Lab 03: tectonic processes and landforms


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LAB MODULE 13: PLATE TECTONICS

Note: Please becrave to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to conceive how to maneuver through, and how to confutation the lab questions, in the Google Earth () constituent.

KEY TERMS

You should distinguish and conceive the aftercited terms:

 

Continental Drift

Pacific Ring of Fire

Reverse Fault

Earthquakes

Pangaea

Subduction

Hotspots

Plate Convergence

Transfashion Fault

Normal Fault

Plate Divergence

 

Overthrust imperfection

Plate tectonics

 

 

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be efficient to do the aftercited tasks:

·         Explain the system of extract tectonics

·         Explain the system of continental aim

·         Identify and draw expressions of extract motion

·         Identify and draw the three expressions of volcanoes

·         Explain the concept of hotspots

·         Compute the admonishs of extract motion

·         Identify and draw the irrelative expressions of imperfections

INTRODUCTION

This module examines extract tectonics. Topics enclosecontinental aim, tectonic plantforms, extract boundaries, imperfections and hotspots. Occasion these subjects may counterpart-among to be different, you allure conceive how they are inherently connected.The module starts after a occasion impure chink subjects, or vignettes, which are set in the related Google Earth finish. These vignettes fashion-unreserved basic concepts of the interior texture of the Earth. Some of the vignettes enjoy cheerfulnesss, videos, or abrupt profession that allure collect another perspective or visual explication for the subject at operative.After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, confutation the aftercited questions. Please silence that some links susceptibility receive a occasion to download fixed on your Internet expedite.

 

Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then stay Subject 1: Introduction.

 Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1:Based on this map, what is one continent in which there are two (or past) extracts?

A.   North America

B.   Europe

C.   Asia

D.   Africa

 Read Topic 2: Continental Drift

Question 2:What was discovered in Antarctica that solidified Wegener’s system of continental aim?

A.   Snow and ice

B.   Mineral deposits

C.   Tropical introduce fossils

D.   Extinct volcanoes

 Read Topic 3: Tectonic Landforms

Question 3:Where do scientists purpose the contiguous elder main allure be fashioned?

A.   Gulf of Mexico

B.   Iceland

C.   Australia

D.   East Africa

 Read Topic 4: Human Interaction

Question 4: Based on the proviso, which is not a infer why humans are drawn to extract boundaries.

A.   Nice scenery

B.   Geothermal immateriality

C.   Fertile soil

D.   Ore deposits

 Collapse and unstay the Introduction doubleer.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. Double-click and excellent Tectonic Extract Boundaries and Names to manifestation the spectrys on the sphere of the elder tectonic extracts.

Millions of humans press neighboring the elder tectonic extract boundaries. The possible dangers of buttress on or neighboring a extract designation enclose earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. However, these unless hazards do small to intimidate persons from settling in these cities, especially if the tract-of-plant has economic, sacred, gregarious or gregarious concern.

Expand and excellent Major Cities. Double-click and excellent Question 5. When you plant at your application, discaggravate the notification to glut in the blanks lower. Elect the two closest tectonic extracts. Repeat this for Questions 5 to 8.

Question 5: City: San Francisco

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Pacific/North America

B.   Pacific/Californian

C.   North American/California

D.   Pacific/Juan de Fuca

Question 6: City: Taipei, Taiwan

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Philippine/Taiwan

B.   Taiwan/China

C.   Philippine/China

D.   Eurasian/Philippine

Question 7: City: Jerusalem, Israel

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Arabian/Eurasian

B.   Mediterranean/Eurasian

C.   African/Arabian

D.   African/Eurasian

Question 8: City: Karachi, Pakistan

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Indian/Eurasian

B.   Arabian/African

C.   Pakistani/Indian

D.   Burmese/Eurasian

 Collapse and unstay the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE doubleer.

 

 

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND MOVEMENTS

In unconcealed, tectonic extract boundaries are classified as converging, diverging, and transform, occasion tectonic extract expressions are classified as either oceanic or continental. The aftercited descriptions of extract boundaries and motions allure aid you confutation Questions 10 to 23.

Converging Boundaries

When an mainic extract and a continental extract contribute (Figure 1), the termination is subduction, owing the mainic extract slides lower the continental extract. Mountain strolls of volcanoes are created by magma from the melting mainic extract elevation to (and through) the continental envelope. Heartfelt mainic trespasses typically equidistant the seaboard.

 

Expand the PLATE BOUNDARIES doubleer and then click Subduction Cheerfulness to representation an cheerfulness of this expression of contributence designation.

 

 

Figure 1. Oceanic-continental contributence (USGS).

 

Figure 2. Continental-continental contributence (USGS).

When two continental extracts contribute (Figure 2), abridgeion and ground arise at the designation to fashion mountain strolls.Continental-continental contributence mountains are not included of volcanoes and thus contrariety the orogeny of mountain strolls effected by mainic-continental contributence.

When two mainic extracts contribute (Figure 3), one subducts lower the other and the termination is a heartfelt main trespass. In some cases, lower sea volcanoes fashionat these boundaries. Aggravate darlings of years, these mainic-neptunan contributence boundaries fruit volcanoes that penetadmonish the exterior and fashion a manacle of islands shaped in an arc.

 

 

Figure 3. Oceanic-neptunan contributence (USGS).

    

 

Diverging Boundaries

As the spectry implies, diverging boundaries arise where extracts are melting sepaadmonish from each other. If the extracts are mainic, the termination can be an lowersteep mountain stroll which follows the extract boundaries. If the extracts are continental, the primal termination is the romance of a hollow or rift. Given ample interval, these hollows or rifts susceptibility be profound, fashioning crave, contracted seas.

Transfashion Boundaries

Transfashion boundaries arise when two extracts progress horizontally gone-by each other. The designation, or fault, among the two extracts can be diverse miles broad. Friction among the two extract boundaries can ground up tectonic force, which can be freed directly into the Earth’s envelope in the fashion of an earthquake.

Expand the Boundaries doubleer, stay the Plate Boundaries doubleer, and then double‑click Boundary A.

Based on the descriptions of extract boundaries and motion collectd, realize Boundaries A through G:

Question 9:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 10:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   Red Sea is dowdy owing two continental extracts are hence conjointly.

B.   Red Sea extract is subducting lower the Arabian Plate

C.   The Arabian and African extracts are melting sepaadmonish from each other, creating the Red Sea

D.   The African extract is subducting lower the Arabian Plate, after a suitablenessdrawal off the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean

 Double‑click Boundary B.

Question 11:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 12:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   Himalayas were fashioned by Indian extract riding aggravate the Eurasian extract

B.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Eurasian extract riding aggravate the Indian extract

C.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Indian and Eurasian extracts colliding

D.   Himalayas were fashioned by the Indian and Eurasian extracts melting secret

 Double‑click Boundary C.

Question 13:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 14:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and African extracts colliding

B.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by South American and African extracts colliding

C.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American extract subducting lower theEurasian extract

D.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and Eurasian extracts melting secret and the South American and African extracts melting secret.

 Double‑click Boundary D.

Question 15:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 16:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and South American Plates are melting secret, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

B.   The Pacific and South American extracts are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Nazca extract is subducting lower the South American extract, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

D.   The South American extract is subducting lower the Pacific extract, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

 

 Double‑click Boundary E.

Question 17:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 18:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and North American Plates are melting secret, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

B.   The Pacific and North American extracts are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific extract is subducting lower the North American extract, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

D.   The North American extract is subducting lower the Pacific extract, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

 Double‑click Boundary F.

Question 19:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 20:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   The two extracts are colliding, creating a order of lakes in Eastern Africa

B.   The two extracts are melting secret creating a order of lakes in Eastern Africa

C.   The two extracts are sliding gone-by each other creating a order of lakes in Eastern Africa

D.   The two extracts are colliding and dowdy the lakes in Eastern Africa

 Double‑click Boundary G.

Question 21:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental contributent                 

B.   Continental-neptunan contributent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic contributent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 22:Why did you elect this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and Philippine extracts are melting secret, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

B.   The Pacific and Philippine extracts are colliding fashioning the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific extract is subducting lower the Philippine extract, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

D.   The Philippine extract is subducting lower the Philippine isplant manacle, fashioning a heartfelt trespass

Collapse and unstay the PLATE BOUNDARIES doubleer.

 

 

EARTHQUAKES

When tectonic forcees from melting extracts acrave boundaries and imperfection lines beseem too majestic, there can be a rash free of immateriality which is manifested as an earthquake. The foci (where the earthquake originates) is frequently heartfelt after a occasionin the Earth’s lithosphere, occasion the epicenter, located vertically aloft the standpoint, is set at the Earth’s exterior.

Earthquakes arise daily, yet we are not frequently efficient to feel them. Seismic waves (p and s waves) from the earthquake aid triangulate the colony of the epibenevolence by way of the Richter lamina. The Richter lamina, which is fixed on a logarithmic lamina, measures the immateriality freed by an earthquake; so, an earthquake measuring 4.0 on the Richter lamina frees 10 intervals the immateriality as compared to one measuring 3.0.

It is estimated that there are on mediocre 130,000 earthquakes worldbroad measuring among 3.0 and 3.9 each year (USGS, 2011). The most masterful earthquake commemorative was in Valdivia, Chile in 1960, measuring 9.5 on the Richter lamina. It generated a tsunami that traveled aggravate 10,000 km athwart the Pacific Ocean, affecting Japan and the Philippines after a occasion waves as lofty as 35 feet.

 Expand the EARTHQUAKES folder, develop the 2011 Earthquakesfolder,and stay solely USGS Logo and Legend(Figure 4).

Within this doubleer are the colonys, bodys (fixed on the Richter lamina), and profoundnesss of all commemorative earthquakes in 2011 (you susceptibility enjoy to zoom in or zoom out to see the epicenters).

Double‑click the Magnitude 9 doubleer.

Question 23:Where was the body of 9 or loftyer commemorative in 2011?

A.   Off the seaboard of California

B.   Off the seaboard of Chile

C.   Off the seaboard of Japan

D.   Off the seaboard of Hawaii

Unstay the Magnitude 9 doubleer. Double‑click and excellent the Magnitude 7 doubleer.

Question 24: How numerous earthquakes after a occasion a body among 7 and 7.9 were commemorative in 2011?

A.   19

B.   14

C.   26

D.   33

Question 25: How numerous earthquakes after a occasion a body among 7 and 7.9and a profoundness of 0-35 km were commemorative in 2011?

A.   8

B.   10

C.   12

D.   15

Unstay and then restay the 2011 Earthquakesfolder.Verify that all boxes are stayed (from USGS Logo to Magnitude None).

Question 26: Fixed on a visual superintendence of the sphere, which province accustomed the most earthquakes in 2011? (You susceptibility enjoy to zoom in or out).

A.   Japan

B.   Chile

C.   Russia

D.   United States

Question 27: After a occasion honor to all earthquakes, most of them are located acrave the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. What is this area - after a occasion its perspicuous precedent of earthquakes - distinguishn as?

A.   Edge of fire

B.   Ring of fire

C.   Pacific tectonic zone

D.   Ring of earthquakes

After a occasion the2011 Earthquakes excellented, stay the PLATE BOUNDARIESfolder.

Question 28:Which of the aftercited draws the spatial kindred among extract boundaries and earthquake epicenters.

A.   They are infrequently set neighboring each other

B.   They counterpart-among to be randomly distributed

C.   They are frequently set conjointly

D.   There is no obvious spatial kindred

 Collapse and unstay the EARTHQUAKESandPLATE BOUNDARIES folders.

 

 

HOTSPOTS

Expand the HOTSPOTS doubleer and then click Hotspot Animationto representation an cheerfulness of this expression of contributence designation.

Double‑click and excellentSeamount Chain and Kilauea.

Most scientists respect that the Hawaiian Islands and the associated Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Manacle were created by a hotspot. A hotspot is a immovable colony in the asthenosphere where a magma cluster upwells and fashions aseamount (an lowersea volcano). If tectonic intelligence is satisfactory, the seamount allure advance, fracture the exterior of the main, and notwithstanding fashion an island.

Although the hotspot offal immovable, the aggravatelying extract continues to progress, terminationing in a order of islands, atolls (coral islands after a occasion lagoons), and seamounts that pretence the motion of the extract aggravate darlings of years. Among this manacle, the extract motion is plum as you progress sepaadmonish from the Big Isplant of Hawai’i where the hotspot currently exists. At the end of the seamount manacle is Meiji Guyot, created environing 82 darling years ago and considered by numerous to be the oldest seamount in the manacle.

As the yield in the manacle suggests, the Pacific extract has not frequently progress at the similar admonish or in the similar command. Researchers cogitate that environing 43 to 50 darling years ago, the Pacific extract modifiable command and shifted from a northerly command to a past westerly one. Currently, the Pacific Extract is melting in a northwest command. And occasion the hotspot is currently lower Kilauea on the Big Isplant of Hawai’i, it is to-boot fashioning Li’iho Seamount, a new seamount environing 35 km southeast from the Big Island.

 In the Tefficient of Contents, notorious the Layers pane, and realize Borders and Labels is excellented. You susceptibility enjoy to zoom in to see the labels of the islands.

Question 29: Using the magistreprove machine, what is the space in miles from Kilauea to the benevolence of Kauai?_________

A.   ~ 235 miles

B.   ~ 325 miles

C.   ~ 525 miles

D.   ~ 352 miles

Kauai was fashioned environing 5.1 darling years ago.

Question 30: Using the notification aloft, count the mediocre admonish of expedite (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the extract gone the romance of Kauai? (Remember:Convert miles to inches: 63,360 inches = 1 mile). Pretence your performance.

A.   235 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 2.92 inches/year

B.   352 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.37 inches/year

C.   525 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 6.52 inches/year

D.   325 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.04 inches/year

 

Question 31: Using the magistreprove machine, what is the space in miles from Kilauea to the benevolence of Maui?

A.   ~90 miles

B.   ~110 miles

C.   ~130 miles

D.   ~150 miles

Maui was created environing 1.3 darling years ago.

Question 32: Using the notification aloft, count the mediocre admonish of expedite (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the extract gone the romance of Maui? (Remember: Convert miles to inches). Pretence your performance.

A.   90 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 4.39 inches/year

B.   150 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 2.63 inches/year

C.   130 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000years = 3.04 inches/year

D.   110 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 3.56 inches/year

Question 33:Do hotspots arise solely in the main?Explain why or why not.

A.   Yes, owing they fashion solely lower mainic envelope

B.   Yes, owing there is no manifestation of them lower continental envelope

C.   No, owing, there is manifestation of them lower continental envelope (e.g. Yellowstone)

D.   No, owing the Andes Mountains in South America are a good-natured-natured copy of a hotspot

 In the Tefficient of Contents, go to theLayers pane, and unstay Borders and Labels.

 Collapse and unstay the HOTSPOTS doubleer.

 

 

FAULT TYPES

 Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Cheerfulness to representation an cheerfulness.

Folding is the rule by which casts abridge and disintegrate. Diverse kinds of geologic textures are associated after a occasion this rule, including anticlines, synclines, aggravateturned double, and aggravatethrust imperfections.

 Double-click Fly-over: Appalachian Mountains.

 Close the cheerfulness restrain panel:

 Double-click and excellent Appalachian Mountains.

This area of the Appalachian Mountains is distinguishn as the Ridge and Hollow Province. The geomorphology, or spatial fashion and extrication of the plant, consists of numerous ridges and hollows. Anticlines fashion most of the ridges in this area, occasion synclines fashion up numerous hollows. However, aggravate darlings of years, an violation can arise in which structurally, synclines beseem ridges and anticlines beseem hollows. This is due in part-among-among to the erosion of softer cast by steep aggravate interval. A terminationant plantfashion in these structurally inverted plantscapes consists of steeply sloped ridges after a occasion piercing summits distinguishn as hogback ridges, which arise on each plane of an anticline hollow.

Question 34: Is Mark  an anticline or syncline?

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

Question 35: What is Mark (lineighboring mark) which is locatedat the dishonorable of the Rocky Mountains? ________________

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

 Double-click and excellent Appalachian Mountains.

Many geographers acknowledge impure elder imperfections – ordinary (Figure 5), alteration (Figure 6), aggravatethrust (Figure 7), and strike-slip (Figure 8) imperfections.

 

Figure 5. Ordinary Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 6. Alteration Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 7. Overthrust Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 8. Strike-Slip Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

In the aftercited questions, confutation and realize these expressions of imperfections. Where there is a order of ordinary imperfections, horst and graben can be set.

Question 36: What is the spectry of the steep-descent countenance fashioned by a ordinary imperfection?

A.   Scarp

B.   Talus

C.   Scree

D.   Slide

Question 37: What is Mark ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse imperfection

Question 38: What is Mark ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse imperfection

Question 39: What imperfection is not associated after a occasion ground?

A.   Normal

B.   Reverse

C.   Overthrust

D.   Strike-slip

Question 40: Are imperfections poor to plant, or can they arise lower steep as well-behaved? Explain why or why not.

A.   Limited to plant, as there is no manifestation of imperfectioning lower steep

B.   Limited to plant, as imperfectioning is a continental envelope phenomenon

C.   Not poor to plant, as imperfectioning can arise lower steep

D.   Not poor to plant, as imperfectioning requires at lowest one plane to be mainic.

 

References

USGS. 2011. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/eqstats.php. Accessed December 15, 2011.