Lab 06_ fluvial processes and landscapes


LAB 06: FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES

Note: Please relate to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to collect how to maneuver through, and how to apology the lab topics, in the Google Earth () element.

KEY TERMS

You should comprehend and know the aftercited promises:

Alluvial fan

Drainage part-among

Oxbow Lake

Basin

Drainage mould

Sinuosity

Braided inclineencys

Entrenched wreath

Stream acquit

Cutbanks

Hydrograph

Stream dispose

Delta

Meandering capacious exit

Watershed

Drainage blindness

Meander scar

 

 

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be conducive to do the aftercited tasks:

·         Describe the concepts of sub-basins and instilsheds

·         Identify incongruous junctionnal instil uses of a capacious exit

·         Construct a inclineency dispose for a capacious exit method

·         Compute drainage blindness of a abandoned basin

·         Identify drainage moulds of capacious exit networks

·         Explain how braided capacious exits and anfractuous capacious exits are deviseed

·         Identify the original features contemptible to a anfractuous capacious exit method

·         Describe the original stipulations essential to devise alluvial fans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

This module searchs fluvial processes and settlescapes. Topics embody instilsheds, drainage moulds and densities, inclineency dispose, anfractuous and braided inclineencys, and alluvial fans. Opportunity these topics may apology to be ill-assorted, you conciliate collect how they are inherently allied. The modules initiate delay indecent initiation topics, or vignettes, which are plant in the cognate Google Earth perfect. These vignettes imagine-notorious basic concepts of fluvial processes and settlescapes. Some of the vignettes accept alertnesss, videos, or blunt doctrines that conciliate yield another perspective or visual sense for the topic at protest. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, apology the aftercited topics. Please melody that some links jurisdiction follow a opportunity to downadmonish fixed on your Internet expedite.

 

 Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then choiceed Topic 1: Introduction

Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1: Which of the aftercited is a argue for the colonization separated for the chief English colonization in the New World, Jamestown, VA?

A.   Prime urban settle

B.   On the teaching from the Native Americans

C.   Deep instil port

D.   The settle was already cleared

Read Topic 2: Rivers of Life

Question 2: If our power to prognosticate inundations has improved significantly, why does economic detriment endure to unmanlyen? (Check all that direct).

A.   Increased urbanization

B.   Increased population

C.   Increased harvest parallel coasts

D.   Increased true freeabide estimates

Read Topic 3: Rivers of Waste

Question 3: What are possible outcomes or stipulations resulting from too ample nitrogen exoteric off from urban arenas? (Check all that direct).

A.   Eutrophication of instil bodies

B.   Decrease in harvest production

C.   Contamination of groundwater

D.   Health issues in infants

Read Topic 4: Erosion

Question 4: Roll three ways in which junctionnals conduce to inclineency bank erosion.

A.   Vegetation dispersion

B.   Increase in impermepowerful exteriors

C.   Wave from boats

D.   Wind enjoyment on unguarded banks

Read Topic 5: Conveyance and Indication

Question 5: What contacts do dams accept on the conveyance of residuum? Bridle all that direct.

A.   Decrease in residuum conveyance uptendency from dam

B.   Increase in residuum conveyance downtendency from dam

C.   Decrease in residuum conveyance downtendency from dam

D.   Increase in residuum conveyance uptendency from dam

 Collapse and uncheckthe INTRODUCTION folder

For the fostering ingredients of this module, you conciliate authenticate and decipher the geographic disposal, moulds, and processes associated delay fluvial environments. In doing so, you conciliate sanction and estimate the contact of capacious exits.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and then exinccord the World Rivers folder. Double‑click and choiceeded any continent or earth country. To vault capacious exit counsel (indicate and resemble diffusiveness) click any capacious exit in the Google Earth 3-D pane.

 Collapse the World Rivers folder.

 

Major Cities on Rivers

 Expand Major Cities on Rivers.

 For each topic beneath, devise the loophole and longitude coordinates into the Search arena and then throng Enter. When you extend at your object, confront the counsel that you conciliate use to gorge in the blanks beneath:

Question 6:         33 18 59 N, 44 23 33 E

City:

A.   Atlanta

B.   Baghdad

C.   Cairo

D.   Dusseldorf

River:

A.   Mississippi

B.   Euphrates

C.   Tigris

D.   Nile

Question 7:         30 03 29 N, 31 14 05 E

City :

A.   Paris

B.   Moscow

C.   Cairo

D.   Shanghai

River:

A.   Ohio

B.   Jordan

C.   Zambesi

D.   Nile

Question 8:         48 51 26 N, 2 21 04 E

City:

A.   London

B.   Madrid

C.   Paris

D.   Buenos Aires

River:

A.   Rio de la Plata

B.   Seine

C.   Thames

D.   Volga

Question 9:Montreal, Canada.

Latitude: A. 45° 30’S  B. 73° 33’N      C. 45° 30’N  D. 73° 33’S

Longitude: A. 45° 30’E  B. 73° 33’N   C. 45° 30’S  D. 73° 33’W

River:

A.   Montreal

B.   St. Lawrence

C.   Hudson

D.   Ottawa

 

 Collapse andunbridle the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder

 

 

 

WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY

 

 Expand the WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

A drainage basin is an area of settle in which a inclineency receives instil, predominately by exterior runoff, through exit, and groundinstil exit. Drainage basins are topographically separated from each other by the chief objects of tallness, so that all instil from the ridges and hills exit into a abandoned drainage basin and thereby into a abandoned inclineency. This topographic cunning is contemptiblely relatered to as a instilshed (the drainage part-incomplete among two drainage areas), although numerous in the United States use the promise instilshed interchangeably delay drainage basin or catchment.

A capacious drainage basin can abide sundry smaller drainage basins or sub-basins. The nested regularity of these sub-basins is strong by topography as polite as wadjacent the instil exits out of the drainage area, comprehendn as the outexit object.

In Figure 1, dash-lines A, B, and C demarcate the instilsheds of the subordinate inclineencys, opportunity dash-cord D delineates the instilshed of a capaciousr drainage basin for the capaciousr inclineencys, which embodys the smaller tributaries and their sub-basins.

 

Figure 1. Watershed map (Source: Maidstone Lake USGS 7.5 specific map).

Understanding instilsheds are momentous owing inclineency exit and instil inclineency are influenced by the regularity of and fluctuates in the drainage basin. We can mention what is happening in our capacious exit basins by examining the instil exit and instil inclineency from a capacious exit’s outexit object. Changes to instil exit or instil inclineency in capacious exits could be due to either original events (such as lightning ascititious copse fires increasing stain erosion) or junctionnal modifications (such as urban practices increasing defilement).

 Double-click and choiceeded Columbia Capacious exit Watershed.

The Columbia Capacious exit instilshed encompasses 258,000 clear miles (approximately the bulk of France), delay 220,000 clear miles in the U.S. and 38,000 clear miles in Canada. The diffusiveness of the capacious exit is resemblely 1243 miles, making it the 15th longest capacious exit in the United States.

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious exit Watershed.

 Check the Columbia Capacious exit Sub-basin US simply folder. Click on each sub-basin in the Google Earth map pane to authenticate its indicate.

Question 10: How numerous Columbia Capacious exit sub-basins in the United States are vaulted on the map?

A.   7

B.   8

C.   9

D.   10

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious exit Sub-basin US simply.

 Expand the Columbia Capacious exit Watershed - Fly Over folder.

The Google Earth departure euphuism of the Columbia Capacious exit pomps how the basin is a multi-use instilshed. Do the aftercited steps to convert indistinctness for the period of the euphuism:

1.   Unbridle all the bridle boxes in the Google Earth’s Places and Layers panes.

2.   Check simply the Enconducive this bridle box for the jaunt bridle box to vault the passage in the euphuism.

3.   Double-click adjacent to opinion the jaunt (Running Time: 2:06).

 

 When the euphuism seals, rest the euphuism repress panel:

Question 11: What instil uses did you see as you traveled uptendency on the Columbia River? (Check all that direct).

A.   Agriculture

B.   Flood repress

C.   Power generation

D.   Recreation

E.   Ranching

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious exit Watershed - Fly Over.

 Expand the Stream Orderfolder.

Stream Order

 

Figure 2. Tendency dispose (16.9 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Stream dispose is a estimate of the bulk of a inclineency fixed on a hierarchy of tributaries. Using the Strahler inclineency dispose regularity, the last tributaries are assigned the estimate of 1. When two inclineencys delay incongruous dispose aggregate add, the resulting inclineency is assigned the estimate of the upper dispose estimateed inclineency.

In Figure 2, two inclineencys delay an dispose estimate of 1 add to devise a inclineency delay an dispose estimate of 2. However, when one inclineency delay an dispose estimate of 1 adds a inclineency delay an dispose estimate of 2, the inclineency sweepings a 2. Capacious capacious exit methods typically accept a upper inclineency dispose. The Mississippi Capacious exit for model has a inclineency dispose of 10.

The Strahler inclineency dispose estimate for a abandoned inclineency is esthetic on the flake as which one opinions a inclineency network. A inclineency delay an dispose estimate of 3 on a 1:24,000 map, for model, jurisdiction accept an dispose estimate of 1 on a 1:1,000,000 flake map, as fewer capacious exits are vaulted on a smaller flake map.

 Double-click and choiceeded the Willamette River folder.

In this feature map, the Willamette Capacious exit has a Strahler inclineency dispose of 5. Though not all inclineencys are labeled delay their dispose, you should be conducive to mention how the inclineency disposeing method products. You jurisdiction accept to zoom in to see the labels plainly.

 Double-click and choiceeded the Snake River folder.

For Questions 12 to 15, authenticate the inclineency dispose estimate for capacious exits A, B, C, and D:

Question 12: Capacious exit A:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 13: Capacious exit B:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 14: Capacious exit C:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 15: Capacious exit D:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

 Unbridle the Stream Order folder.

 

 

Stream Density

 Double-click and choiceeded the Stream Density folder.

 

Figure 3. Drainage basins (16.8 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Notice the two sub-basins that are loftylighted. The smaller one is the Willamette Capacious exit instilshed and the capaciousr one is the Snake Capacious exit instilshed. The drainage blindness of a basin estimates how polite a instilshed is drained and seals capaciously on the underlying bedrock and topography of the basin. Basins delay lofty support and unguarded bedrock inccord to accept a upper drainage blindness.

Use the aftercited deviseula to reckon the inclineency blindness of each sub-basin (pomp your product):

 

In other language, the [drainage blindness] equals the [entirety diffusiveness of all inclineencys] separated by the [area of the drainage basin]

 Double-click and choiceeded Snake All Streams.

 Double-click and choiceed Willamette All Streams.

Willamette Capacious exit instilshed:

  • The area of the Willamette Capacious exit sub-basin is 11,500 clear miles.
  • The entirety diffusiveness of all inclineencys in the Willamette Capacious exit sub-basin is 12,800 miles.

Question 16: What is the inclineency blindness of the Willamette Capacious exit sub-basin?         

 

A.   12800 / 11500 = 1.11

B.   11500 / 12800 = 0.90

C.   12800 / 11500 = 1.43

D.   11500 / 12800 = 0.95

 

Snake Capacious exit instilshed:

  • The area of the Snake Capacious exit sub-basin is 108,000 clear miles.
  • The entirety diffusiveness of all inclineencys in the Snake Capacious exit sub-basin is 138,000 miles.

Question 17: What is the inclineency blindness of the Snake Capacious exit sub-basin?

 

A.   108000 / 138000 = 0.78

B.   138000 / 108000 = 1.28

C.   108000 / 138000 = 0.83

D.   138000 / 108000 = 1.48

 Collapse and unbridle WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

 

DRAINAGE PATTERNS

 Expand the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder.

 

Figure 4. Drainage moulds (16.7 Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

The drainage moulds of a inclineency method (a netproduct of inclineencys and tributaries) seal capaciously on the topography on the settle as polite as the edifice of the underlying bedrock. Areas esthetic to faulting frequently yield crosswise drainage moulds, opportunity areas delay collapsed topography (mountains) frequently accept trellis drainage moulds. Volcanoes typically devise radial drainage moulds. Dendritic drainage moulds are contemptible in areas delay non-porous, impermeconducive bedrock.

 

 Double-click and choiceeded Drainage mould 1.

Question 18: Authenticate Drainage mould 1:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Now that you accept identified Drainage mould 1, double-click and choiceeded drainage moulds 2 to 5 to authenticate them.

Question 19: Identify Drainage mould 2:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 20: Identify Drainage mould 3:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 21: Identify Drainage mould 4:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 22: Identify Drainage mould 5:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

 

 Collapse andunbridle the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder
BRAIDED STREAMS

 Double-click and choiceeded the BRAIDED STREAMS folder.

Fast emotional inclineencys originating from mountainous glassy areas or countrys delay an riches of erodible residuum, frequently rapture numerous quantities of vulgar esthetic such as sand and gravel delayin the agent. As the inclineency celerity decreases (topography becomes less craggy) however, the acquit is inadequate and the inclineency can no longer push the residuum admonish. In entity, the deposited bed admonish devises bars (or eyots) delayin the inclineency agent, forcing inclineency agent to mix and inccord incomplete the deposits. These forever difference agents delayin the capaciousr capacious exit agent are what produce the inclineency its braided apologyance.

The Delta Capacious exit is an model of a braided inclineency adjacent the town of Delta Junction, Alaska. Observe the netproduct of comprehensive yet simple inclineency agents that mix and incline, separated by bars of deposited bed admonish.

Question 23: Fixed on the colonization and the indication devise, decipher why this inclineency devises a braided mould.

A.   The craggy expand of the capacious exit instrument that instil exits faster and can abundantly carve out a rotation of agents deviseing a braided inclineency

B.   The late exiting capacious exit instrument that not ample residuum can be carried by the instil and hence, the admonish is deposited deviseing a braided inclineency

C.   The agents are quiescent and it is the capacious exit that moves, thus creating a braided apologyance.

D.   The craggy topography instrument the capacious exit is quiescent and it is the agents that are forever difference, deviseing a braided inclineency

 

Question 24: Wadjacent does the residuum (indication esthetic) succeed from?

A.   The residuum is substantially in settle and is not raptureed. It is barely disturbed by the capacious exit, which devises bars of deposited bed admonish

B.   The residuum was substantially deposited uptendency by anfractuous capacious exits and balance span headward erosion by the capacious exit imagined the braided inclineency

C.   The residuum is from glassy erosion that is carried downtendency by inclineencys from the melting glacier

D.   The residuum is finely arranged from uptendency weathering and erosion of loess deposits

 Unbridle BRAIDED STREAMS
MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS

 Expand the MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS folder.

In dissimilarity to braided inclineencys, anfractuous inclineencys are deviseed in settlescapes delay inconsiderable support, are generally lateer emotional, and push finer residuums. In conjunction, instil exit delayin anfractuous inclineency typically is dense to a unique agent. As their indicate suggests, anfractuous inclineencys are identificonducive by their sinuosity, or the influences and turns of the inclineency agent balance a inundationplain. The wreath of the agent occurs delay the scouring of the agent on the beyond of the influence (wadjacent exit is faster) and indication on the internally of the influence (wadjacent exit is lateer). This firm erosion or dispersion of residuum from cutbanks and indication of residuum from object bars yields the move of the wreath balance the settlescape, delay spent wreaths obvious from oxbow lakes and wreath scars.

 Click Stream Process Animation and opinion the alertness.

Erosion and indication occurs abundantly during periods of inundationing. Numerous capacious exits are apt to inundationing, delay some capacious inundationing events changing the passage of the inclineency agent (by bypassing the wreath entirely and pliant a undeviating extend). Opportunity original or artful levees jurisdiction hinder a inclineency from inundationing, capacious inundation events adjust levees, delay instil and its hanging residuum spilling balance the levees and depositing onto the extreme inundationplain.

 Double-click and choiceeded Mississippi Capacious exit - Authenticate Features.

 

 

 

Using the aftercited roll of anfractuous inclineency features, apology Questions 25 to 29 that direct to the Mississippi Capacious exit map shadow in Google Earth.

A.    Oxbow Lake

B.    Point bar

C.    Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.     Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.    Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.     Low ground

K.    Cut bank

 

 

Question 25: Tendency Feature A:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.   Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 26:Stream Feature B:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.   Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 27:Stream Feature C:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.   Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 28: Tendency Feature D:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.   Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 29: Tendency Feature E:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of wreath

E.   Issettle

F.    Inside of wreath

G.   Deep agent (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction agent

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 30: Identify the dominant settle uses extreme the capacious exit.

A.   Agriculture

B.   Mining

C.   Forestry

D.   Urban

E.   Fishing

 

 Double-click and choiceeded Mississippi Capacious exit - Estimate Distance.

Do the aftercited steps to search capacious exit irregularity.

1     Verify that Mississippi Capacious exit - Measure Distance is the simply ace bridleed in the Places pane.

2     Go to the Google Earth icon bar and click the Show Ruler machine .
Note: Verify that the euphuism repress panel is restd:

3    

Figure 2. Tendency removal (shadow from Google Earth).

In the Supporter window, click the Path tab and choiceeded Miles for the units.

4     Draw a undeviating cord among the two objects; that is, click object  and then click object  to mention the removal. This is the downvalley diffusiveness.

5     Click Clear on the Supporter window to seal.

Question 31: What is the diffusiveness, in miles, of the agent?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

Measure the removal of the agent (the wreath):

1     In the Supporter window, click the Path tab and set the units to Miles.

2     Click object  and click you as track the method of the capacious exit until you get to object . This is the agent diffusiveness. Figure 7 pomps an model of how your method jurisdiction apology.

Question 32: What is the diffusiveness, in miles, of the agent?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

 

The irregularity protest (SI), besides comprehendn as the wreath junction, reckons how ample the inclineency agent deviates from the bluntest method. Undeviating capacious exits accept a SI rest to 1, but this estimate increases the further a capacious exit wreaths.

 

Question 33: Use the aftercited deviseula to reckon the SI for this extend of the Mississippi River:

 

 

In other language, the [irregularity protest] equals the [agent diffusiveness] separated by the [downvalley diffusiveness].

 

A.   16 / 37 = 0.42

B.   47 / 29 = 1.62

C.   38 / 16 = 2.38

D.   38 / 29 = 1.31

 Close the supporter machine. Unbridle Mississippi Capacious exit - Estimate Distance.

 Double-click and choiceeded San Juan Capacious exit - Assimilate Features.

The San Juan Capacious exit is another anfractuous inclineency, yet we do not see the chaste oxbow lakes and anfractuous scars we saw delay the Mississippi River.

Question 34: Compute the SI of the San Juan Capacious exit from object A to object B.

A.   20 / 4 = 5.0

B.   6 / 10 = 0.60

C.   6 / 2 = 3.0

D.   8.5 / 3 = 2.83

Question 35: Which capacious exit (Mississippi Capacious exit or San Juan River) has a upper SI?

A.   Mississippi River

B.   San Juan River

C.   They accept the same

D.   Unconducive to discern

 

 Use the aftercited navigation steps to search the terrain:

  1. Press and abide the Shift key (PC and Mac).
  2. Use the scroll rotate on the mouse to see the settlescape in 3D. You can besides use the Ctrl (Command key for Mac) or Shift keys in league delay the arrow keys to pivot and rotate the shadow.

Question 36: Decipher why tadjacent are no chaste oxbow lakes or wreath scars.

A.   They accept been gorgeed in by residuums from the capacious exit

B.   The extreme esthetic is too unmanly to sanction for their creation

C.   The extreme esthetic is too forced to sanction for their creation

D.   The capacious exit is downcutting faster than it can fluctuate passage

 

 Collapse and unbridle MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS
ALLUVIAL FANS

 

 Expand the ALLUVIAL FANS folder. Double-click and choiceeded Alluvial Fan.

 

Alluvial fans are comprised of instil-delighted esthetic or alluvium. Most alluvial fans await abundantly of vulgar grained esthetic. In Death Valley, California, observe the rotation of alluvial fans.

 

 Do the aftercited steps to get a reform opinion of the settlescape and to test the topography:

1     Check the Nova Canyon 7.5 specific map bridle box and assimilate the conjaunt cords on the alluvial fan to those conjaunt cords on the northeast ingredient of the map. This imagine follow a few specifics, sealing on your Internet junction expedite.

 

2     Zoom in to the Death Valley country.

3     To see the settlescape in 3D:

PC: Throng and abide the Shift key and use the scroll trifle on the mouse. You can besides use the Ctrl or Shift keys in league delay the arrow keys to pivot and rotate the shadow.

Mac: Throng Shift in league delay the up and down arrows. You can besides use the mouse scroll rotate to zoom.

 

Question 37: What geographic and topographic settle features are essential to imagine alluvial fans? Hint: Wadjacent are the fans located originally as polite as what features are required to eliminate them?

 

A.   Humid, lifeless settlescapes

B.   Arid, craggy settlescapes

C.   Humid, craggy settlescapes

D.   Arid, lifeless settlescapes

 

 

This concludes Module 16