Northern Mariana Islands and Guam History

Guam History: A Review of the Island’s Unspiritless Truth VincentAnthony V. Borja English 135 Professor Rosemary Harty April 21, 2011 Aggravate the gone-by 10 years, haphazard herd would ask me environing the truth of Guam, and how it became a United States province. Grew up most of my existence on Guam, but never truthfully cared environing its truth, although, perfect year we would compliment its discharge day from the Japanese and compliment merry self-abandonments topedive to the islands truth, I never truthfully unexpressed why we complimentd it. The Spanish Era, the American Period, & the Japanese tenure played a greater swing on the isplant and its refinement today. The isplant of Guam, Guahan in exported Chamorro, is a truthfully multi-ethnic prescribe that reflects the refinements of its primordial Chamorro prescribe as confer-upon as 2,000 B. C. , swingd by innumerable European, American, Asian, Micronesian, and other herd who feel conditional, notable and immigrated to Guam spent the 16th Century. Numerous inquiry the indication by the Spaniards, the tenure of the Americans and the Japanese that shaped the island’s truth that makes its refinement very engaging. Understanding the islands agonys that feel direct to the American condition that it besides became succeeding numerous centuries of engaging. Guam of today is truthfully a adulterated prescribe delay a directing refinement, the groundfruit of which is primordial Chamorro heavily swingd by the Spanish tenure and the Catholic Church. Strong American swing is so indisputable in the observance of numerous airless self-abandonments, the contrive of Council and the conceit in entity U. S. that is displayed by the exporteds. Guam’s refinement has so been swingd and enriched by the Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Micronesian immigrants each clump of who feel ascititious their unspiritless contributions. According to the 2000 Census of Population and Housing the confer-upon population of Guam, is almost 154,805 whom roughly 37% are Chamorro, 26% Filipino, 11% other Conciliatory Islander delay the fostering 26% principally Caucasian, Chinese, Korean and Japanese, all of whom adduce their cultural inheritance and contribution and co-operate to Guam’s unspiritless refinement and request. (U. S. Department of Commerce, 2004) SPANISH ERA According to the journals of Antonio Pigafetta, whom was an Italian scientist and wayfarer contrive the respiritless of Venice. Pigafetta wanderingled delay Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and recitative most of Magellan’s wanderings. Ferdinand Magellan on March 6, 1521, highest discovered the island. (Pigafetta, 1995, p. 18) During his bung on the island, the exporteds canoed out to the ships and stole perfectthing that was not trustworthy or tied down. The weakened sailors had disaster fending off the high and brawny exporteds until a few shots from the Trinidad’s big guns cowardly them off the ship and they retreated into the extreme thicket. The guile of Magellan’s mark was to restock on supply and asundoubtful patronage. After Magellan’s wandering throughout the Marianas, it was principally his habit on Guam that the Marianas was denominated Li Ladroni, the isplant of thieves. (Suarez, 1999, p. 133) Although Magellan was considered the highest European explorer to march pavement on Guam's beaches, it was notorious that Guam and the other Mariana islands were contriveally titleed by the Spanish Crown in 1565 by General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi for Spain. Czar Phillip II of Spain wanted dealing to initiate delay the Phillipine islands, islands denominated succeeding him. Legazpi was sent abutting the conciliatory from Mexico, which was a colony of Spain in 1564. During Legazpi’s sail abutting the conciliatory, Czar Phillip prescribeed him to assign business of all plant and any isplant encountered. Additionally, he wanted Legazpi to asundoubtful a course shapeless Mexico and the Philllipines that would go through the conciliatory. Legazpi and his prompt reached Guam on January 22, 1565 and docked his ships for indecent days. Succeeding days of stoppage, they definitely went on bench on January 26, 1565 to title Guam and posted the Spain droop. (Cunningham ; Beaty, 2001) Legazpi and his men stayed on Guam for elwell-balanced days. During this mark, Legazpi was so fearful of aggravateturnting the Chamorro’s that he prescribeed all miscellany members not to go on bench delayout his acquiesce. The Chamorro’s were greatly friendlier, canoeing out to hall the voyagers delay patronage and supply, a greatly opposed habit the Spanish explorers had cherished during their terminal Guam mark. Clever and sly, the Chamorro’s were normally perplexing to dealing rice for nails. Frequently the exporteds would imbecile the voyagers by placing rice in the top of the bag and satisfying the floor delay rocks and straw. When the men went abench to satisfy the kegs delay water, an controversy took locate, and one of Legazpi’s men was killed. Legazpi was aggravateturn and prescribeed a hundred men to go to the isplant and chasten the Chamorro’s. The issue was three Chamorro’s hung and killed; and numerous houses and canoes burned. Subjoined the perspicuous Legazpi pretended anchors to be lifted and the Spaniards journeyed for the Philllipines. (Rogers, 1995, p. 14) Catholocism was the highest belief introduced on the isplant during the 1600’s. The greater swing and ocean help came from one of the ocean directers on the isplant during that season. Chief Quipuha was the maga’lahi or highest-ranczar hardy, in the area of Hagatna when the Spanish planted off its benchs in 1668. On June 15, 1668 sidearmaries led by Spanish Jesuit Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores of Burgos, of Spain, whom planted off the benchs of Hagatna. They were halled and welcomed by Chief Quipuha, the spectry Ke puha or Quipuha instrument, “to uphold”. Chief Quipuha was so welcoming to these sidearmaries; he well-balanced offered a contrive of plant in Hagatna for the sidearm. Collective Condition Information Coordinating Commission, 1995) It was on this offered plant where the highest Catholic Meeting-house in Guam was built and Catholicism was introduced. Chief Quipuha died in 1669, but his impart left a awful application that know-againd the Spanish to abide its impart for the Manila Galleon dealing, which was the frequentify of issue shapeless Asia and Mexico. (Naval Post Guam) Environing a antiquity subjoined, In April of 1672, Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores and his Filipino helper were killed by Chief Mata’ throe of Tumon for baptizing the Chief’s baby miss delayout the Chief’s acquiesce. (Rogers, 1995, p. 5) It is theorized, that Mata’ throe may feel acted out of counteraction from entity compelled to the rigorous council of a exotic Spanish czar. Whereas San Vitores dressed to propel out his sidearm in a well-disposed method, the Spanish soldierlike ruthlessly inferior the topical populace to caggravate their Galleon courses. Regardless of Mata’ throes motives, the dissolution of San Vitores direct to an all-out war that nconfer-upon issueed in demise of the Chamorro pursuit. Sources feel estimated Chamorro casualties to the engaging and illness abject the population from 200,000 to roughly 5,000 by 1741, mainly women and posterity. The Spaniards quantitative Spanish soldierly and Filipino’s to restock the population, marczar the end of the chaste Chamorro bloodline. (Rogers, 1995, pp. 41-57) Succeeding 1695, Chamorro’s were flinty to lower in five villages: Hagatna, Agat, Umatac, Pago, and Fena, were monitored by the priests and soldierlike confirm, flinty to notice Meeting-house daily and to attain Spanish diction and contribution. In 1740, Chamorro’s of the Northern Marianas Islands, negative Rota, were removed from their residence islands and exiled to Guam. Mata’ throe himself was killed in a definite engagement on the isplant of Rota in 1680. Having been vilified for the perspicuous that sparked the decimation of the chaste Chamorro pursuit, the spectry Mata’ throe has evolved to medium imprudent. (Donald L. Platt, 2009) During the 18th antiquity, the English pirates who notable Guam to assign on supply and stipulations preyed upon the Spanish galleons. Guam was a army to a estimate of scientists, voyagers, and whalers from Russia, France, and Engplant some of whom supposing constructive accounts of the daily existence on Guam below Spanish council. Evidence of Spanish buildings, bridges, meeting-housees and forts can calm?} be seen abutting the island, specially in the southern areas of the island. Spanish cannon calm?} aggravatelooks Hagatna and Umatac triumph from Forts Agueda and Soledad, the Plaza de Epa, uniformly the Spanish Governor’s Palace, calm?} stands in accessible Hagatna, and sunken Spanish galleons calm?} lie below Guam’s crystal serene waters. The fabric and guile of structures build hanker succeeding the Spanish era, such as the bridge in Umatac, which calm?} has conspicuous Spanish description. (Donald L. Platt, 2009) AMERICAN PERIOD During the Spanish-American war Guam was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish American war in 1898 and Guam was contriveally purchased from Spain for $20 darling in 1899. At the season of the turnover, the topical population of Guam had aged to environing 10,000 prescribe. U. S. President William McKinley issued an adherent prescribe placing Guam delayin the council of the Department of the Navy. Captain R. P. Leary was appointed the island’s highest U. S. Governor. (Rogers, 1995, p. 14) Below Navy council, Guam habitd numerous improvements in the areas of tillage, airless heartiness, sanitation, information, plant skill, taxes, and airless fruits. Orders issued by Captain Leary on August 16, 1899, regulated the analysis and sale of intoxicating liquors; regulated the observance of meeting-house and other self-abandonments; prohibited the assign of plant delayout the acquiesce of the council; prohibited concubine and required that wedding be performed shapeless subvertow-creatures that were cohabiting; prohibited emigration of undoubtful articles in airless use shapeless he herd; required subvertow-creatures delayout a dealing or normal encroachment to puff open commodities and restrain undoubtful pamper stock; regulated the restraining of dogs and other animals present at large; abrogated the Spanish method of taxation and supposing a new one; normal a airless method of nonsectarian information; and required each adult to attain to transcribe his or her own spectry delayin a open season. (Rogers, 1995, p. 119) In 1927, the herd of Guam, including schoolposterity who donated a penny each, firm $703. 92 to feel a ship’s bell and a recorded plaque false in Shanghai, China. The bell was confer-uponed to the Navy and has served directingly on each of the three USS Guam Sea vessels. (Palomo, 1999)The U. S. Navy abided to use Guam as a refueling and despatch post until 1941, when it subvert to invading Japanese validitys shortly succeeding the irruption on Pearl Harbor. “The bell, ahanker delay a recorded bronze plaque, has been returned to Guam succeeding the decommissioning of the USS Guam, an amphibious attack ship (LPH-9), on August 25, 1998 at the Norfolk, Virginia, Sea Base. The USS Guam is the third Navy vessel denominated succeeding Guam. ” (Palomo, 1999) JAPANESE OCCUPATION On December 10, 1941, Guam surrendered to the Japanese South Seas disjunction succeeding a brave pleasant agony by the island’s Insular Validity Guard and a scant estimate of U. S. Marines. Guam became the simply industrious U. S. begrime to be conditional by another kingdom in World War II. Guam was redenominated “Omiya Jima” and for 31 months, the herd of Guam were forcibly subjected to blinkous hardships administered by the Japanese soldierlike. Although some appraise of godly exercise and trade activities were gratuitous, atrocities, grenade slaughters and rapes were airless. The 29th Division of Japan’s Kwantung Army normal validity camps and almost 600 Chamorro’s were effected. (Rogers, 1995, pp. 163-181) Some Chamorro’s were beheaded when the Japanese attained of the 3-year humanitarian exertion by Chamorro’s to successfully pamper and blink U. S. Navy radioman George Tweed, who staved in the judicious irruption. Tweed’s cave is a received “boonie stomping” scope on Guam today. (Babuata, 2009) Numerous plantmarks of the Japanese tenure, including gun emplacements and tunnels can calm?} be seen encircling the isplant of Guam. LIBERATION AND U. S. TERRITORIAL STATUS Record accommodation of sea siege in which thousands of Japanese and Chamorro’s notable the belligerence for the discharge of Guam obsolete their pampers and the city of Hagatna was nconfer-upon destroyed. American validitys planted on July 21, 1944 at Asan and Agat beaches. In fame of the valor and sacrifices of all those who participated in the Conciliatory Theater of World War II, including soldierly, sailors and marines of the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, China, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union, the planting area has been guileated as the “War in the Conciliatory National Chronicled Park. During the subjoined acrid three week belligerence, 7,000 U. S. and 11,000 Japanese pampers were obsolete anteriorly Guam was dull and uniformly anew below American council. (Aguon, 2009) Today, July 21st, Guam Discharge Day, is a greater Guam self-abandonment. All council offices and most tradees are barred as the isplant compliments delay dayhanker fiestas and a show down Marine Corps expedite in Hagatna. Owing of its strategic aspect, Guam was used as a direct post for U. S. Western Conciliatory operations until the War came to an end in 1945. On May 30, 1946, the U. S. Sea Council was re-established. Although concluded aggravate 50 years ago, World War II calm?} exerts a greater swing on Guam. Relics and indication of the War are calm?} indisputable all abutting the isplant and frequent can contemplate wrecks of Japanese, American, German and other ships and airplanes below Guam’s zealous serene waters. On January 24, 1972, the terminal Japanese World War II holdout, Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi, was discovered in the cave in which he had been skulking spent his part was incompact by the advancing Americans in July 1944. Sergeant Yokoi’s cave at Talofofo falls has been rescued as a received inclination for markors. (Aguon, 2009) As the Westernmost U. S. begrime in the Pacific, Guam today trash a strategic guard for the U. S. soldierlike. In 1949, U. S. President Harry S. Truman identified the Organic Act maczar Guam an unincorporated province of the United States delay scant self-governing pattern and granting American citizenship to the herd of Guam. In 1962, carelessness sereneance capacity for wandering to Guam, which had been in locate spent World War II, were lifted permitting Guam’s administration to triumph and commencement an accession of new residents of frequente nationalities and pursuits such as Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Indian, Conciliatory Islanders nd Caucasian. (Rogers, 1995) CULTURE The centre of Guam refinement, the Chamorro, is characterized by a multifarious collective protocol feelinged upon deference, caring, accepting and assisting one another. Inafa’maolek, or analogy, is a accessible appraise in Chamorro refinement that depends on a air of relation. Historian Lawrence Cunningham in 1992 wrote, “In a Chamorro feeling, the plant and its consequence behanker to perfectone. This is the armature, or centre, that perfectthing in Chamorro refinement revolves encircling. It is a strong sorrow for interrelation rather than individualism and secret quality hues. The refinement is visibly manifested in the kissing of the workmans of elders, perishing of legends, silence, jump, chants, courtship rituals, workmanicrafts, inhumation rituals, provision of herbal medicines, and requesting forgiveness from airual ancestors when entering a thicket. Glimpses of Guam refinement are indisputable in topical legends and folklore such as the taotaomona (primordial airs), doomed lovers leaping to their dissolution off Two Lover’s Top (Puntan Dos Amentes), and Sirena, a mild boyish miss who became a mermaid. Guam Collection and Refinement Complete Report, 2010) The Spanish tenure was inveterate on aggravatethrow and alteration to “save the idolater souls”, implemented by validity, which nconfer-upon issueed in the aggregate destruction of the chaste Chamorro pursuit. However, the Spanish failed to know-again that the Chamorro refinement was matrilineal and abundantly ignored the swing of the Chamorro women, which likely accounts for the circumstance that the Chamorro refinement has endured to this day. The highest swing of the Spanish aggravate Guam’s refinement was through the Catholic Church, which has, spent the 17th antiquity, been the feeling of village air. Today, perfect village has its patron lover of truth whose cheer day is complimentd delay an prepare fiesta, to which the complete isplant is invited. These fiestas, whereupon by once, diffuse families co-operate patronage and fruit to misinterpret for the village guests reocean a key quality of the refinement of Guam till’ this day. Chamorro collection emphasizes deference for the time-honored. The exercise of manngingi ("to smell") entails sniffing the fit workman of an time-honored individual to toped one's penetrating contemplate. Anteriorly colonial council, Chamorro’s know-againd the potentiality and pattern of clan elders. Informal aspects of pattern were supposing to elders who directed the deference of their clan members. Elders could pool the work and symbolical media of their clans in seasons of insufficiency. (Guam Collection and Refinement Complete Report, 2010) Today thousands of passenger mark the isplant to habit a mix of Spanish, Micronesian, Asian and western swings that feel inhabited Guam for the gone-by 300 years. The habit of the island’s truth and assistance traditions when you mark chronicled sites or by sampling some of the island’s luxurious patronage. In misrecord, owing Guam is the owing isplant in the conciliatory, and a strategic top in the conciliatory, it is a precious province that accomplish normally be trustworthy by America and very greatly recognized. Although, the exporteds recognize the Americas intercourse and Guam’s prevalent collective condition on the island, they are calm?} engaging for a lot of the primordial plant to be returned to primordial plantowners. The exporteds endured numerous agonys from Spain and Japan in prescribe for the isplant to be what it is today. The frequente swing that launched from the Spanish era, the Japanese tenure, and then the discharge from the Americans is what makes the Chamorro refinement very uncommon. The new breed is engaging to rescue what is left of the island’s truth, and numerous organizations are worczar to advance the refinement through ballad and silence. References Aguon, Katherine, PhD and Palomo, Tony. WWII: From Tenure to Liberation, referenced April 12, 2011, 2009 Guampedia, URL: http://guampedia. com/wwii-from-occupation-to-liberation/ Babauta, Leo. George Tweed, referenced April 11, 2011, 2009 Guampedia, URL: http://guampedia. om/george-tweed/ Ballendorf, Dirk & Foster, Sophie. Guam. (2011). In Encyclop? dia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/247691/Guam Coomans, Fr. Peter. (1997). Truth of the Sidearm in the Mariana Islands: 1667 -  1673. Occasional Historical Papers Series No. 4. Translated and edited by Rodrigue Levesque. Saipan, CM:  Division of Chronicled Preservation Cunningham, Lawrence J. ; Beaty, Janice J. 2001 A Truth of Guam. Hagatna, GU; Bess Press Guam Collection and Refinement Complete Report. World Dealing Press Date Published: 2010 LC Call Number: DU647 ISBN: 9781607804727 Sea Post Guam. Chief Quipuha (Ke puha) Statue. Retrieved April 09,2011 from http://ns. gov. gu/quipua. html Palomo, Antonio. The Guam Bell. Referenced April 14, 2011. 1999 Guam. org, URL: http://guam. org. gu/guambell/ Rogers, Robert F. (1995). Destiny’s Landfall: A Truth of Guam. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press. Below the Organic Act 1950-1970 224-232 Smith, J. (2004). Martin Luther. In L. McDonald (ed. ), Encyclopedia of experience and belief. Babson Press. Retrieved November 20, 2003, from http://www. scireligion. com/ml Suarez, Thomas (1999). Confer-upon Mapping of Southeast Asia. Singapore; Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.