Lab module 7: atmospheric moisture


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LAB MODULE 7: ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

Note: Please apply to the GETTING STARTED lab module to collect tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () element of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The aftercited is a inventory of essential articulation and concepts used in this lab module:

Adiabatic rulees

Frontal plant

Physical set-forths of soak

Cirrus darkens

Hydrologic cycle

Relative dampness

Condensation equalize

Maximum dampness

Specific dampness

Convectional plant

Orographic plant

Stratus darkens

Cumulus darkens

Precipitation

Wet (and dry) bulb sphere

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be potent to:

● Describe and clear-up the hydrologic cycle

● Substantiate irnot-absolute darken emblems

● Clear-up the adiabatic rule

● Parallel and opposition irnot-absolute plant mechanisms

● Parallel and opposition irnot-absolute emblems of dampness

● Clear-up how subsidence happens

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you obtain scrutinize some earliest concepts and principles kindred to ethereal dampness. Topics inferiorstand material set-forths of soak, dampness, adiabatic rulees, darken exception and subsidence. Occasion these subject-matters may vindication to be unanalogous, you obtain collect how they are inherently kindred.

The modules set-out after a occasion foul-mouthed initiation subject-matters, or vignettes, which are institute in the accompanying Google Earth perfect. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts kindred to ethereal dampness. Some of the vignettes arrive-at buoyancys, videos, or blunt tenets that obtain procure another perspective or visual interpretation for the subject-matter at operative. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, vindication the aftercited questions. Please music that some elements of this lab may charm a occasion to download or disclosed, definitely if you arrive-at a dilatory internet relationship.

Expand the ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE folder and then exserve the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Subject-matter 1: The Material States of Water.

Question 1: Clear-up how this declaration is false: Excitement is sphere.

A. Sphere is ghost, occasion excitement is a appraise of sphere

B. Excitement is ghost, occasion sphere is a appraise of excitement

C. Excitement is ghost, occasion sphere is the assign of ghost from one set-forth to another

D. Sphere is ghost, occasion excitement is the assign of ghost from one set-forth to another

Question 2: Is evaporation the aridity or indemnify of inherent excitement?

A. Absorption

B. Release

C. Both

D. Neither

Read Subject-matter 2: The Hydrologic Cycle

Question 3: According to the video, what is the low tediousness of storage date for most ethereal soak (rainfall, snowfall) that sink onto establish?

A. Merely a few hours

B. Several days

C. Weeks or past

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D. It is unknown

Read Subject-matter 3: Ethereal Humidity

Question 4: How can you arrive-at a unfair dampness that is low in the elevated edges of the northern hemisphere (as shown by the exaltation of cerulean in pristine video) and yet arrive-at a elevated not-absolute dampness (as shown by the exaltation of red in the relieve video)?

A. Function of sphere – low temps arrive-at a low unfair dampness but a low utmost dampness and thereby elevated not-absolute dampness

B. Function of subsidence – elevated ascents (neighboring the poles) arrive-at past dampness than low ascents (neighboring the Equator) and thereby elevated not-absolute dampness

C. Function of clime – low spheres arrive-at low unfair dampness but a elevated utmost dampness and thereby a elevated not-absolute dampness

D. Function of dampness – the unfair dampness is elevated and consequently the not-absolutely dampness must to-boot be elevated

Read Subject-matter 4: Human Interaction

Question 5: What is the earliest vile aerosol in the Atlantic Ocean, among Africa and South America? (Hint: Seem to where the virtual source lies and what is institute in that subsidence)

A. Sea salts from the Indian Ocean

B. Smoke from fires in Africa

C. Nitrates from coastal populations

D. Dust (sand) from the Sahara Desert

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this module you obtain collect encircling factors influencing subsidence and that subsidence varies spatially and temporally. This exception obtain conduct-in you to some of these moulds.

Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then pickedededed June Precipitation.

This map shows completion subsidence for the month of June 2011. Subsidence is the plainness of ethereal soak gas into unconvinced shapes of soak, including rain, sleet, snow, and call. The totality of subsidence for any consecrated area is appraised in millimeters (mm).

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Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence A.

Question 6: What is the abut edge and desireitude (degrees merely) for this subsidence?

A. 28 N 82 W

B. 28 S 82 E

C. 28 N 82 E

D. 29 S 82 W

Question 7: Estimate the subsidence for this subsidence.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 100 mm

C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence B.

Question 8: What is the abut edge and desireitude (degrees merely) for this subsidence?

A. 28 N 114 E

B. 28 N 114 W

C. 28 S 114 W

D. 28 S 114 E

Question 9: Estimate the subsidence for this subsidence.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 100 mm

C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Question 10: Does edge state a inherent role in subsidence differences in these two models in June?

A. Yes, edge is a ocean discuss for subsidence differences among Locations A and B

B. No, there are other geographic factors that representation for the differences among Locations A and B

Select December Precipitation, and then double-click frequently on Subsidence A.

Question 11: Estimate the subsidence for Subsidence A.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 10 mm

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C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Question 12: Does Subsidence A arrive-at twain a wet timeliness and a dry timeliness?

A. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in evening than summer

B. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in summer than evening

C. Not mitigated - there seems to be merely a wet timeliness (aloft 60mm) year-round

D. Not mitigated - there seems to be merely a dry timeliness (adown 60 mm) year-round

Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence C.

Question 13: What is the edge (degrees merely) for this subsidence?

A. 4 N 114 E

B. 4 S 114 W

C. 4 N 114 W

D. 4 S 114 E

Toggle among June Subsidence and December Precipitation.

Question 14: Does Subsidence C arrive-at twain a wet timeliness and a dry timeliness?

A. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in evening than summer

B. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in summer than evening

C. Not mitigated - there seems to be merely a wet timeliness (aloft 60mm) year-round

D. Not mitigated - there seems to be merely a dry timeliness (adown 60 mm) year-round

Question 15: Does edge state a inherent role in subsidence? (Hint: seem at the aggravateall subsidence curve despite the Earth at this abut edge)

A. Yes, edge is a ocean discuss for the subsidence mould of Subsidence C

B. No, there are other geographic factors that representation for the subsidence at Locations C

Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

HUMIDITY

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We collected from Subject-matter 3 in the Introduction exception the three emblems of dampness: utmost, unfair and not-absolute dampness. When we utter colloquially encircling dampness, we are usually applyring to not-absolute dampness. For model, on some hot summer days, the air may arrive-at viscous and we say the (relative) dampness is elevated. Conversely, on calm evening days, the air may arrive-at dry and we say the (relative) dampness is low.

We can use a humble artifice designated sling psychrometer to appraise the dry bulb sphere and the wet bulb sphere. The dry bulb sphere is the ambient air sphere, and is appraised using a recurrent thermometer. The wet bulb sphere, besides, is the sphere appraised by crust the end of a thermometer in a wet cotton sleeve and then hare-brained it about to colliquute some soak from the sleeve. Since evaporation is a subsidence rule, the wet bulb thermometer obtain chronicles a inferior balbutiation than the dry bulb thermometer as desire as the exclusive air is not saturated. By comparing the sphere among the two thermometer balbutiations, and then seeming up the values in Tpotent 1, we can state (sometimes by way of interpolation) the not-absolute dampness.

For model:

1. Assume that the dry bulb sphere is 26°C, and the wet bulb sphere is 16°C.

2. After a occasion these two spheres, use the aftercited shapeula to estimate the wet bulb hollow by subtracting the wet bulb sphere from the dry bulb sphere: 26°C – 16°C = 10°C

3. Apply to Tpotent 1 to state the not-absolute dampness; in this subject, the not-absolute dampness (RH) is 34 percent (34%).

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Tpotent 1. Tpotent 1. Not-absolute Humidity, Wet-Dry Bulb Method (Source: Adapted from the NOAA Not-absolute Dampness and Dew Sharp-end consultation).

Expand the HUMIDITY folder.

Watch the videos inferior HUMIDITY and in importation after a occasion Tpotent 1, state the not-absolute dampness for the aftercited subsidences.

Click Mariposa Grove and chronicles the wet and dry bulb spheres.

Question 16: What is the not-absolute dampness at Mariposa Grove?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of virtual vindications for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C,

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C,

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List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 24%, 19%, 27%, 20%

Click California Central Valley and chronicles the wet and dry bulb spheres.

Question 17: What is the not-absolute dampness sound after a whileout of Fresno?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of virtual vindications for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 46%, 42%, 53%, 45%

Click Redwood Forest and chronicles the wet and dry bulb spheres.

Question 18: What is the not-absolute dampness in the redwood forest?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

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List of virtual vindications for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 60.5%, 68%, 68.75%, 69.5%,

Click Monterey Bay, CA and chronicles the wet and dry bulb spheres.

Question 19: What is the not-absolute dampness at the seashore at Monterey Bay?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of virtual vindications for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C, 15°C

List of virtual vindications for Dry Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 27°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 5.5°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of virtual vindications for Wet Bulb Depression: 80%, 81.75%, 84.5%, 85.25%, 91%

Collapse and uncheck HUMIDITY.

ADIABATIC PROCESS

As a bundle of air (to-boot disclosed as a interested) agitates, the exigency abates (the bundle extends) and it cools. This rule is disclosed as adiabatic subsidence.

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Conversely, as a bundle of air descends, its exigency growths (the bundle compresses) and it warms. This rule is disclosed as adiabatic warming. These veers in sphere are a issue of veers in exigency after a occasionin the air bundle itself, after a occasion an extending bundle promoting a abate in sphere (cooling) and a compressing air bundle promoting an growth in sphere (warming).

When the not-absolute dampness (RH) of a promotion bundle of air is close than 100% (aim it is not saturated), the bundle cools at the dry adiabatic trounce (DAR), which is abutly 1°C/100m. Likewise, a descending air bundle that is not saturated warms at the corresponding DAR.

For model, presume a promotion bundle of air after a occasion a sphere of 15˚C and an RH of 60%. If the bundle agitates 400 meters in agitate, its sphere obtain be 11˚C. In other articulation, the air bundle cools 1˚C for adequate 100m growth in agitate, thereby subsidence 4˚C.

Thing are irrelative, besides, if the RH of an air bundle is 100% (i.e. the air bundle is saturated). When the RH is 100%, the air bundle cools at the wet adiabatic trounce (WAR), which is abutly 0.5°C/100m. The WAR is not as immense as the DAR owing inherent excitement of plainness (the ghost when soak gas condenses to a fluid) is indemnifyd.

For model, the sphere of a promotion saturated bundle of air is 18°C. If this bundle continues to agitate another 1000 meters in agitate, its sphere obtain be 13°C. In other articulation, the air bundle cools 0.5˚C for adequate 100m growth in agitate, thereby subsidence 5˚C.

Click ADIABATIC PROCESSES to guard the video.

For the aftercited questions, use the aftercited air bundle conditions:

An unsaturated bundle of air after a occasion a sphere of 20˚C agitates 1200m to the plainness equalize and then continues to agitate saturated for another 600m.

Question 20: What is the sphere of the bundle when it befits saturated?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

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C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

Question 21: What is the sphere of the bundle when it stops promotion?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

The unsaturated air bundle then descends 1800m tail to its sourceal agitate.

Question 22: What is the sphere of the bundle once it has descended to its sourceal agitate?

A. 40˚C

B. 23˚C

C. 14˚C

D. 20˚C

Question 23: When the air bundle adequates its seemly at its sourceal agitate, how does this ending sphere parallel to the set-outing sphere?

A. Warmer

B. Cooler

C. Same

D. Varipotent (warmer or cooler)

Uncheck ADIABATIC PROCESSES.

CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

Scientists arrange darkens according to their shape and ascent. There are three darken classes reasoned on shape: cirrus, cumulus and stratus.

● Cirrus darkens are wispy, diluted darkens included of ice crystals.

● Cumulus darkens arrive-at definite puffy shapes after a occasion downright bases shapeed at the plainness equalize.

● Stratus darkens are silvery quibble enjoy darkens crust most of the sky.

Clouds are aid classified according to their ascent.

● Elevated darkens are institute aggravate 6km (20,000 ft.) in the atmosphere

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● Average darkens are among 2.5km and 6km (6,500 ft. to 20,000 ft.).

● Low darkens are those close than 2.5km.

Click CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

Use the buoyancy to substantiate characteristics of darken emblems and to adequate the tpotent adown. The pristine one has been executed for you as an model

Cloud emblem

Form

(elect from wispy, puffy, patchy, or quibble)

Altitude

(elect from elevated, average or low)

Rain

(elect yes or no)

Altostratus

Sheet

Middle

No

24. Altocumulus

25. Cirrocumulus

26. Cirrus

27. Cumulonimbus

28. Cumulus

29. Stratocumulus

30. Stratus

Note to Editor: Q24-Q30 aloft should be drop-down choices for each box. Choices are located inferior Form, Altitude, and Rain

Uncheck CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

PRECIPITATION PROCESSES

Introduction

When soak gas in the air is cooled to its saturation sharp-end, soak droplets or ice crystals shape. Once the soak droplets or ice crystals befit ample satisfactory to sink inferior the sinew of starch, subsidence happens. In classify for this happen, air must agitate such that satisfactory plainness charms establish. This required lifting of an air bundle lowly happens in one of frequent ways, including convectional plant, orographic plant, frontal plant, and convergent (cyclonic) plant. We obtain caggravate the pristine two in this module as they showsubject the rulees associated after a occasion adiabatic subsidence. To music, geography states an essential role in subsidence (or delaydrawal thereof), as convinced geographic areas are past healthful to effect a feature emblem of plant.

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Convectional plant

Convectional plant happens when a bundle of air after a occasionin a ampler stpotent air lump is excitemented by the hot reason and agitates. When this bundle agitates aloft the plainness equalize, cumulus darkens serve to shape. In frequent subjects these darkens obtain aim adesire after a occasion the twine and nevertheless diminish, conceding no rain. But in some subjects the air is unstpotent and brawny convectional plant happens. Cumulonimbus darkens frequently shape, conceding rainsink and in past austere subjects, thunderstorms disclose. Occasion convectional plant and associated subsidence can happen approximately anywhere aggravate establish, there are convinced establishs where this plant is past low. For model, the Immense Plains clime in the United States lowly experiences this emblem of plant during the summer months, which effects rainstorms in the afternoon. Equatorial climes where brilliant insolation is intense are subjected to subsidence from prevalent plant.

Click Convectional Rainsink and guard the video.

Question 31: True or False: Convectional plant goes through the rule of adiabatic subsidence.

A. True

B. False

Orographic plant

Orographic plant is caused by mountains which sinew an air bundle upwards as the air flows. As the bundle agitates, the air exigency abates, causing the bundle to exserve and the air sphere to abate. When the bundle reaches the plainness equalize, darkens shape, and in some subjects, subsidence happens. After the bundle has cleared the mountains, it descends and the air is compressed, inherent to an growth in sphere. This drier, warmer bundle creates a rainshadow on the leeward laterality of mountain ranges. This emblem of rainsink is low adesire the mountain ranges neighboring the Pacific Ocean as polite as neptunan islands such as Hawai’i and New Zealand.

Click Orographic Processes and guard the video on Orographic Uplift. After guarding the video, clear-up the aftercited scenarios:

Question

Initial (Start) Temperatur

Final (End)

Temperature

Did it Rain?

(yes or no)

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e

32. Scenario 2

33. Scenario 7

34. Scenario 9

Question 35: How does a rain accident veer the developed sphere from the judicious sphere?

A. Increases

B. Decreases

C. Stays the corresponding

D. Varipotent (increases or abates)

Question 36: Does is rain on the twineward or leeward laterality?

A. Windward

B. Leeward

Question 37: What is the not-absolute dampness when it rains?

A. 0 percent

B. 50 percent

C. 100 percent

D. Variable

Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence D.

Question 38: This subsidence is on the ________ of the Cascade Mountains.

A. Windward laterality

B. Leeward laterality

C. Convergent laterality

D. Frontal laterality

Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence E.

Question 39: What is another call for the dry area institute about Subsidence E?

A. Windward

B. Rainshadow

C. Orographic

D. Convective

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Double-click and pickedededed Subsidence F.

Question 40: What emblem of adiabatic plant would administer to subsidence at Subsidence F?

A. Divergent

B. Frontal

C. Orographic

D. Convectional

Collapse and uncheck the PRECIPITATION PROCESSES folder. You arrive-at adequated Lab Module 7.