Lab module 4: global energy


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LAB MODULE 4: GLOBAL ENERGY

Note: Please connect to the GETTING STARTED lab module to gather tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () rudiment of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a schedule of momentous articulation and concepts used in this lab module:

Albedo

Energy failure

Longwave radiation

Conduction

Energy redundancy

Net radiation (net glide)

Convection

Global vital-force budget

Radiation

Constant gases

Heat

Radiation budget

Electromagnetic radiation

Heat remand

Shortwave radiation

Electromagnetic spectrum

Infuture and outgoing radiation

Solar firm

Electromagnetic waves

Insolation

Solar radiation

Energy

Irradiance

Varioperative gases

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be operative to:

œ Acknowledge aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum

œ Distinguish betwixt lackingwave and longwave radiation and its sources

œ Describe the compound of the air

œ Clear-up how ardor is epidemic and measured

œ Define and test patterns of global unsteady insolation and albedo

œ Describe the glide of unsteady radiation

œ Describe the spatial patterns of net radiation

œ Collect examples of civilized interactions and uses delay sununsteady (unsteady radiation)

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you conciliate search some of the great concepts and principles kindred to global vital-force. Topics understand the electromagnetic spectrum, the compound of the air, unsteady radiation, the motion of radiation in the air, albedo and the global vital-force budget. Suitableness these questions may appear ill-matched, you conciliate gather how they are inherently kindred.

The module starts delay indecent chink questions, or vignettes, which are ground in the appertaining Google Earth finish. These vignettes preface basic concepts kindred to global vital-force. Some of the vignettes bear spirits, videos, or lacking tenets that collect another perspective or visual description for the question at agency. After balbutiation each vignette and associated links, acceptance the subjoined questions. Please voicelessness that some rudiments of this lab may assume a suitableness to download or public, in-particular if you bear a late internet kindred.

Expand GLOBAL ENERGY and then unfold the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Question 1: Electromagnetic Radiation.

Question 1: Which electromagnetic waves bear the most vital-force?

A. Radio waves

B. Microwaves

C. X-rays

D. Gamma rays

Question 2: How is Earthfs radiation budget descriptive in the video?

A. The unlikeness betwixt sununsteady that comes into the Earth, minus the aggregate of sununsteady that is contemplateed by, and vital-force emitted from, the Earth

B. The unlikeness betwixt sununsteady that is contemplateed by Earth, minus the vital-force emitted, plus the sununsteady future into the Earth

C. The unlikeness betwixt vital-force emitted by the Earth, minus the sununsteady future into the Earth, minus the sununsteady contemplateed by the Earth

D. The unlikeness betwixt vital-force emitted by the Earth, minus the sununsteady future into the Earth, plus the sununsteady contemplateed by the Earth

Read Question 2: Heavenly Composition.

Question 3: What are the three ingredients needed for an ozone retreat?

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A. Genial climes, sunlight, and tall razes of smog

B. Indifferent climes, obscurity, and tall razes of smog

C. Tall raze of chlorine and bromine, genial climes, and sunlight

D. Tall raze of chlorine and bromine, indifferent climes, and sunlight

Read Question 3: Remand of Ardor Energy.

Question 4: Which of the subjoined is not gentleman concerning the remand of ardor vital-force?

A. Air conducts ardor effectively

B. Dark-colored objects collect past lustrous vital-force than unsteady-colored objects

C. Convection is the remand of ardor vital-force in the air

D. Sununsteady is a contrive of radiation

Question 5: Of these instrument of remandring ardor, which conduce quickly fruit clime systems?

A. Radiation

B. Conduction

C. Convection

D. None of these

Read Question 4: Civilized Interaction.

Question 6: From the expression, all of the subjoined are acknowledged disadvantages of generating electricity from unsteady faculty save?

A. The aggregate of contamination generated

B. Cost

C. Largeness hours for operation

D. Locations delay low availoperative sunlight

Question 7: From the map in the expression, what area of the United States appearances the tallest annual middle daily unsteady radiation per month (measured in kWh/m2/day)?

A. Northeastern United States

B. Southeastern United States

C. Southwestern United States

D. Northwestern United States

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For the security of this module, you conciliate test and clear-up the geographic division, patterns, and processes associated delay electromagnetic radiation. In doing so, you conciliate acknowledge and value the role of the Sun, air and the Earthfs demeanor as they wave the worldfs global vital-force budget.

Collapse and unstop the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Insolation (infuture unsteady radiation) is the aggregate of frequented or diffused electromagnetic radiation the Earth accepts from the Sun. Insolation can be quantified by its irradiance, which is the faculty . or reprimand of electromagnetic radiation - that strikes the demeanor of a ardent area. As faculty is measured in Watts (W), and area is measured in meters squared (m2), irradiance is systematically measured in Watts per meter squared (W/m2).

The Sun fruits a fairly firm reprimand of unsteady radiation at the external demeanor of the Earthfs air; this unsteady firm middles to approachly 1370 W/m2. However, the middle aggregate of unsteady radiation current at any one subsidence on the Earth is not ~1370 W/m2 . it is far cork, due in sever-among-among to the stipulations of the air, the fix cover, the ardent extremity, the duration of day, and the duration of year.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and choice Insolation in June. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top lawful hole of the window.

This map appearances the middle global unsteady insolation . or where and how abundant sununsteady demolish on the Earthfs demeanor - for the month of June in 2012. The marvellous-story in the top left hole appearances how abundant sununsteady demolish on Earthfs demeanor, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (purple/ebon red) to a tall of 550 W/m2 (white). Use this map flake to acceptance the subjoined questions.

Double-click and choice Subsidence A.

Question 8: What is the approach extremity of Subsidence A (Oslo, Norway)?

A. 60N

B. 60S

C. 10E

D. 10W

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Question 9: Estimate the middle unsteady insolation Subsidence A (Oslo, Norway) current in June:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Double-click and choice Subsidence B.

Question 10: What is the extremity of Subsidence B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina)?

A. 54N

B. 54S

C. 64E

D. 64W

Question 11: Estimate the middle unsteady insolation Subsidence B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) current in June:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Question 12: Which subsidence current main middle unsteady insolation in June . Subsidence A or Subsidence B? Clear-up why.

A. Subsidence B, consequently it is corkr to the equator

B. Subsidence A consequently it accepts past largeness hours in June

C. Subsidence B consequently itfs a eboner ochreous-colored-colored pretense

D. Subsidence A consequently itfs farther from the subunsteady sharp-end in June

Double-click and choice Insolation in December. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top lawful hole of the window

This map appearances the middle global unsteady insolation current in December. The marvellous-story in the surpassing lawful hole appearances how abundant sununsteady demolish on Earthfs demeanor, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (ebon red) to a tall of 550 W/m2 (unsteady yellow). Use this map flake and collate it to Insolation in June to acceptance the subjoined questions.

Double-click Subsidence A.

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Question 13: Estimate the middle unsteady insolation Subsidence A (Oslo, Norway) current in December:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Question 14: Which of the subjoined clear-ups the unlikeness in middle unsteady insolation at Subsidence A (Oslo, Norway) in June and December? (Check all that use).

A. Subsidence A is exalt from subunsteady sharp-end in December

B. Subsidence A accepts past largeness hours in December

C. Subsidence A is cork to the Equator (low extremity)

D. Subsidence A is corkr to the subunsteady sharp-end in June

Double-click Subsidence B.

Question 15: Estimate the middle unsteady insolation Subsidence B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) current in December:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Question 16: Which of the subjoined clear-ups the unlikeness in middle unsteady insolation at Subsidence B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) in June and December? (Check all that use).

A. Subsidence B is exalt from subunsteady sharp-end in December

B. Subsidence B accepts past largeness hours in December

C. Subsidence B is far from the Equator (tall extremity)

D. Subsidence B is corkr to the subunsteady sharp-end in June

Question 17: What is the unconcealed bend of unsteady insolation at Subsidence A collated to Subsidence B in June and December?

A. Subsidence A and B appearance the selfselfidentical bend, delay insolation tall in June and low in December

B. Subsidence A and B appearance the selfselfidentical bend, delay insolation tall in December and low in June

C. Subsidence A and B appearance facing bends, delay insolation tall at one subsidence and low at the other subsidence

D. Subsidence A and B appearance no bend in December or in June

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Unstop Subsidence A and Subsidence B. Double-click and choice Subsidence C.

Question 18: What is the extremity of Subsidence C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)?

A. 1N

B. 1S

C. 75W

D. 75E

Question 19: Estimate the middle unsteady insolation that Subsidence C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) current in June:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Question 20: Estimate the aggregate of unsteady insolation Subsidence C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) current in December:

A. Halt 0 W/m2

B. Halt 275 W/m2

C. Halt 400 W/m2

D. Halt 550 W/m2

Question 21: Which of the subjoined accounts for the bends in middle unsteady insolation at Subsidence C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) in June and December? (Check all that use).

A. There is rateately inferior unlikenesss in sun intention

B. There is rateately inferior unlikenesss in largeness hours

C. Subsidence C is cork to the Equator (low extremity)

D. Subsidence C is far from subunsteady sharp-end in December

Question 22: Which of the subjoined is gentleman environing how extremity and register age favor where and how abundant sununsteady falls on the Earthfs demeanor in a ardent year? (Check all that use).

A. The taller the extremity the main the seasonal unlikeness in largeness hours

B. Eminent southern extremitys accept past largeness hours about the June solstice.

C. Eminent northern extremitys accept past largeness hours about the June solstice.

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D. The inferior the extremity the main the seasonal unlikeness in largeness hours

Collapse and unstop GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION

When vital-force from the Sun reaches the Earthfs air, it glides parallel diverse paths, delay some vital-force collected by the air, some contemplateed tail into room and some wonderful the Earthfs demeanor. These diverse paths are sever-among-among of the ardor remand mechanism that distributes ardor despite the world. A past elaborate breakdown of what happens is appearancen in the unsteady radiation spirit. To voicelessness, the values appearancen in the spirit are for the Earth as a undivided.

Select and click FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION.

Question 23: What percent of the Sunfs vital-force entering the Earthfs air is collected quickly by the air?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 24: What percent of the Sunfs vital-force (shortwave radiation) entering the Earthfs air is collected by Earth is some way (clouds, breathe-into, Earthfs demeanor)?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 25: What accounts for the most unsteady radiation being contemplateed tail into room?

A. Dust sever-amongicles

B. Ozone

C. Clouds

D. Aerosols

Question 26: Why does infuture lackingwave radiation similar outgoing longwave radiation? (Check all that use).

A. To support the Earthfs middle clime past or cork firm

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B. The laws of physics demand infuture and outgoing radiation to similar

C. It maintains the lumpishness of the air and variability in the protraction of day

D. Without a balanced radiation budget, the Earth conciliate befit increasingly genialer or cooler

Question 27: The values in the spirit are for the Earth as a undivided, so-far, the glide of vital-force is not equable despite the Earthfs demeanor. Speculate how net radiation dissents at the Equator collated to the Poles. (Check all that use).

A. Net radiation is past or cork firm halt the Equator, but varies at the Poles

B. Net radiation is past or cork firm halt the Poles, but varies at the Equator

C. During the June Solstice, net radiation is main at the North Pole than the Equator

D. During the December Solstice, net radiation is main at the North Pole than the Equator

Unstop the FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION folder.

ALBEDO

Expand the ALBEDO folder. Double-click and choice Albedo in September. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top lawful hole of the window.

Albedo is the fragment of unsteady vital-force (shortwave radiation) that is contemplateed from Earthfs demeanor tail into room. Albedo is congenial as the not-absolute aggregate (ratio) of contemplateed sununsteady (reflected lackingwave radiation) to the sum aggregate of sununsteady (pellucid lackingwave radiation). Clouds and blawful (light-colored) demeanors bear taller albedo reprimands than ebon pretenseed demeanors approve asphalt, roads and forests.

This map appearances the middle global albedo current in September. The marvellous-story at the top appearances the profragment of sununsteady contemplateed from Earthfs demeanor, which ranges from no albedo at 0.0 (ebon bluish) to a tall albedo at 0.9 (unsteady bluishs to stainless). Areas of no facts are denoted as sombre or no pretense. Use this map flake to acceptance the subjoined questions.

Double-click and choice Subsidence D; then, double-click and choice Subsidence E.

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Question 28 Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low in the boreal forests of Canada and Norway in September?

A. The albedo is rateately tall in twain subsidences

B. The albedo is rateately low in twain subsidences

C. The albedo is tall in northern Canada and low in Norway

D. The albedo is low in northern Canada and tall in Norway

Double-click and choice Subsidence F.

Question 29: Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low in the Sahara Desert clime of Northern Africa in September?

A. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is rateately low

B. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is rateately tall

C. There is no albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not contemplate sunlight

D. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is merely very tall (halt 0.9) or very low (0.0)

Double-click and choice Subsidence G.

Question 30: Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low aggravate the eldership of Greenfix in September?

A. The albedo aggravate Greenfix is rateately low save halt the coast

B. The albedo aggravate Greenfix is rateately tall save halt the coast

C. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix save halt the coast

D. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not contemplate sunlight

Seasonality (duration of the year) plays an momentous role in global albedo. Letfs collate the September albedo reprimands to February albedo reprimands of these subsidences.

Select and double-click Albedo in February. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top lawful hole of the window. To scruple betwixt Albedo in September and Albedo in February, stop and unstop one of the finishs to see the unlikenesss in the two map aggravatelays.

Double-click Subsidence D; then, double-click Subsidence E.

Question 31: For northern Canada and Norway, is the albedo in February taller or inferior when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is taller in February for twain subsidences

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B. The albedo is inferior in February for twain subsidences

C. The albedo is taller in northern Canada and inferior in Norway

D. The albedo is inferior in northern Canada and taller in Norway

Double-click Subsidence F.

Question 32: For the Sahara Desert clime of Northern Africa, is the albedo taller or inferior in February when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is taller in February

C. The albedo is rateately the selfselfidentical in February and September

D. There is no albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not contemplate sunlight

Double-click Subsidence G.

Question 33: For Greenland, is the albedo taller or inferior in February when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is taller in February

C. The albedo is rateately the selfselfidentical in February and September

D. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not contemplate sunlight

Collapse and unstop the ALBEDO folder.

NET RADIATION

Net radiation, sometimes designated net glide, is the unlikeness betwixt infuture unsteady radiation collected by the Earthfs demeanor and the radiation contemplateed tail into room. In other articulation, net radiation is the vital-force availoperative to Earth at the Earthfs demeanor. Some settles collect past vital-force than contemplate, suitableness other settles on Earth contemplate past vital-force than collect. Factors that favor the net radiation of a settle understand albedo, extremity and Sun intention, heavenly stipulations (approve clouds and dust), and the duration of year. As a issue, some areas conciliate bear a seasonal or annual vital-force redundancy delay a dogmatical net radiation (past vital-force collected than contemplateed) suitableness other areas conciliate bear a seasonal or annual vital-force failure delay a denying net radiation (past vital-force contemplateed than collected). Fortunately, the Earth has a global vital-force budget at approachly equilibrium, delay a global net radiation at approachly nothing (that is, global infuture vital-force similars global outgoing vital-force).

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Expand the NET RADIATION folder.

Double-click and choice Net Radiation in January.

The marvellous-story at the top appearances the global net radiation for January, which ranges from 280 W/m2 to -280 W/m2. Hence, an ochreous-colored-colored or red pretense indicates a main (positive) net radiation, suitableness a galled or bluish pretense indicates a inferior (negative) net radiation.

Question 34: What global spatial patterns are clear? (Check all that use).

A. Net radiation is taller in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is taller in the Northern Hemisphere

C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 35: How does the net radiation of deeps versus fix dissent in Northern Hemisphere collated the Southern Hemisphere in January? (Check all that use).

A. The net radiation is rateately taller in the deeps than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

B. The net radiation is rateately inferior in the deeps than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

C. The net radiation is rateately taller in the deeps than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

D. The net radiation is rateately inferior in the deeps than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

Question 36: What factors co-operate to the North Pole clime having the tallest net radiation dropping in January? (Check all that use).

A. The Sun intention is low and consequently the infuture unsteady radiation is low

B. The Sun intention is tall and consequently outgoing unsteady radiation is tall

C. The largeness hours are few indicating cork infuture unsteady radiation

D. The largeness hours are few indicating cork outgoing unsteady radiation

Double-click and choice Net Radiation in July.

Question 37: What global spatial patterns are clear? Stop all that use.

A. Net radiation is taller in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is taller in the Northern Hemisphere

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C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 38: In unconcealed, how does the July map collate to the January map? (Check all that use).

A. Overall, net radiation in the tall extremitys is rateately tall (vital-force redundancy) where it was uniformly low (vital-force failure) and immorality versa

B. Overall, there is an vital-force redundancy at the Equator for twain January and July

C. Overall, there is an vital-force redundancy in the Northern Hemisphere in July

D. Overall, there is an vital-force failure in the Northern Hemisphere in July

Question 39: What factors are contributing to Greenfix appearanceing a net radiation dropping in July?

A. Consequently it is exalt north and accepts cork infuture unsteady radiation

B. Consequently it is enveloped by genialer deep breathe-into

C. Consequently it is abundantly expert in ice and consequently has a tall albedo

D. Consequently there is a low Sun intention that co-operates to a low albedo

Collapse and unstop the NET RADIATION folder. You bear completed Lab Module 4.