Lab module 8: air masses and weather systems


1

LAB MODULE 8: AIR MASSES AND WEATHER SYSTEMS

Note: Please allude to the GETTING STARTED lab module to collect how to maneuver through and retort the lab interrogations using the Google Earth () circumstanceor.

Key Terms

You should recognize and recognize the forthcoming terms:

Air lump

Cold face

Occluded Front

● Continental (c)

Downburst

Stationary Front

● Neptunan (m)

Front

Thunderstorm

● Wintry or Antwintry (A)

Mesocyclones

Tropical Cyclones

● Polar (P)

Microburst

Warm Front

● Symbolical (T)

Mid-latitude cyclone

Weather

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be powerful to the forthcoming tasks:

● Identify and draw air lumpes and their associated dampness and air stipulations

● Draw faces and faceal schemes

● Identify the evolvement and ramble of a mid-latitude cyclone in the US

● Identify the mechanisms submissive roarstorms, commotions, and explosions

● Interpret maps showing the geographical disposals of cruel region schemes

2

INTRODUCTION

This lab module explores air lumpes, faces and mid-latitude cyclonic region schemes. Topics embrace the forthcoming: continental and neptunan air lumpes; motionless, self-possessed, glowing and occluded faces; and the patterns and wayes of mid-latitude cyclones and cruel region puffs. The modules set-on-foot after a occasion foul-mouthed hole subject-matters, or vignettes, which are rest in the appertaining Google Earth improve. These vignettes bring-in basic concepts of region and cruel region schemes. Some of the vignettes feel sprightlinesss, videos, or defective catechism that earn collect another perspective or visual interpretation for the subject-matter at index. After lection the vignette and associated links, retort the forthcoming interrogations. Please melody that some links authority assume a occasion to download reasoned on your Internet urge.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then choice Subject-matter 1: Weather.

Read Subject-matter 1: Weather.

Question 1: Little draw the mitigated region stipulations plum in the paint.

A. Sunny and hot

B. Cloudy and raining

C. Glowing and humid

D. Hot and hazy

Read Subject-matter 2: Air Masses.

Question 2: The vignette narrates why there is no mA kind. Additionally, there is no continental equatorial (cE) kind. What is the springal discuss that a cE air lump kind does not pause (Hint: it is the contrary discuss of mA)?

A. Because equatorial air lumpes are juicy

B. Because continental air lumpes are juicy

C. Because continental air lumpes rise balance plant

D. Because there is no plant in equatorial countrys

Read Subject-matter 3: The Evolvement and Region Stipulations of Fronts.

Question 3: Compare the blindness and urge of self-possessed air (from the self-possessed face) to glowing air (from the glowing face)

A. Colder air is unsubstantialer and rambles faster than glowing air

B. Colder air is denser and rambles faster than glowinger air

3

C. Warmer air unsubstantialer and rambles faster than self-possesseder air

D. Warmer air is denser and rambles faster than self-possesseder air

Read Subject-matter 4: Human Interaction: Commotion Alley.

Question 4: Why do areas located betwixt 30°N to 50°N collect favorpowerful stipulations for commotion era?

A. Because this country is flat

B. Because this country is where self-possessed wintry air and glowing subsymbolical air converge

C. Because this country is predominantly cultivation

D. Because colony is needed for cultivation in this country

Colescheatment and unrestrain the INTRODUCTION folder.

4

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

As melodyd in the vignette, air lumpes are not casually reserved counter the globe; in circumstance the geographic spring (fount country) of air lumpes mention each of the six germinative air lump characters – continental Wintry (cA), continental polar (cP), continental reputeical (mT), neptunan polar (mP), neptunan reputeical (mT), and neptunan equatorial (mE).

As air lumpes propel about the Earth due to region stipulations, they can mould or lavish dampness, or extension or lower in air. For in, a neptunan polar (mP) air lump affecting counter a continent could lavish considerable of its dampness and grace a continental polar (cP) air lump.

In this exercise, you earn draw the spatial patterns of air lumpes as they recount to diversified colonys throughout the cosmos-people.

Verify that Labels (underneath Borders and Layers) is choiceed in the Layers panel.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and choice the Air Lump folder.

Double-click and choice Colony A.

Question 5: Identify the main air lump:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 6: Identify the air air (as very self-possessed, self-possessed, glowing, or very glowing) and the air dampness (as juicy or dry) for the fount country of this air lump.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Glowing and dry

C. Very self-possessed and juicy

D. Glowing and juicy

Double-click and choice Colony B.

5

Question 7: Identify the main air lump:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 8: Identify the air air (very self-possessed, self-possessed, glowing, or very glowing) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the fount country of this air lump.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Glowing and dry

C. Very self-possessed and juicy

D. Glowing and juicy

Double-click and choice Colony C

Question 9: Identify the main air lump:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cA

Question 10: Identify the air air (very self-possessed, self-possessed, glowing, or very glowing) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the fount country of this air lump.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Glowing and dry

C. Self-possessed and juicy

D. Glowing and juicy

Double-click and choice Colony D.

Question 11: Identify the main air lump:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cA

D. cT

6

Question12: Identify the air air (very self-possessed, self-possessed, glowing, or very glowing) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the fount country of this air lump.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Glowing and dry

C. Very self-possessed and dry

D. Glowing and juicy

Colescheatment and unrestrain the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FRONTS

Fronts are synoptic flake features, sense they are usually countryal or continental in flake, in the enjoin of sundry hundred to 1000 km (621 miles) or further in prolixity. Synoptic flake region maps, recognizen as manner region resolution, use diversified reputeogy from recognizen basis (pressure, air, balanceshadow conceal) to mention region faces.

On region maps, the self-possessed face name is named by a sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky blue continuity of triangle pips, occasion glowing face boundaries are represented by a red continuity of half-dispersion pips. Occluded faces are shown in purple (red+blue) of alternativing triangle and half-dispersion pips. In all these cases, the policy of the continuity on which the repute appears indicates the line of propelment of the faceal zone. For motionnear faces, the line of propelment is static, and thus, is represented by the bend of sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky blue triangles and red half dispersions shown in abutting lines.

Expand the FRONTS folder.

Select and double-click Self-possessed face.

This repute depicts a self-possessed face stretching from northern Minnesota to western Nevada.

7

Question 13: In which public line is the face affecting?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Double-click and choice Colony E and restrain Colony F.

Question 14: At which colony would you forecast the air air to be glowinger?

A. Colony E

B. Colony F

C. They should be the selfselfcorresponding air

Question 15: Which colony would be experiencing roarstorms?

A. Colony E

B. Colony F

C. There are roarstorms at twain colonys

D. There are not roarstorms at either colony

Unrestrain Self-possessed face.

Unrestrain Colony E.

Double-click and choice Glowing face.

This repute depicts a glowing face stretching from northern Minnesota to eastern Kentucky.

Check Colony G.

Question 16: In which public line is the face affecting?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Question 17: At which colony (F or G) would you forecast the air air to be glowinger?

8

A. Colony F

B. Colony G

C. They should be the selfselfcorresponding air

Question 18: Would there be rainfall at Colony G? If so, little draw the ardor (how “hard” it is raining) and period.

A. No rainfall

B. Rainfall, unimould drizzle abiding all day

C. Rainfall, grave rain abiding all day

D. Rainfall, roarstorms abiding a defective period

Colescheatment and unrestrain the FRONTS folder.

MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES

Mid-latitude cyclones are arranged low urgency schemes that feel self-possessed and glowing faces. The fruit of mid-latitude cyclones is distribute of the way recognizen as cyclogenesis.

Expand the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

Click Migration.

This sprightliness shows the fruit and ramble of a mid-latitude cyclone, as well-behaved-behaved as associate imagery (Note: The associate imagery individuality authority assume a few minutes to upload).

Now, you earn go through the cyclogenesis of a mid-latitude cyclone on Google Earth.

Return to Google Earth.

Double-click and choice Day 1

This map shows a customary primal fruit of a mid-latitude cyclone. The life of the scheme has the developed urgency, which is located parallel the jet exit (sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky sky blue arrows). The scheme rambles in an easterly line parallel the jet exit, after a occasion the

9

glowing face inherent, followed by the self-possessed face. The order of cyclogenesis is the disclosed order.

Unrestrain Day 1.

Select Day 2.

The scheme continues affecting eastward parallel the jet exit. The self-possessed face is rambleing faster than the glowing face and the length betwixt the two faces is decreasing. After a occasion the length betwixt the faces befitting smaller, propitiouser air set-on-foots to accelerate the glowinger air, and the glowinger air begins to propel upwards. The order of cyclogenesis is the aged order.

Unrestrain Day 2.

Select Day 3.

Now, the self-possessed face has caught up after a occasion the glowing face and moulds an occluded face. The glowinger air is now aggravatedivision (overdivision the manner) and colony may appear. This order of cyclogenesis is the occluded order.

Question 19: In which line is the air publicity in a educeing mid-latitude cyclone?

A. Upwards

B. Downwards

C. Clockwise

D. Counter clockwise

Question 20: Where is the spring of the self-possessed air lump and glowing air lump in these ins?

A. Self-possessed from Canada; glowing from Eastern US

B. Self-possessed from Western US; glowing from Eastern US

C. Self-possessed from Canada; glowing from trench of Mexico

D. Self-possessed from Western US; glowing from Pacific Ocean

Question 21: Why does the self-possessed face propel faster than the glowing face?

A. Because the self-possessed air is unsubstantialer and propels faster.

B. Because the glowing air is denser and propels further reluctantly.

C. Because the self-possessed air is denser and propels faster.

10

D. Because the glowing air is unsubstantialer and propels further reluctantly.

Question 22: What character of region do we see during the occluded face?

A. Air exaltation, no rainfall

B. Air exaltation, varipowerful (unsubstantial to sluggish) rainfall

C. Air impairment, no rainfall

D. Air impairment, varipowerful (unsubstantial to sluggish) rainfall

Question 23: Where does the heaviest rainfall appear - parallel the self-possessed face or the glowing face?

A. Self-possessed face

B. Glowing face.

C. Rainfall is resembling parallel twain faces.

D. There is no rainfall parallel either face.

Colescheatment and unrestrain the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms are moulded when parcels of unstpowerful (warm, juicy) air are lifted rapidly and perpendicularly from the reason. Lifting mechanisms embrace convective lifting from the unresembling glowinging of the reason, orographic lifting from air firm balance a mountain or concordant terrain, or faceal lifting from the inherent margin of a self-possessed or glowing face. Rapid ascension of unstpowerful air creates pungent-muscular updrafts (upward affecting air) and grave adiabatic subsidence (that is, subsidence after a occasionout interacting after a occasion the exclusive air). When the updrafts stretch the acme loftiness (usually in the troposphere, or balance 12 km (40,000 feet) from the Earth’s manner), they substitute line and grace downdrafts, and immerse.

Typical roarstorms feel powernear updrafts and powernear downdrafts. Thunderstorms that fruit glister floods feel pungent-muscular updrafts but powernear downdrafts. Thunderstorms that fruit downbursts (or microbursts) of downward, divergent air feel powernear updrafts but pungent-muscular downdrafts. When pungent-muscular updrafts and down drafts are exhibit cruel roarstorms recognizen as supercells are moulded. Associated after a occasion these roarstorms are the anvil shaped cumulonimbus balanceshadows, sluggish rains or welcome, roarneath and unsubstantialning, gusts of coil, mesocyclones (pungent-muscular perpendicular updrafts that depend and mould a babel of air), and sometimes commotiones.

11

Expand the THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS folder.

Click Thunderstorms.

Question 24: At what order(s) does updraft educe?

A. Cumulus order

B. Developmental order

C. Aged order

D. Dissipation order

Question 25: At what order(s) does the region propitious and stabilize?

A. Cumulus order

B. Developmental order

C. Aged order

D. Dissipation order

Tornadoes

Tornadoes mould as a remainder of pungent-muscular updrafts wholly after a occasion coil abrade (the estrangement in coil line and urge after a occasion loftiness). The association substitutes the succession of air from a vapid axis to a perpendicular axis. When the funnel stretches the reason, it has evolved into a commotion.

Click Commotion Formation for the sprightliness of the evolvement of a commotion and exercise categorizing commotiones using the Enhanced Fujita Scale.

Question 26: What does an area seem enjoy when it is hit by a EF2 commotion?

A. Roofs stripped, fickle homes flipped balance, coilows broken

B. Large trees uprooted, fickle homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Sundry impairment to shopping lifes, cars thrown about

Question 27: What does an area seem enjoy when it is hit by a EF4 commotion?

A. Roofs stripped, fickle homes flipped balance, coilows broken

12

B. Large trees uprooted, fickle homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Devastating impairment, cars thrown about

Select Commotion Tracks and Icons.

The forthcoming commotion basis is from the NOAA National Region Service. Tornados feel been classified by the springal Fujita Flake (the commotion flake used until 2007); kind ranges from F0 to F5.

Unrestrain Commotion Tracks and Icons.

Double-click and unfold Tornadoes by F-scale.

Select F0.

F0 are the powerlessest commotions, and feel the lowest total of impairment. They are as-well the most beggarly.

Question 28: Which narrates west of the Mississippi River do not feel an F0 commotion narrative?

A. Nevada

B. Utah

C. Washington

D. Every narrate west of the Mississippi River has had an F0 commotion.

Unchoice F0 and then choice F1. Melody the geographic disposal of commotiones at this ability.

Repeat F2-F5.

Question 29: How has the abundance and colony of commotions substituted as the ability extensions?

A. The abundance extensions and colony tends to be in the east half of the US

B. The abundance extensions and the colony is subordinately casual

C. The abundance lowers and colony tends to be in the east half of the US

13

D. The abundance lowers and the colony is subordinately casual

Colescheatment and unrestrain Tornadoes by F-scale.

Expand Tornadoes by Month. Choice and test each month.

Question 30: Which foreigner of months has the most commotiones?

A. January/February

B. April/May

C. July August

D. August/September

Colescheatment and unrestrain THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS.

TROPICAL CYCLONES

Tropical cyclones feel divergent names, depending on where they educe. In the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, they are determined explosions. In the Indian Ocean they are recognizen as cyclones and in the eastern Pacific they are signed as typhoons.

Tropical cyclones are puff schemes of low urgency enfolded by a complicated implication of roarstorms. Unenjoy mid-latitude cyclones, reputeical cyclones do not mould in countrys after a occasion faces. Rather, explosions educe where the region is proportionately homogenous - but after a occasion a exalted urgency aggravatedivision to “cap” the low urgency puff. These puff schemes rely on energy from glowing infiltrate to educe, and as such, mould in low latitudes.

Expand TROPICAL CYCLONES.

Expand Historical Explosion Tracks.

Select Legend and then double-click and choice Atlantic: 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery authority assume a few minutes to upload).

Question 31: Explain the public road of explosions in the Atlantic Ocean.

A. They mould in divergent places, but publicly end up off the seaboard of Africa

B. They ramble east counter the Atlantic anteriorly diverging

C. The roads are casual in line

14

D. They ramble west counter the Atlantic anteriorly diverging

Unrestrain Atlantic: 2000-2012.

Double-click and choice Eastern North Pacific 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery authority assume a few minutes to upload).

Question 32: Explain the public road of typhoons in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

A. They publicly mould off the seaboard of Mexico and division inside Hawai’i

B. They mould in divergent places, but publicly end up off the seaboard of Mexico

C. They ramble east counter the Pacific anteriorly diverging

D. The roads are casual in line

Colescheatment and unrestrain Historical Explosion Tracks.

Expand and double-click Explosion Katrina - 2005. To clavish the quotation, click the X in the top proper nook of the coilow.

Select Katrina Landfall Video. Watch the interval escheatment of Explosion Katrina as it hits Louisiana.

Double-click and choice Tracks and opinion the road of this explosion from the Caribbean Sea to North America.

Select Hurricane.

Question 33: Geographically, where was Explosion Katrina the pungent-muscularest (an H5 –shown as a red dispersion)?

A. In the Atlantic Ocean

B. In the Caribbean sea

C. In the Trench of Mexico

D. New Orleans, LA

Question 34: What happened to the Explosion unintermittently it hit plant?

A. It dissipated

B. It continued north at the selfselfcorresponding ability

15

C. It continued north but after a occasion decreasing ability

D. It became a reputeical puff

Colescheatment and unrestrain Explosion Katrina.

Double-click and choice Explosion Sandy.

Hurricane Sandy is considered the largest explosion always narrative in the Atlantic basin, measuring in at balance 1100 miles (1800 km) in transection.

Question 35: True or False: The puff scheme that hit New Jersey and the exclusive area on October 29 was a reputeical cyclone.

A. True

B. False

Question 36: Explain your retort in the antecedent interrogation.

A. Symbolical cyclones do not ramble that far north

B. Symbolical cyclones do not appear this developed in the year

C. Its close centre was near defined than that required of a reputeical cyclone

D. Sustained coil urge, low divine urgency and puff constituency are traits of a reputeical cyclone.