Lab 10_soil geography | Geography homework help


LAB 10: SOIL GEOGRAPHY

In this module, you get authenticate and interpret the geographic disposal, patterns, and processes associated delay Earth’s befouls.

Note: Please appeal to the GETTING STARTEDlab module to gather tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth ( ) element of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The aftercited is a register of leading words and concepts used in this lab module:

Cation-vary calibre (CEC)

Particle augustness –sand, scrutinize, carcass

Soil feature

CLORPT

Pedogenic processes

Soil constituency

Diagnostic horizon

Pore quantity

Soil solution

Eluviation

Soil falsification – hue, compute, chroma

Soil Taxonomy

Humus

Soil consistence

Soil composition

Illuviation

Soil horizons - O, A, E, B, C, R

Transpiration

Inorganic embodied (matter)

Soil dampness

 

Organic embodied (matter)

Soil pH

 

 

LAB MODULES LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be cogent to:

·         Identify the primary elements of befoul

·         Explain the ingredients that rule the bud of befoul (CLORPT)

·         Identify befoul influence and befoul train by cue characteristics and residuum

·         Explain befoul features and befoul horizons

·         Recognize befouls by composition and falsification

·         Describe the geography of befouls at multitudinous taxonomic eases

INTRODUCTION

This module examines the geography of befoul. Topics understand befoul stamps, befoul horizons, befoul dampness, pH and falsification. While these subject-matters may exhibition to be ill-assorted, you get gather how they are inherently connected.

The modules initiate delay five beginning subject-matters, or vignettes, which are set in the related Google Earth perfect. These vignettes present basic concepts of the geography of befoul. Some of the vignettes possess animations, videos, or deficient declaration that get stipulate another perspective or visual description for the subject-matter at agency.  After lection the vignette and associated embodys, repartee the aftercited questions. Please silence that some elements of this lab may captivate a while to download or disclosed, distinctly if you possess a inert internet union.

 Expand SOIL GEOGRAPHY and then enlarge the INTRODUCTION folder.

 Read Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Soils.

Question 1: Looking at the map, what is the befoul dampness terminology used for parts delay proportionately moist spheres and well-as sorted rainfall, where inspire moves down through the befoul via befoul pores, love that of eastern USA, the United Kingdom, Norway, and eastern China?

a.       Udic

b.      Aridic

c.       Ustic

d.      Perudic

 

 Read Topic 2: Befoul Forming Factors

Question 2: Which ingredient – sphere, organisms, refreshment, fabricator embodied, or opportunity – would concern most universally the befouls in mountainous areas?

a.       climate

b.      organisms

c.       relief

d.      fabricator embodied

e.      time

 

 Read Topic 3: Befoul Characteristics

Question 3: How are colloids salubrious to sets (Hint: What can they do that succors sets)?

a.       Colloids dissipate befoul inspire for set use

b.      Colloids inhinder severe ions that leach nutrients from befoul

c.       Colloids accommodate categorically full deportments to allure nutrients

d.      Colloids support befoul nutrients for set use

 

 Read Topic 4: Befoul Horizons

Question 4: The photo shadow exhibitions a colossal horizon of accumulated carcasss, oxides, and organics. Does this befoul properfect exhibition a colossal O horizon, A horizon, E horizon, B horizon, or C horizon?

a.       0 horizon

b.      A horizon

c.       E horizon

d.      B horizon

e.      C horizon

 

 Read Topic 5: Befoul Degradation

Question 5: Reading the map, what is the global foothold of befoul in South Africa, the inner part of Madagascar, and the superiority of eastern China?

a.       Very proud severity

b.      High severity

c.       Moderate severity

d.      Low severity

 

 Collapse and uncheck INTRODUCTION

 

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this individuality, you get authenticate how befouls are as sorted at a global layer. Remember, layer is an leading concept in geography, accordingly some patterns can be seen singly at the global (coarse) layer and not at the persomal (fine) layer.

 

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then click and choice, Soil Taxonomy Map.

Soils are openly adjustified using their befoul features and other tangible, chemical, and biological characteristics. How they are adjustified, or clumped into categories, depends on the stamp scheme used. There are abundant established befoul stamp schemes in the earth, including stamp schemes from Canada, Russia, China, Germany, Australia, the United States, and the internationally established FAO Earth Reference Base for Befoul Resources (WRB). For this individuality, the befoul enjoin nomenclature (how befouls are designated) is inveterate on the United States stamp scheme unconcealed as the USDA Befoul Taxonomy. The induced map plaster exhibitions point geographic patterns of befoul delay sphere and refreshment that are incontrovertible at the global layer.

 Double‑click and choice Atlanta. When you get at your use, appropriate the dominant befoul enjoin for the city. Repeat this for the cherishing questions in this individuality.

 

Question 6:  What is the balanceruling befoul enjoin for Atlanta, Georgia, USA and the enclosing part?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.      Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and choice Bhopal

Question 7:  What is the balanceruling befoul enjoin for Bhopal, India and the enclosing part?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and choice Hamar

Question 8:  What is the balanceruling befoul enjoin for Hamar, Norway and the enclosing part?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and choice Yaounde

Question 9:  What is the balanceruling befoul enjoin for Yaounde, Cameroon and the enclosing part?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and choice Sarawak

Question 10: Sarawak is a Malaysian say located on the Island of Borneo.  The balanceruling befoul enjoin for most of Sarawak is the selfselfsame as which of the aftercited residuums?

a.      Yaounde, Cameroon

b.      Hamar, Norway

c.       Bhopal, India

d.      Atlanta, Georgia

 Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

SOIL ORDER

Physical, chemical, and other rare properties succor arrange befouls at all eases of taxonomy. Soils are adjustified from the proudest ease, the befoul enjoin, down to the last ease, the befoul train. The eases betwixt befoul enjoin and befoul train are befoul suborder, august clump, subgroup, and families. The USDA Befoul Taxonomy recognizes 12 befoul influence, 64 suborders, balance 300 august clumps, and balance 20,000 befoul train.

The befoul enjoin ease is leading at the macro (global) layer, or when open descriptions of befoul are needed. The befoul train ease is leading at the micro (local) layer, or when restricted befoul descriptions are needed. At the persomal layer, befouls are very many-sided and can alter significantly delayin a proportionately weak area due to multitudinous environmental ingredients. These ingredients can understand the steepness of the terrain, the augustness and hasten of streams, the congenital sets or crops that become on it, the stamp of fabricator embodied (rocks) adown it, the age of the befoul, and befoul disturbance (for pattern, courage).

Continue practicing your identification of befoul influence at a global layer.

 Expand SOIL ORDER and then click and choice Identification. If you need succor delay identification, click and choice Information. This embody captivates you to The Twelve Befoul Influence of Befoul Taxonomy web page hosted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. You can use this to succor you authenticate befouls 1 through 12.

Question 11: Soil 1:

Question 12: Soil 2:

Question 13: Soil 3:

Question 14: Soil 4:

Question 15: Soil 5:

Question 16: Soil 6:

Question 17: Soil 7:

Question 18: Soil 8:

Question 19: Soil 9:

Question 20: Soil 10:

Question 21: Soil 11:

Question 22: Soil 12:

<Question 11-22: Pull from the aftercited register>

a.       Alfisols

b.      Andisols

c.       Aridisols

d.      Entisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.       Inceptisols

h.      Mollisols

i.         Oxisols

j.        Spodosols

k.       Ultisols

l.         Vertisols

 

SOIL PROFILE

The USDA Befoul Taxonomy uses falsification, composition, constituency, and other befoul properties of a befoul feature, measured from the deportment down to two meters profundity (NCRS). Incomplete the befoul feature, befoul horizons are leading in the identification of the befoul enjoin and inferior taxonomic eases. Befoul horizons at the deportment are sometimes unconcealed as epipedons. Many befouls possess a cue horizon or other befoul characteristics that are rare to that befoul and succor to segregate them from other befoul stamps.

 Expand SOIL PROFILE, and then double‑click and choice Soil Taxonomy Map. Next, double-click and choice Soil 1. In this individuality, you get observe at six unanalogous befoul features. To authenticate each befoul enjoin, an shadow parallel delay CLORPT (CLimate, Organisms, Relief, Parent embodied, Time) notification and cue characteristics are stipulated. After you authenticate the befoul enjoin, enlarge the folder and choice and click Location A and Residuum B to designate the most lovely residuum.

Question 23: What is Befoul 1? _____________________

a.      Aridisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Ultisols

d.      Vertisols

 

Question 24: This befoul enjoin is most lovely to be set at or environing Residuum A, B, C or D?

a.      Location A

b.      Location B

c.       Location C

d.      Location D

 

Question 25: What is Befoul 2? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Mollisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 26: This befoul enjoin is most lovely to be set at or environing Residuum E, F, G, or H?

a.      Location E

b.      Location F

c.       Location G

d.      Location H

Question 27: What is Befoul 3?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Gelisols

c.       Histosols

d.      Inceptisols

 

Question 28: This befoul enjoin is most lovely to be set at or environing Residuum I, J, K, or L

a.      Location I

b.      Location J

c.       Location K

d.      Location L

 

Question 29: What is Befoul 4? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Entisols

c.       Oxisols

d.      Ultisols

 

Question 30: This befoul enjoin is most lovely to be set at or environing Residuum M, N, O, or P?

a.      Location M

b.      Location N

c.       Location O

d.      Location P

 

Question 31: What is Befoul 5?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Histosols

c.       Inceptisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 32: This befoul enjoin is most lovely to be set at or environing Residuum Q, R, S, or T?

a.      Location Q

b.      Location R

c.       Location S

d.      Location T

 

SOIL TEXTURE

One base tangible befoul characteristic that succors to arrange befouls is befoul composition. Befoul composition is one of the primary things designated for a fond befoul or befoul horizon, and equates to the augustness of the pdeclaration for a fond befoul. The three referring-to augustnesss of befoul pdeclaration understand sand (largest/coarse), silt (medium), and clay (smallest/fine). Most befouls inhinder a percentage of each of these tittle augustnesss. Figure 1 exhibitions the USDA Befoul Composition Triangle which designates befoul composition adjustes by percent sand, scrutinize, and carcass.

Figure 1. USDA Befoul Composition Triangle (NCRS).

 

Use the Befoul Composition Triangle to designate the befoul composition adnormal for each of the aftercited patterns. Silence that the mass for each disconnected (sand, scrutinize, carcass) on the Befoul Composition Triangle are directionally aligned delay the associated lines.

Question 33: What is the befoul composition adnormal for a befoul that is 50 percent carcass, 30 percent scrutinize, and 20 percent sand?

a.      Silty carcass loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy carcass loam

 

Question 34: What is the befoul composition adnormal for a befoul that is 15 percent carcass, 45 percent scrutinize, and 40 percent sand?

a.      Silty carcass loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy carcass loam

Soil composition can be verified in the arena using a composition-by-impress arrange, a proportionately complimentary finger identification technique in which the alliance of sand (gritty), scrutinize (ease and pliable), and carcass (sticky) are estimated using a train of yes‑no questions. Surprising to some, this mechanical-analysis progress to authenticate befouls can be proudly complimentary incomplete skilled befoul scientists.

 Expand SOIL TEXTURE and then click and choice Soil Texture by Feel to apprehension a video of how this befoul composition identification arrange is designated in the arena.

Texture is leading accordingly it relates to weathering and fabricator embodied. It to-boot plays a role in inspire move, and nutrient availability. Finer compositions love carcass possess weaker pore quantitys lending to inerter inspire move through the befoul, and a predilection for a prouder CEC and hence emend nutrient availability for sets.

Question 35: After moisture and kneading the befoul, designate the steps in befoul composition by impress for a carcass befoul, by affecting the four repartees adown to locate in the chasten enjoin.

a.      Determine the tediousness of the ribbon

b.      Determine if befoul can make a ball

c.       Determine if the befoul is ease or gritty, or neither ease nor gritty

d.      Determine if befoul can make a ribbon

 

Question 36: You possess a 3cm ribbon that is very gritty.  What stamp of befoul is it?

a.      Sandy loam

b.      Sandy carcass loam

c.       Clay loam

d.      Silty carcass loam

 Double‑click and choice California Composition Map. To hinder the extract, click the X in the top suitable cavity of the window.

 Double‑click and choice Location U. Repeat for Residuum V and W.

Based on the Befoul Composition Triangle stipulated, and appealring tail to Figure 1, designate the resemble befoul composition for each of the aftercited residuums.

Question 37: Befoul Composition at Residuum U is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Loamy sand

c.       Silty loam

d.      Loam

Question 38: Befoul Composition at Residuum V is ______________.

a.      Loam

b.      Sand

c.       Silt carcass

d.      Silt

Question 39: Befoul Composition at Residuum W is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Sandy carcass

c.       Silt loam

d.      Clay loam

 

Question 40: In what residuum (U, V or W) would befouls possess the largest pore quantity, fastest inspire move, last cation vary calibre (CEC), and scant nutrient availability for sets?

 

a.      Location U

b.      Location V

c.       Location W

 

You possess normal completed Lab Module 11.