Lab module 6: air pressure and wind


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LAB MODULE 6: AIR PRESSURE AND WIND

Note: Please belong to the GETTING STARTED lab module to attain how to maneuver through and defense the lab investigations using the Google Earth () constituent.

KEY TERMS

You should substantiate and know these stipulations:

Atmospheric urgency

High urgency regularity

Pressure gradient fibre

Barometric urgency

Isobar

Pressure individuals (mmHg, inHg, mbar, hPa, kPa)

Beaufort wriggle flake

Katabatic wriggles

Solar radiation

Coriolis result

Land-sea explosion

Wind

Frictional fibre

Low urgency regularity

Wind farms (wriggle arrays)

Gravity

Monsoon

Wind turbines

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be serviceserviceable to:

œ Substantiate divine vogue at subject-matteral, regional and global flakes

œ Define and substantiate isobars on a map

œ Distinguish wriggle change-of-place and region conditions among tall and low urgency regularitys

œ Substantiate the roles of ruefulness, urgency gradient, Coriolis and frictional fibres on wriggle change-of-place and wriggle patterns

œ Transmute miles per hour to perplexitys using the Beaufort wriggle flake

œ Substantiate katabatic wriggle patterns

œ Expalpable daily (day and obscurity)l plant-sea explosion wriggle patterns

œ Afford copys of cosmical uses of wriggle

In this lab module you attain environing some indispensable principles of divine urgency, wriggle processes and patterns, and global air vogue

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you attain environing some indispensable principles of divine urgency, wriggle processes and patterns, and global air vogue. Topics prepared embrace the factors that swing air urgency, tall and low urgency regularitys, the order of airflow, Coriolis fibre, frictional fibres, divine vogue, subject-matteral wriggle regularitys, and wriggle activity. In doing so, you obtain substantiate and recognize the roles of the Sun, the Earthfs air and manner of the Earth as they swing the change-of-place of air at subject-matteral to global flakes.

The module starts after a suitableness indelicate space subject-matters, or vignettes, which are set-up in the appertaining Google Earth rasp. These vignettes present basic concepts and tools on which geographers hope. Some of the vignettes possess lifes, videos, or narrow subscription that obtain afford another perspective or visual explication for the subject-matter at index. After lection the vignette and associated links, defense the forthcoming investigations. Please voice that some links may grasp a suitableness to upload established on your internet urge.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then double-click and prime Subject-matter 1: Divine Circulation.

Read Subject-matter 1: Divine Circulation.

Question 1: What are the three geographic flakes of air change-of-place and divine vogue?

A. Global, National, Regional

B. National, Regional, Local

C. Global, National, Local

D. Global, Regional, Local

Read Subject-matter 2: Weighing in on Divine Pressure.

Question 2: Does an acception in rise usually moderation an acception or adjacenten in urgency?

A. A adjacenten

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B. An acception

C. Rise does not interest divine urgency

D. It depends on the humidity planes

Question 3: Would Mt. Everest possess a taller or inferior divine urgency than a residuum at sea plane?

A. A taller divine urgency

B. A inferior divine urgency

C. Rise does not interest divine urgency

D. It depends on the humidity planes

Read Subject-matter 3: The Highs and Lows of Weather.

Question 4: Is the air wasting (descending) or encouragement (ascending) in the draw?

A. The air is wasting

B. The air is encouragement

C. The air is stationary

D. Unserviceable to see from knowledge affordd

Read Subject-matter 4: Cosmical Interaction.

Question 5: How does basis from wriggle turbines succor region forecasts?

A. They accumulate basis at rises where region basis are not routinely accumulateed, which could reshape forecasts

B. Wriggle urge basis are used in the sentence to transshape on or off the turbines

C. Electricity generated from the turbines is used to sway forecasting models

D. They donft. Turbines depend on region forecasts

Collapse and unhinder the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Wind sway is a shape of brilliant sway. Brilliant radiation (sunlight) excitements up the manner of the Earth, but does so enigmatically. This is consequently manners on Earth collect, keep, and disengage excitement at contrariant rates. The enigmatical excitementing of the Earthfs manner results in the shapeation of uneven urgencys in the air; callly, tall urgencys and low urgencys. As air urgency advances from tall urgency areas

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to low urgency areas, wriggle shapes. We can hamper the sway of wriggle neighboring the Earthfs manner after a suitableness wriggle turbines, and transmute the kinetic activity of wriggle into electricity (measured by kilowatts, kW, or megawatts, MW) for our homes and businesses. Voice that all the wriggle urges possess been rounded to the neighboringest mile per hour. Remember to embrace your individual of miles per hour.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

Double-click and prime Wriggle Farm A.

Question 6: In which state is this wriggle farm?

A. Brazil

B. Chile

C. Argentina

D. Educador

Question 7: What is the mean wriggle urge?

A. 13 mph

B. 23 mph

C. 33 mph

D. 43 mph

Double-click and prime Wriggle Farm B.

Question 8: In which state is this wriggle farm?

A. Switzerland

B. Austria

C. Czech Republic

D. Vienna

Question 9: What is the mean wriggle urge?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and prime Wriggle Farm C.

Question 10: In which state is this wriggle farm?

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A. Scotland

B. Northern Ireland

C. Wales

D. England

Question 11: What is the mean wriggle urge?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and prime Wriggle Farm D.

Question 12: In which divorce (northern, eastern, western, southern) of what state is this wriggle farm?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Question 13 What is the mean wriggle urge?

A. 33 feet/sec

B. 33 km/h

C. 33 mph

D. 33 m/s

Double-click and prime Area of Wriggle Farm. This relishnesss the all area of Wriggle Farm D.

Double-click and prime Beaufort Wriggle Scale.

This wriggle flake is used to visually prize wriggle. It was leading presentd in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort, a British admiral and hydrographer to the Royal Navy. The Beaufort wriggle flake was then standardized in 1955 by the US National Region Service.

Question 14: Established on the Beaufort Wriggle Scale, what would be the wriggle urge in perplexitys for Wriggle Farm C? (Hint: 1 perplexity is 1.15 mph. To transmute, grasp the wriggle urge for Wriggle Farm C and sunder by 1.15 to mention the perplexitys)

A. 19 perplexitys

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Figure 6.1: Divine urgency map (Arbogast, 2nd Ed.)

B. 23 perplexitys

C. 29 perplexitys

D. 15 perplexitys

Question 15: Established on the Beaufort Wriggle Scale, what is the World Meteriological Organizationfs (WMO) wriggle designation for the mean wriggle urge at Wriggle Farm C?

A. Light Air

B. Light Breeze

C. Gentle Breeze

D. Fresh Breeze

Collapse and unhinder the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FORCES OF WIND

Isobars (iso = resembling, bar = urgency) can afford us knowledge environing the urge and order of wriggle. Isobars are palpable, deflexed lines on a map that mark areas of resembling air urgency. Where lines are endr, the wriggles are stancher and hence possess aggravate urge.

Several fibres contact the urge and order of wriggle. Ruefulness is arguably the most great . after a suitablenessout ruefulness we would not possess air urgency, and hence, no wriggle. The urgency gradient fibre is besides great . consequently of the predisposition for air to advance from areas of taller urgency (aggravate stolid air) to areas of low urgency (adjacent stolid air). However, wriggle at the manner does not run aggravate urgency gradients . that is, instantly from tall urgency regularitys to low urgency regularitys.

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This is due to the Coriolis result (that is, the Earth spinning) deflecting wriggle from a direct track, as courteous as the frictional fibre reducing wriggle urge at the manner of the Earth.

Expand the FORCES OF WIND folder.

Select Urgency Gradient, Coriolis and Friction. In the pop-up wriggleow, click Urgency Gradient, Coriolis and Friction to intention the life (which opens in your browser). Within the life, prepare after a suitableness Urgency Gradient and intention twain the chart and the details for all three corporeal fibres.

Question 16: Urgency Gradient - what is the order of air run among tall and low urgency regularitys?

a. Rotary excitement, or construct, among tall and low urgencys

b. Change-of-place at suitable angles among tall and low urgencys

c. Spiral into tall urgency areas and out of low urgency areas

d. Spiral out of tall urgency areas and into low urgency areas

Question 17: How do wriggles run after a suitableness urgency gradient?

a. Spiral out from isobars (among correlative and vertical)

b. Vertical (at suitable angles) to the isobars

c. Correlative to the isobars

d. None of these

Question 18: Urgency Gradient and Coriolis Forces - what is the order of air run among tall and low urgency regularitys?

a. Rotary excitement, or construct, among tall and low urgencys

b. Change-of-place at suitable angles among tall and low urgencys

c. Spiral into tall urgency areas and out of low urgency areas

d. Spiral out of tall urgency areas and into low urgency areas

Question 19: Due to the Coriolis Effect, what hemisphere is relishnessn in Figure 6.1?

A. Northern Hemisphere

B. Eastern Hemisphere

C. Western Hemisphere

D. Southern Hemisphere

Question 20: Urgency Gradient, Coriolis, and Friction Forces - what is the order of air run among tall and low urgency regularitys?

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a. Rotary excitement, or construct, among tall and low urgencys

b. Change-of-place at suitable angles among tall and low urgencys

c. Spiral into tall urgency areas and out of low urgency areas

d. Spiral out of tall urgency areas and into low urgency areas

Question 21: Considering all three fibres, what hemisphere are you in when the wriggle is affecting opposedclockwise environing lows (cyclonic) and clockwise environing talls (anticyclonic)?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Select Coriolis Effect. In the pop-up wriggleow, click Coriolis Result to intention the life (which opens in your browser).

Question 22: Due to the Coriolis fibre, what is the incurvation from a direct track in the Northern hemisphere?

A. To the suitable

B. Direct ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no incurvation

Collapse and unhinder the FORCES OF WIND folder.

GLOBAL CIRCULATION

Low urgencys and tall urgencys can be examined at the global flake. For copy, the eager, fresh air at the equator rises and causes a low urgency, suitableness the collecteder and stolidr air at the poles sinks and causes a tall urgency. However, when these urgency regularitys are utterly after a suitableness the course of the Earth, the complexity of Earthfs divine vogue regularity is palpable, after a suitableness notserviceable patterns and regularitys set-up at contrariant latitudes, and at contrariant rises in the air. Overall, the global vogue regularity is great for the disposal of fervent activity (heat), instil (precipitation), air masses, and wriggle.

Expand the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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Double-click and prime Global Model. Within the life, substantiate the residuum of the Hadley cells, Ferrel cells, and Polar cells.

Question 23: Where the Ferrel cells forfeit, do we furnish tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the overhead

Question 24: Where the Hadley cells forfeit, do we furnish tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the overhead

Question 25: What is the open order of incurvation for the southeast tradewinds, westerlies and Polar easterlies in the southern hemisphere?

A. To the suitable

B. Direct ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no incurvation

Question 26: Where is the ITCZ, or Intertropical assemblage zone, aggravate or adjacent set-up?

A. Concurrently the tropic of Cancer

B. Concurrently the Tropic of Capricorn

C. Concurrently the equator

D. At the poles

Double-click and prime Darken Fraction in January. To end the extract, click the X in the top suitable nook of the wriggleow.

Indirectly, ebonens can relishness us where we can furnish tall urgency and low urgency areas. Where we furnish symbolical ebonen shield, low urgencys depend due to the assemblage and ascension of eager, fresh air that cools, condenses and shapes ebonens.

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This map relishnesss the mean global ebonen shield for the month of January. The myth at the top relishnesss the uniformity of ebonen shield, which ranges from no ebonen shield at 0.0 (ebon cerulean) to finished ebonen shield at 1.0 (white).

Double-click and prime Darken Fraction in July. To end the extract, click the X in the top suitable nook of the wriggleow.

This map lamina now relishnesss the mean ebonen shield for the month of July. As you may mark, some areas after a suitableness ebonen shield hold ebonen shield, and some areas after a suitablenessout ebonen shield hold ebonenadjacent skies. However, in some areas, ebonenadjacent skies are now eboneny and corruption versa.

You obtain contemplate at twain January and July laminas to defense the forthcoming investigations. (Hint: If you deficiency to lodge the forthcoming places on Google Earth, relishness in the call of the state or area in the Search navigation bar and click Search.)

Question 27: Contemplate at the ebonen shield aggravate Africa. In which cardinal order (North, West, East, South) does the ebonen shield advance from January to July?

A. North

B. East

C. West

D. South

Question 28: In India, when is it the monsoon opportunity (of opportunityal ebonen shield and dregs)?

A. January

B. April

C. July

D. October

Question 29: What do these two residuums enumerate us environing the absenteeism of low urgency regularitys/the ITCZ neighboring the equator?

A. Low urgency regularitys forfeit northward throughout the year

B. Low urgency regularitys are stationary

C. Low urgency regularitys forfeit after a suitableness the sub-brilliant point

D. Low urgency regularitys forfeit opposed to the sub-brilliant point

Collapse and unhinder the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS

Alternating tall and low urgencys regularitys control the midlatitudes. Due to the global divine vogue regularity, these tall and low urgency regularitys openly forfeit from west to east. The interior of low urgency regularitys is denoted by an gLh suitableness the interior of tall urgency regularitys is demarcated by an gHh. Associated wriggle patterns, determined by the isobars, mark stancher and faster wriggles when the lines are endr concurrently.

Expand the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

Double-click and prime Isobars.

Select Residuum E and Residuum F. Zoom in so you can see twain Residuum E and Residuum F.

Question 30: Does Residuum E possess airrun that descends, diverges, ascends or converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 31: What is the region relish, in stipulations of ebonen shield and undeveloped dregs at Residuum E?

A. Sunny and trivial haphazard of rain

B. Doltish and stanch haphazard of rain

C. Sunny and stanch haphazard of rain

D. Doltish and trivial haphazard of rain

Question 32: Does residuum F possess airrun that descends and diverges, or ascends and converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 33: Where is the wriggle the stanchest and/or fastest . to the NE, SE, SW, or NW of the low urgency regularity?

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A. NW

B. NE

C. SW

D. SE

Question 34: What is the region relish, in stipulations of ebonen shield and undeveloped dregs at Residuum F?

A. Sunny and trivial haphazard of rain

B. Doltish and stanch haphazard of rain

C. Sunny and stanch haphazard of rain

D. Doltish and trivial haphazard of rain

Unhinder Isobars, Residuum E and Residuum F.

Check Darken Fraction in July.

Double-click and prime Residuum G.

Question 35: Established on ebonen shield, what relishness of urgency regularity is at this residuum, as courteous as the surrounding states of Nevada, Idaho, and southern Oregon? (You may deficiency to hinder Borders and Labels in the Layers Window)

A. Tall urgency

B. Low urgency

C. Stationary urgency

D. Unserviceable to see

Collapse and unhinder the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

LOCAL WIND PATTERNS

Isobars are mapped approximations of wriggle run. The complexities of wriggle urge and order in the mountains (from katabatic wriggles affecting down the valleys) and concurrently the coastline (from sea explosions in the day and plant explosions at obscurity) are not palpable in most isobar maps.

Expand the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder.

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Katabatic Winds

Katabatic wriggles shape when collected air develops (usually aggravate ice caps, glaciers, or correspondent areas) and descends down the valleys.

Double-click Katabatic Winds. To know the effigy (and defense the investigation), go to the origin website. To end the extract, click the X in the top suitable nook of the wriggleow.

Question 36: What are the two corporeal indicators of katabatic wriggles in this Antarctic effigyry? (Check all that allot)

A. Windswept mountainous terrain

B. Snow on the ground

C. Darken open effigy

D. Correlative sea ice shapeations

Unhinder Katabatic Winds.

Expand the Yosemite Wriggle folder.

Select Yosemite video and silence the video.

Question 37: Describe katabatic wriggles in Yosemite.

A. Eager and gentle

B. Eager and stanch

C. Collected and gentle

D. Collected and stanch

Double-click and prime Yosemite period, and then prime Residuum H and Residuum I.

The abut delineation (in yellow) of Yosemitefs period should be conspicuous, as should two residuums, Residuum H and Residuum I. Contemplate to the floor of the Google Earth to intention the rises for these two residuums.

Question 38: In which order do the wriggles advance . easterly (Location I internal Residuum H) or westerly (Location H internal Residuum I) . voice wriggle order is consecrated by the order they succeed from?

A. Easterly

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B. Westerly

C. There is no wriggle

D. Unserviceable to see

Collapse and unhinder Yosemite Wind.

Land-Sea Breeze

Land-sea wriggle regularitys are caused by the contrariantial excitementing and composure among plant and instil, which cause zones of comparatively tall and low urgency. The daytime air vogue regularity is the sea explosion, suitableness the obscuritytime air vogue regularity is the plant explosion.

Select Land-Sea Explosion and silence the videos.

Question 39: In which order (internal the instil or internal to plant) is the slumbering explosion affecting . and why? (Hint: Use the stipulations low urgency and tall urgency to expalpable the order))

A. Internal the instil

B. Internal the plant

C. There is no explosion

D. Unserviceable to see

Question 40: In which order (internal the instil or internal to plant) is the morning explosion affecting . and why? (Hint: Use the stipulations low urgency and tall urgency to expalpable the order)

A. Internal the instil

B. Internal the plant

C. There is no explosion

D. Unserviceable to see

Unhinder Land-Sea Breeze.

Click Annual Mean Wind.

Question 41: Where are the fastest wriggles (overhead sea plane) in the US?

A. Within the Great Plains

B. Gulf of Mexico region

C. Mountainous areas in the Western US

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D. Concurrently the Pacific coast

Collapse and unhinder the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder. You possess finishedd Lab Module 6.