Lab 02:earth’s internal structure, rock cycle, & geologic time


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LAB MODULE 12: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

Note: Please redelayed to the GETTING STARTED lab module to collect tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () constituent of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The forthfuture is a schedule of leading suffrage and concepts used in this lab module:

Asthenosphere

Extrusive blazing

Metamorphic casts

Chemically precipitated refuseary casts

Geologic span flake

Organic refuseary

Cinder cone volcanoes

Igneous casts

Rock cycle

Clastic refuseary

Intrusive blazing

Sedimentary casts

Composite Volcanoes

Lithification

Seismic waves

Core

Lithosphere

Shield Volcanoes

Crust

Mantle

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be conducive to:

 Concede and elucidate the spatial precedents of volcanoes and displosive principle at the global flake

 Substantiate and mark opposed cast molds

 Denice the order of lithification

 Concede and opposediate the multitudinous inside laminas of the Earth

 Distinguish and portray the opposed molds of volcanoes

 Outroute and decipher the cast cycle

 Elucidate the topographic prorenice of a landscape

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module, you get criticize some of the indispensable concepts and principles connected to the inside make of the Earth. Topics emcollection cast molds, the cast cycle, geologic span and volcanoes. Occasion these questions may observe unequal, you get collect how they are inherently connected.

The module starts delay immodest commencement questions, or vignettes, which are root in the connected Google Earth refine. These vignettes begin basic concepts connected to Earth’s inside make. Some of the vignettes entertain spirits, videos, or incomprehensive doctrines that procure another perspective or visual exposition for the question at operative. After balbutiation each vignette and associated couples, retort the forthfuture questions. Please voicelessness that some constituents of this lab may accept a occasion to download or perceiven, separately if you entertain a unready internet relation.

Expand INTERNAL STRUCTURE, and then spread the INTRODUCTION folder. Double-click Question 1: The Earth’s Inside Composition.

Read Question 1: The Earth’s Inside Composition

Question 1: What is the profundity of the Kola borehole as a percentage of the Earth’s radius? Calcudelayed using the forthfuture equation:

A. (123km / 637km) * 100 = 19.3%

B. (123km / 6370km) * 100 = 1.93%

C. (12.3km / 637km) * 100 = 1.93%

D. (12.3km / 6370km) * 100 = 0.193%

Read Question 2: Cast Types

Question 2: What are opinion conditions used in settle of “extrusive” and “intrusive” blazing cast?

A. Magma and granite

B. Pumice and lava

C. Displosive and plutonic

D. Vesicular and plutonic

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Read Question 3: Geologic Time

Question 3: During the Devonian Period, where is North America located not-absolute to the Equator? (Hint: Go to “Close-up: Phanerozoic Eon,” then click on Devonian in the span flake loveness)

A. Predominately east of the equator

B. Predominately west of the equator

C. Predominately north of the equator

D. Predominately south of the equator

Read Question 4: Volcanoes

Question 4: The Hawaiian Islands are collected of straight chains of which of these molds of volcano?

A. Cinder cones

B. Stroke volcanoes

C. Stratovolcanoes

D. Lava domes

For the peace of this module, you get substantiate and decipher the geographic disposal, precedents, and orderes associated delay Earth’s inside make. In doing so, you get concede and acknowledge the application the inside of the Earth has on the demeanor.

Collapse and unrestrain the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Volcanoes are not randomly chosen aill-conditioned the globe; rather, their locations are separate (systematically located on dish boundaries) and these precedents are plum at districtal to global flakes. Despite the possible dangers associated delay volcanoes, manifold cities are located seal areas impressible to displosive principle. In this minority you get portray the spatial precedents of volcanoes and displosive principle, and substantiate volcanoes located seal dense cites.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder. Double-click and chosen the Mediterranean and W Asia folder.

Question 5: Where get you invent the bulk of volcanoes in Europe?

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A. France

B. Greece

C. Italy

D. Germany

Unrestrain the Mediterranean and W Asia folder. Double-click and chosen Catania. Next, click on the Etna sign in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Mount Etna, located seal to the city of Catania on the Island of Sicily. To seal the Smithsonian write-up on this volcano, click the X in the top fit hole of the window.

Question 6: What mold of volcano is Mount Etna?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrestrain the Catania folder. Double-click and chosen the Africa and Red Sea folder.

Question 7: Portray the public spatial precedent of volcanoes root on the continent of Africa (Hint: You sway entertain to zoom in and out to intention the spatial precedents of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly chosen balance most of Africa

B. Manifold are root concurrently the Noticeable African Rift dejection located in eastern Africa

C. Manifold volcanoes contrive exoteric borders of western and southern African countries

D. The bulk are root delayin the Sahara Desert district located in northern Africa

Unrestrain the Africa and Red Sea folder. Double-click and chosen Nairobi. Next, click on the Suswa sign in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Suswa, located west of the city of Nairobi, Kenya.

Question 8: What mold of volcano is Suswa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrestrain the Nairobi folder. Double-click and chosen Philippines and SE Asia.

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Question 9: Portray the public spatial precedent of volcanoes root in this district (Hint: You sway entertain to zoom in and out to intention the spatial precedents of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly chosen balance most of SE Asia

B. Manifold are root concurrently the margins of this district

C. Manifold volcanoes contrive exoteric borders inchoate the island countries

D. The bulk are root on the island of Borneo and are evenly spaced apart

Unrestrain the Philippines and SE Asia folder. Double-click and chosen Jakarta. Next, click on the Pulosari, Perbakti-Gagak and Salak signs in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing these volcanoes, located south of the city of Jakarta, Indonesia.

Question 10: What mold of volcanoes are these?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrestrain the Jakarta folder. Double-click and chosen Hawaii and Pacific Ocean.

Question 11: Portray the public spatial precedent of volcanoes root in this district (Hint: You sway entertain to zoom in and out to best intention the spatial precedents of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly chosen balance most of the Pacific Ocean

B. Manifold are root concurrently the margins of this district and seal islands or island chains love Hawaii

C. Manifold volcanoes contrive exoteric borders inchoate the island countries

D. There are few volcanoes in the Pacific; as a issue, there are no ostensible trends in-reference-to their spatial precedents

Unrestrain the Hawaii and Pacific Deep folder. Double-click and chosen Hawaii. Next, click on the Mauna Loa sign in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing this volcano, located southwest of the city of Hilo, Hawai’I, USA.

Question 12: What mold of volcano is Mauna Loa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder Cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

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Collapse and unrestrain the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES folder.

ROCK TYPES

As voicelessnessd in the Introduction, all casts can be classified as one of three basic cast molds: blazing, refuseary, or metamorphic.

Igneous casts

Igneous casts are aid separated into extrusive blazing cast and obtrusive blazing cast.

 Extrusive blazing cast is contriveed (cooled) on the Earth’s demeanor.

 Obtrusive blazing cast is contriveed (cooled) in the Earth. Unless there has been expressive erosion of demeanor representative, obtrusive blazing cast are not abundantly detectconducive on the demeanor (Figure 1).

Some obtrusive blazing contriveations embody:

o Dikes - perpendicular obtrusive cast that contriveed from cooled magma delayin fissures that cut aill-conditioned older cast. Dikes regularly dispute in organization to the embracing bedrock.

o Sills - obtrusive casts contriveed in absolute fissures. Sills are frequently situated betwixt older laminas of refuseary cast.

o Batholith – a big pluton, or heap of cast that cooled and strongified learned delayin the Earth. Some batholiths are separate hundred miles crave.

Intrusive contriveations

(in red)

Figure 1. Blazing obtrusive contriveation (Arbogast 2nd Ed).

Expand the ROCK TYPES and Blazing Rocks folders.

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Igneous casts - Shiprock, NM

Double-click and spread the Shiprock, NM folder.

This sign is the scrap of a throat of a volcano, delay radiating dikes. This volcano erupted balance 27 darling years ago.

Double-click the Ship Cast Tour couple to intention an spirit.

Click Photo 1 for a opposed intention.

Unrestrain the Shiprock, NM folder.

Igneous casts - Stone Mountain, GA

Double-click the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

This is a big pluton seal Atlanta, GA that was contriveed during the Devonian duration in the Paleozoic Era.

Double click the Stone Mountain Tour couple to intention an spirit.

Click Photo 2 for a opposed intention.

Unrestrain the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

Igneous casts - Krafla, Iceland

Double-click the Krafla, Iceland folder.

The bclosing areas are a lava career from the Krafla volcano in Northern Iceland. The lava cooled contriveed basalt and rhyolite, which are extrusive blazing casts.

Double click the Krafla Tour couple to intention an spirit.

Click Photo 3 for a opposed intention.

Unrestrain the Krafla, Iceland folder.

Question 13: What is the disputeence betwixt the two molds of blazing casts?

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A. The ages of the casts. Obtrusive casts are constantly older

B. Extrusive casts were contriveed in inspire, obtrusive casts were not

C. Obtrusive casts were contriveed in inspire, extrusive casts were not

D. Obtrusive casts were contriveed in the Earth, extrusive casts were not

Sedimentary casts

Sedimentary casts are contriveed by the proof of refuses (usually in a marine environment) that subordinate hurry unreadyly decroute into cast. Lithification (cementing of refuse into cast) is an leading order in the contriveation of this mold of cast.

There are three consideration molds of refuseary cast: constitutional, clastic, and chemical residuum.

 Constitutional refuseary casts are contriveed from the proof of carbon installed representative. Subjected to hurry, this representative, balance span, can contrive coal.

 Clastic refuseary casts are refuseary casts collected of clasts or pieces of weathered and eroded casts. They are classified by grain magnitude and collocate from nice grained claystone (Figure 2) to rough grained conglomerate (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Claystone (Wikipedia).

Figure 3. Conglomerate (Wikimedia).

 Chemically precipitated refuseary casts are contriveed through the residuum of calcium carbonate which is then deposited on the deep foot. Balance span, ample hurry can built such that lithification supervenes creating this mold of refuseary cast. Limestone is a niggardly sample of a chemical precipitated refuseary cast.

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Expand the Sedimentary Rocks folder.

Sedimentary casts – West Virginia

Double-click the West Virginia folder.

This is a coal mine in West Virginia, where mountain top dissolution is a niggardly way of mining this refuseary cast. Coal is an economically leading refuseary cast worldwide as seally 40 percent of the electricity generated comes from coal capacity plants (Worldcoal, 2006).

Click Photo 4 for a opposed intention.

Unrestrain the West Virginia folder.

Sedimentary casts – Grand Canyon

Double-click the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

The Grand Canyon is a showcase of clastic refuseary cast. Erosion by the Colorado River, coupled delay tectonic plant, has unprotected laminas of opposed molds of bigly refuseary cast dating end seally 2 billion years to the Proterozoic duration in the delayed Precambrian Era.

Click the Grand Canyon Cast Layers folder to see an specimen of a ill-conditioned minority of the Grand Canyon.

Question 14: Why are there no cast laminas younger than the Kaibab contriveation?

A. All the cast laminas are younger than the Kaibab contriveation

B. The Kaibab contriveation was the developed lamina to be deposited

C. The Colorado River eroded younger laminas

D. The Noticeable Unconformity is younger

Click Photo 5 to see multitudinous cast laminas in the Grand Canyon.

Unrestrain the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

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Sedimentary casts – Rocky Mountains

Double-click the Rocky Mountains folder.

The Rocky Mountains in Canada are intervening chiefly of limestone and shale, suggesting at one span this area was uniformly ripe by an deep. Scientists revere this limestone was produced during the Paleozoic Era (350 darling years ago), and that plant to produce the mountains began during the developed half of the Mesozoic Era (180 darling years ago) (Gadd, 2008).

Click Photo 6 to see multitudinous cast laminas in the Rocky Mountains.

Question 15: Which mold of refuseary cast (organic, clastic or chemical precipitated) is confer-upon in this photo?

A. Organic

B. Clastic

C. Igneous

D. Chemically precipitated

Question 16: Portray why the order of lithification is leading in the contriveation of refuseary casts.

A. It binds refuses into a strong heap through compaction

B. It adds a lithium which chemically binds the refuses into a cast

C. Lithification does not emcollection a deal-out in the contriveation of refuseary casts

D. Lithification solely embodys a roles delay clastic refuseary cast contriveation

Unrestrain the Rocky Mountains folder.

Metamorphic casts

Figure 4. Gneiss, foliated (Wikimedia).

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Metamorphic casts are contriveed from blazing or refuseary casts that entertain been subjected to ardor and hurry; in other suffrage, the ardor and hurry issues in the rearrangement or reidentity of minerals to contrive opposed minerals.

Metamorphic casts contriveed from blazing casts are sometimes denominated meta-igneous. Likewise, meta-sedimentary casts are metamorphic casts contriveed from refuseary casts.

Common metamorphic casts emcollection marble (from limestone) and gneiss (usually from granite).

Metamorphic casts are separated into two ample categories, foliated and non-foliated:

 Foliated metamorphic casts (Figure 3) demonstrate banding as the minerals confer-upon align to contrive bands.

 Non-foliated casts (Figure 4) closing this banding.

Metamorphoses can supervene in two ways, namely apposition metamorphism and districtal metamorphism. The contriveer happens balance a minute area and entails magma future in trodden apposition delay cast. The ardor from the magma alters the crystal make of the cast. The latter supervenes balance a fur bigr area and entails eminent ardor and markable hurry altering cast.

Expand the Metamorphic Rocks folder.

Metamorphic casts – Jeff Davis Peak

Double-click and chosen the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

This is Jeff Davis peak which is intervening chiefly of quartzite, a metamorphic cast contriveed from sandstone.

Double-click the Jeff Davis Peak Tour couple to intention an spirit.

Click Photo 7 to see multitudinous cast laminas of quartzite.

Unrestrain the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

Figure 5. Marble, non-foliated (Wikimedia).

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Metamorphic casts – Carrara, Italy

Double-click and chosen the Carrara Italy folder.

The unspotted areas are marble quarries seal Carrara, Italy, not far from Pisa. The area is polite perceiven for Carrara marble which is root in the embracing mountains. This marble is used for statues and buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome.

Click Photo 8 to see a Carrara marble quarry.

Question 17: Why is apposition metamorphism peacericted to a minute area?

A. Because the collection of protruding lava which causes apposition metamorphism is not-absolutely minute in magnitude

B. Because the collection of protruding magma causes apposition metamorphism is not-absolutely minute in magnitude

C. Because solely undeniable casts can be metamorphosed and they are publicly root in minute quantities

D. Because all metamorphoses are peacericted to minute areas

Collapse and Unrestrain the ROCK TYPES folder.

EARTH’S INTERIOR

By elucidateing seismic waves from earthquakes, scientists entertain separated the Earth’s inside into three important minoritys: kernel, sparkle, and crust.

Click Earth’s Inside and use the specimen to substantiate the laminas in the tconducive under. Chosen the punish retort from the schedule procured under.

Layer

Composition

Structure

Depth

Q18

Iron

Liquid

2250 km

Q19

Iron & Nickel

Solid

1220 km

Q20

Iron, Magnesium & Silicon

Solid

2230 km

Q21

Nickel

Viscous

250-425 km

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A. Lower Mantle

B. Outer kernel

C. Inner kernel

D. Asthenosphere

E. Preferable sparkle

F. Lithosphere

Question 22: Decipher how the make of cast changes as you go from the lithosphere through the asthenosphere and preferable sparkle.

A. Strong cast, semi-strong cast, molten cast

B. Strong cast, molten cast, semi-strong cast

C. Semi-strong cast, molten cast, strong cast

D. Molten cast, strong cast, semi-strong cast

Collapse and Unrestrain EARTH’S INTERIOR.

VOLCANOES

Volcanoes are separated into three molds: cinder cone, composite, (or stratovolcano) and stroke. These classifications are installed bigly on whether the outburst is flowing or explosive in truth.

Expand the VOLCANOES folder. Double-click the Capulin Mountain Tour couple to intention an spirit.

This is Capulin Mountain in New Mexico. It is a cinder cone volcano. Cinder cone volcanoes are the minuteest of the three molds of volcanoes and are markd by precipitous sides.

Double click and restrain the Folsom, NM box.

Double-click and chosen Folsom, NM.

Question 23: What is the delineation interim of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 20 meters

C. 20 feet

D. 1929

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Question 24: Installed on the delineation routes, what is the eminentest refinement on this volcano?

A. 8,000 feet

B. 8,128 feet

C. 8,182 feet

D. 8,218 feet

Question 25: Installed on the delineation routes, what is the refinement in the nucleus of the crater?

A. 7,800 feet

B. 7,775 feet

C. 8,125 feet

D. 7,900 feet

Unrestrain Folsom, NM and then restrain Prorenice #1.

Right-click Prorenice #1 and then chosen Show Refinement Profile.

Question 26: What is the crossing of the volcano in miles?

A. 0.75 miles

B. 0.39 miles

C. 0.93 miles

D. 2.1 miles

Question 27: What is the medium float of the prorenice route?

A. 60.8%

B. 794 feet

C. 39.8%

D. 91.2%

Close the Refinement prorenice window and unrestrain Prorenice #1.

Double click the Mount Baker Tour couple to intention an spirit.

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Double-click and chosen Mt. Baker, WA.

This is Mt. Baker in Washington State. It is a composite volcano, which grows balance the route of separate outbursts. They can last idle for hundreds of years, but when they do erupt, they guard to be perfectly explosive.

Question 28: What is the delineation interim, in feet, of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 40 meters

C. 40 feet

D. 1989

Question 29: What is the eminentest refinement, in feet, on this volcano?

A. 10,000 feet

B. 10,700 feet

C. 10,780 feet

D. 10, 870 feet

Unrestrain Mt. Baker, WA and then restrain Prorenice #2.

Right-click Prorenice #2 and then chosen Show Refinement Profile.

Question 30: What is the resemble crossing (in miles) of the volcano?

A. 1.5 miles

B. 7 miles

C. 5.7 miles

D. 2.6 miles

Question 31: What is the medium float of the prorenice route?

A. 89%

B. 32%

C. 92%

D. 78%

Close the Refinement prorenice window and unrestrain Prorenice #2.

Double click the Kilauea Tour couple to intention an spirit.

Double-click and chosen Kilauea Crater.

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This is the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i. It is a stroke volcano, whose outbursts are markd as life flowing and non-explosive – mark the parking lot seal the crater.

Question 32: What is the eminentest refinement of a benchmark (observe for “BM” on map) on this volcano in feet?

A. 3,635 feet

B. 3,885 feet

C. 4,078 feet

D. 3,524 feet

Question 33: What is the refinement of the benchmark (deeminent by an “X”) in Halema’uma’u Crater?

A. 3,421 feet

B. 4,231 feet

C. 2,431 feet

D. 3,412 feet

Unrestrain Kilauea Crater and then restrain Prorenice #3.

Right-click Prorenice #3 and then chosen Show Refinement Profile.

Question 34: What is the resemble crossing of the volcano in miles?

A. 24.5 miles

B. 16.9 miles

C. 32.8 miles

D. 18.5 miles

Question 35: What is the medium float of the prorenice route?

A. 63.1%

B. 3.3%

C. 10.8%

D. 2.9%

Collapse and unrestrain the VOLCANOES folder.

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ROCK CYCLE

Thus far, we perceive how each mold of cast is contriveed. This minority addresses the cast cycle that criticizes the orderes and conditions in which one cast mold is radical into another.

Click ROCK CYCLE and retort the forthfuture questions:

Question 36: Which order changes blazing cast to refuseary cast?

A. Cooling that issues in identity Cooling

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and proof

Question 37: Which order changes refuseary cast to metamorphic cast?

A. Cooling that issues in identity

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and proof

Question 38: Which order changes blazing cast to metamorphic cast?

A. Cooling that issues in identity

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and proof

Question 39: Which order changes metamorphic cast to refuseary cast?

A. Cooling that issues in identity

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and proof

Question 40: Which order changes magma to blazing cast?

A. Cooling that issues in identity

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and proof

Unrestrain the ROCK CYCLE folder.

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REFERENCES

Gadd, Ben (2008). Geology of the Rocky Mountains and Columbias. http://www.bengadd.com/Downloads/Geology%20of%20the%20Rockies%20and%20Columbias%202008.pdf. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]

World Coal Association. 2006. http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses-of-coal/coal-electricity/. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]