, extract and analyse micro-economic axioms

Values
  • To hold in an economic way respecting consumer, rooted and council excellents and decisions
  • To unravel a sustained curiosity-behalf in microeconomics and accomplish satisfexercise from its con-aggravate and practice
  • To avail to con-aggravate other economic manners which bear affair microeconomics as a pre-requisite
3 CONTENT:
Topics and sub-topics may include:
  1. The Conceptual Frameeffect which focuses on:
  • Microeconomics as an area of instruction;
  • The manner used to lowerstand affair decisions and economic cunning;
  • Why economists frequently misfit environing divorceicular economic cunning issues;
  1. The touch of Microeconomics to the way economic excellents are made in melodyets;
  • The coil of these excellents for refount aldregs and inend arrangement.

lll. The role of council cunning in aggravatecoming founts of obstinacy or melodyet miscarryure:
  • Some occurrence studies in microeconomic cunning jurisdiction be considered.

Further details are supposing in the schedule
4 LEARNING TASKS AND ASSESSMENT:
4.1 Summary
It is emphasised that this manner requires a indicative commitment delayout of contriveal dispose apposition. The letters operations for this manner includes Nursing Dissertations and masterials. Tutorial questions and descriptions procure be exclusive by your Nursing Dissertationr and you are expected to endeavor the questions antecedently involveing your masterial, involve and divorceicipate in the masterials.
In conjunction, novices are required to exhaustive a mid-term experiment, assignment and laexperiment Nursing essay.
Summary of suggested occasion allocations for this manner:
Classes 3 hours per theme for 12 themes 36 hours
Reading 2 hours per theme for 12 themes 24 hours
Preparation of masterial / effectshop questions 4 hours per theme for 12 themes 48 hours
Preparation of assignment 20 hours
Study and variation for experiment and end of semester Nursing essay 22 hours
TOTAL 150 hours
Learning operation Assessment Weighting Due
A Barred magnitude Mid-semester experiment Mid-Semester experiment
20 %
Wk-5
18/04/11
Assignment Written assignment
20 %
Wk-9
18/05/11
A barred magnitude Nursing essay Final Examination
60 %

TBA

In arrangeify to by this manner, novices must amass a reserve of 50% of the sum melodys available.
You are strongly advised to endeavor ALL impost operations. Students who do not suggest a operation(s) or miscarry a operation(s) in the semester procure be authorized as a ‘novice at cause’ of unenlivening academic speed (outlined in minoritys 1.18 and 1.19 of the Manner Description) and procure be directed to the School’s Intervention Program. Students who engagement difficulties or who are inadequately unquiet respecting their speed should promote their Nursing Dissertationr.
In arrangeify to by this manner, novices must amass a reserve of 50% of the sum melodys available.
You are strongly advised to endeavor ALL impost operations. Students who do not suggest a operation(s) or miscarry a operation(s) in the semester procure be authorized as a ‘novice at cause’ of unenlivening academic speed (outlined in 1.19 in the Manner Description) and procure be directed to the School’s Intervention Program. Students who engagement difficulties or who are inadequately unquiet respecting their speed should promote their Nursing Dissertationr.
Assessment criteria set out the details by which your effectance in each operation procure be judged. This counsel procure grant you a manifest and self-evident lowerstanding of the standards you are expected to terminate referring-to to the melodys awarded.
4.2 Voice on Impost (School Policy)
All assignment effect must be patternd and relateenced in bargain behind a while minoritys 1.8 and 1.9 pleasantly so that plagiarism and nonachievement of delineationright is avoided.
4.3 Impost Criteria or details
Assessment criteria set out the details by which your effectance in each operation procure be judged. This counsel procure grant you a manifest and self-evident lowerstanding of the standards you are expected to terminate referring-to to the melodys awarded.
Mid-Semester Test:
  • Will be held in dispose and procure be of one (1) hour duration;
  • Comprises condensed retort pattern questions which hide the primary 3 conditions;
  • There are no multiple excellent questions;
  • It experiments ability in dedicateing microeconomic analytical tools;
  • It procure active novices if their effectance is lagging;
  • You procure be pretencen a catalogue of questions on which some of the questions procure be fixed.

Assignment:
  • It secures that the preparener is fitted in lowerstanding the integral day unarm-an and moment of microeconomic behaviour;
  • It comprises of the subjoined applied and analytical questions on microeconomic principles;
  • Your retorts should teach your reasoning clforthcoming and liberaly and use diagrams where misappropriate;
  • It must be an identical side of effect (i.e. your own falsehood);
  • It must be patternd;
  • You should exhaustive the questions speedively during the semester;
  • All diagrams and definitions and descriptions must be relateenced.
5 SCHEDULE:
As semesters and apposition hours variegate betwixt UB dregss, donation is usually scheduled counter three hours a week for 12 weeks. If your dregs runs this manner aggravate less than 12 weeks, your Nursing Dissertationr procure command the timing of the donation of the symbolicals.
Please voice that the posteriority and resigned of Nursing Dissertations and masterials may call-for to be alterable and the subjoined counsel should be used as a govern.
As semesters and apposition hours variegate betwixt UB dregss, donation is usually scheduled counter three hours a week for 12 weeks. If your dregs runs this manner aggravate less than 12 weeks, your Nursing Dissertationr procure command the timing of the donation of the symbolicals.
Please voice that the posteriority and resigned of Nursing Dissertations and masterials may call-for to be alterable and the subjoined counsel should be used as a govern.
Also, resigned voice that all Nursing Dissertation slides and masterial questions procure be placed in bearing ‘moodle’ folders for your vestibule. You procure to-boot take a oppressive delineation of the masterial questions. Also, all masterial descriptions procure be placed in the bearing ‘moodle’ folder the week subjoined the dispose hideage of the effect.
Week/
Date
Reading
(Sloman & Norris)
Topics Covered Workshop / Tutorial Questions
Wk-1
21/03/11
Chapter 1 1. The economic problem;
2. Macro v Micro economics;
3. Modelling economic relationships.
Wk-2
28/03/11
Chapter 2 1. Economic manners;
2. Call-for and afford;
3. Appraisement voluptuousness;
4. The permitted melodyet.
Chapter 1
Wk-3
4/4/11
Chapter 3 1. Appraisement elasticity of call-for;
2. Sum Consumer expenditure;
3. Appraisement elasticity of afford;
4. Other elasticities.
Chapter 2
Wk-4
11/04/11
Chapter 3 1. Communicate commandments aggravate occasion
2. Markets where appraisements are controlled
Chapter 3
Wk-5
18/04/11
Mid-Semester Exam
Wk-5
18/04/11
Chapter 4 1. Short-run absorbs
2. Long-run absorbs
Chapter 3
Wk-6
25/04/11
Chapter 5 1. Avail maximisation
2. Revenue, absorbs and avails
Chapter 4
Wk-7
2/05/11
Chapter 6 1. The extent of two-of-a-trade
2. Unblemished two-of-a-trade
3. Exclusiveness and barriers to melodyet entry
4. Exclusiveness v unblemished two-of-a-trade
Chapter 5
Wk-8
9/05/11
Chapter 7 1. Monopolistic two-of-a-trade
2. Oligopoly
3. Appraisement discrimination
Chapter 6
Wk-9
16/05/11
Chapter 8 1. Social efficiency
2. Communicate miscarryures
Chapter 7
Wk-10
23/05/11
Chapter 8 1. Council intervention
2. The environment and melodyet miscarryure
Chapter 8
Wk-11
30/05/11
Chapter 9 1. Labour melodyet trends
2. Wage voluptuousness in a unblemished melodyet
3. Wage voluptuousness in an imunblemished melodyet
4. Causes of inequality
5. Inend redistribution
Chapter 8
Wk-12
6/06/11
Pre-Exam Revision Chapter 9

6 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES:
Additional conducive relateences - how to Con-aggravate BUECO 1507
The subjoined is a govern relieveing novices in con-overing this manner.
  1. Have frank citationmagnitude (and if practicable con-aggravate govern) vestibule as the healthy manner and the exam questions are built encircling it.
  2. Attend all Nursing Dissertations and dishide all recommended symbolicals as this procure grant you a extensive lowerstanding of the theme and where it fits into the theme.
  3. Prepare retorts to all masterial / effectshop questions as you may be asked to confer-upon and teach a description in dispose.
  4. Understand the arguments for and athwart a cunning discretion so that you can confer-upon your own reasoned occurrence whilst to-boot lowerstanding resource points of design.
  5. Tutors are not expected to hide all questions in masterials, so vestibule the descriptions from the bearing blackboard folder in the subjoined week.
  6. Lectures, masterials and discoverings are not substitutes but complementary.
  7. Tutorials procure be a forum for serviceable touch of the theories you are taught in Nursing Dissertations.
  8. Tutorials procure prepare in the second week of the semester and thrive weekly and your Nursing Dissertationr procure give-up the questions and descriptions.
  9. Some interactive examineion and permitted-trade procure be expected in masterials.
  10. Tutorial exercises procure be placed on blackboard as well-behaved-behaved as handed to you in a oppressive delineation magnitudelet;
  11. For some assignment and exam provision extra discovering may be required and you procure be advised what to dishide in advance;
  12. Revision exercises in the contrive of gone-by mid-term experiments and exam brochure descriptions procure be made available for novices to effect through.

Adopted Respect Style
APA
The embody to the library webpredicament for gone-by counsel is: http://www.ballarat.edu.au/library/assignment-and-research-help/referencing
APPENDIX ONE - ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS
Please endeavor all 7 (seven) questions
Question 1:
  1. Suppose the inend elasticity of call-for for wares is +3 and the inend elasticity for doctors’ services is +0.3. Compare the collision on wares and doctors services of a recession that depressed consumer allowances by 10 per cent. (2 melodys)
  1. How jurisdiction you designate whether compound discs and restaurant meals are in two-of-a-trade behind a while each other? (2 melodys)
  1. Interpret the subjoined Inend Elasticities of Call-for (YED) values for the subjoined and avow if the good-tempered-tempered is regular or inferior; (3 melodys sum, 1.5 melodys per divorce)

YED= +0.5
YED= -2.5
(d) Interpret the subjoined Cross-Price Elasticities of Call-for (XED) and avow if the good-tempereds are substitutes or respects. (3 melodys sum, 1.5 melodys per divorce)
XED= + 0.6
XED= -2.2
Question 2:
Explain and decipher behind a while diagrams the discords betwixt diminishing ultimate avail and decreasing economies of lamina and mention suits and ins.
(10 melodys – 2.5 melodys diagrams, 2.5 melodys for exposition, 5 melodys for suits / ins)
Question 3:
  1. Explain and Decipher using diagrams the discord betwixt appraisement and non-appraisement governs in attentioned the behaviour of a call-for incurvation (3 melodys);
  1. Explain and Decipher using diagrams the discord betwixt appraisement and non-appraisement governs in attentioned the behaviour of a afford incurvation (3 melodys);
  1. Explain and decipher behind a while diagrams how and why a ultimate absorb incurvation maps out a afford incurvation (4 melodys).

Question 4:
  1. Illustrate using diagrams and teach how the oligopolistic rooteds designates their extractive avail maximising appraisement and output planes when they collude and act affect a cartel (monopoly) (4 melodys);
  1. Illustrate and teach behind a while diagrams how a imposture oligopocatalogue would chose its avail maximising output plane if endeavoring to growth its melodyet portion-out at the agreed peculiar appraisement (3 melodys);
  1. Illustrate and teach behind a while diagrams how a imposture oligopocatalogue would chose its avail maximising appraisement and output planes if it endeavored to lowercut the appraisement abounding by the other oligopolistic rooteds (3 melodys).

Question 5:
What procure fall to the makeweight appraisement and amount of butter in each of the subjoined occurrences? You should avow whether call-for or afford (or twain) bear shifted and in which order. (In each occurrence, presume ceteris paribus).
  1. A ascend in the appraisement of magarine; (1 melody)
  2. A ascend in the call-for for yoghurt; (1 melody)
  3. A ascend in the appraisement of bread; (1 melody)
  4. A ascend in the call-for for bread; (1 melody)
  5. An expected ascend in the appraisement of butter in the adjacent future; (1 melody)
  6. A tax on butter production; (2.5 melodys)
  7. The fable of new, but costly, arrangeify for removing all cholesterol from butter, plus the death of a law which avows that all butter productrs must use this arrangeify. (2.5 melodys)

Question 6:
  1. Discuss the subjoined avowment: ‘In the legitimate globe there is no perseverance which agrees indisputably to the economist’s pattern of unblemished two-of-a-trade. This instrument that the pattern is of petty serviceable value’. (2.5 melodys)
  1. Illustrate behind a while a diagram and teach the condensed-run unblemishedively competitive makeweight for twain (i) the identical rooted and (ii) the perseverance; (2.5 melodys each)
  1. Illustrate behind a while a diagram and teach the long-run unblemishedly competitive makeweight for the rooted 2.5 melodys).

Question 7:
  1. Why is reciprocal agreeity expressive lower oligopoly,but not so expressive lower unblemished two-of-a-trade, exclusiveness or monopolistic two-of-a-trade? (5 melodys)

(b) Are there any avantages in having a melodyet constitution that does not concontrive to unblemished competion? If so then catalogue five of these and examine them (5 melodys)

Attachments: