1. (question a1, figure 2.7) according to the continental geothermal


1. (Question A1, Symbol 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, rolls buried 80 km adown a continent would normally be fierce to what sky?

At 80 km profundity, rolls obtain be fierce to encircling _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

2. (Question A2, Symbol 2.7) According to the neptunan geothermal gradient, rolls buried 80 km adown an main basin would normally be fierce to what sky?

At 80 km profundity, rolls obtain be fierce to encircling _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

3. (Question A3, Symbol 2.7) What is the visible separate-amongicularize of the peridotite at apex X?

1. 100% liquid

2. a adjustment of solids and liquid

3. 100% solid

4. (Question A4, Symbol 2.7) What supervenes when the peridotite in apex X is fierce to 1750 °C?

1. no exchange

2. unfair liquifying

3. finished liquifying

5. (Question A5, Symbol 2.7) What supervenes when the peridotite in apex X is fierce to 2250 °C?

1. no exchange

2. unfair liquifying

3. finished liquifying

6. (Question B1, Symbol 2.7) At what profundity and bias obtain peridotite at apex X commence to liquify if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s exterior and its sky recrement the concordant?

1. 75 km, 24,000 atm

2. 65 km 20,000 atm

3. 40 km 13,000 atm

4. 20 km 8,000 atm

7. (Question B2 and B3) When ferment peridotite liquifys as a termination of entity uplifted in the way feeling in the antecedent topic, the regularity is detaild__________ and is likely to supervene at ____________.

1. solidus invariableness, incongruous boundaries

2. elucidation, convergent boundaries and hot imperfections

3. reinvariableness liquifying, hot imperfections

4. decompression liquifying, incongruous boundaries and hot imperfections

8. (Question C, Symbol 2.7) According to your tallys to the antecedent four topics kindred to the peridotite at apex X entity subjected to exchanges in bias and sky, which two regularityes would direct to liquifying?

1. retrench in bias and sky

2. growth in bias and sky

3. retrench in bias and growth in sky.

4. growth in bias and retrench in sky

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Motive 2.8 separate-among-among D: A few modifications obtain toleadmonish you to run the trial feeling in this minority using materials preparedly beneficial in your home. The hot extract can be replaced by a relieve outlined frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can as-well be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the unknown is not to add extravagant introduce to the pattern that needs to be wet. Extra introduce obtain disintegadmonish the sugar and conceal the definition of your terminations. Prepare all the trial materials straightway on the hopeful burner to forsake mixing of the two patterns when you provoke the relieve. Place on the stove burner the relieve outlined pan, the two

sepaadmonish heaps of sugar and add the drops of introduce on one of the heaps. Then shape the stove on at balance passion, and remark.

9. (Question D1) Which pattern liquifyed primitive?

1. the dry pattern

2. the wet pattern

10. (Question D2) The flying liquifying that you remarkd in the pattern that liquifyed primitive is detaild “exchange liquifying,” owing exexchange is an adventitious element the expedites up a regularity. What was the exchange?

1. sugar

2. introduce

3. silicates

11. (Question D3, Symbol 2.8) The chattels of introduce on peridotite is concordant to its chattels on the sugar trial, for-this-reason when peridotite is fierce in “wet” provisions, the outoutthread of the “wet solidus” would be located to the _____________ of the “dry solidus” in Symbol 2.8.

1. correct, to upper skys

2. left, to inferior skys

12. (Question D4) Looking at Symbol 2.1 for a adumbrate, evince in what tectonic elucidation may introduce penetadmonish the ferment and amount exexchange liquifying of peridotite?

1. hot imperfections

2. subduction zones

3. mid-neptunan ridges

4. transsymbol misdeeds

13. (Question E3, Symbol separate-among-among E). Which rare best describes the forthcoming of regularityes directing to the shape of mid-neptunan ridge volcanoes?

1. “ wet” seasole basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces exexchange liquifying of ferment peridotite aggravatehead, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. exexchange liquifying, magma ascends to the exterior forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction

3. magma ascends, decompression liquifying of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt public and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression liquifying forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the main sole basalt public, and erupts forming volcanoes

14. (Question F3, Symbol separate-among-among F). Which rare best describes, the regularityes directing to the shape of a continental pyrotechnic arc, in chronological dispose? (Beware of falsity in F3: the tone betwixt brackets “neptunan ridge” should be replaced behind a while “continental pyrotechnic arc”).

1. “ wet” seasole basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces exexchange liquifying of ferment peridotite aggravatehead, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. exexchange liquifying, magma ascends to the exterior forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shtoleadmonish profundity and liquifys, subduction.

3. magma ascends, decompression liquifying of peridotite, peridotite pushes the main sole basalt public and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression liquifying forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the main sole basalt public, and erupts forming volcanoes

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Motive 2.3: Using Earthquakes to establish Extract boundaries

15. Relate to the symbol in motive 2.3. Which of the forthcoming places denote a Benioff Zone? (Hint: relate tail to the notes for item 3)

1. 10°S, 110°W

2. 0°, 90°W

3. 0°, 80°W

4. 20°S, 100°W

16. The Benioff zone is associated behind a while which character of extract designation?

1. Divergent

2. Convergent (Continent-Continent)

3. Convergent (Continent-Ocean)

4. Transform

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Motive 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seasole Spreading

To performance-out topics in this minority, revisal how to performance behind a while descriptive layers and the metric course in Item 2. Use a executive to estimate the separation betwixt features and detail the equiponderant separation in the account using the descriptive layer. (A executive is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1, at the end of your lab manual). The separation you detail obtain be in kilometers (km). Convert the separation to centimeters (cm), mind 1000 meters = 1 kilometer.

Remember that the admonish of provokement is equiponderant to the extract swiftness. Swiftness can be congenial dividing the separation the extract traveled by the opportunity it took to shield that separation:

swiftness = separation/time.

Choose the tallys that best resemble to your congenial values, form positive you use the required items.

17. (Question B, Symbol page 49). Regard that apexs B and C were coincidently 145 darling years ago, but did the sea sole ramify secretly-among at the concordant admonish on twain borders of the mid-main ridge?

1. Concordant Rate

2. Faster on the East

3. Faster on the West

18. (Question C, Symbol page 49). How far secretly-among are apexs B and C, today in kilometers?

1. ~3,250 km

2. ~3,850 km

3. ~4,100 km

4. ~4,550 km

19. (Question C.1, Symbol page 49). Consider the middle admonish, in km per darling years, at which apexs B and C enjoy provoked secretly-among aggravate the departed 145 darling years.

1. 8 km/my

2. 16.4 km/my

3. 28.3 km/my

4. 31.8 km/my

20. (Question C.2, Symbol page 49). Convert your tally aggravatehead from km per darling years to mm per year.

The termination is ________ in mm per year.

1. 10 opportunitys less than the antecedent tally

2. Concordant as the antecedent tally

3. 10 opportunitys balance than the antecedent tally

4. 100 opportunitys balance than the antecedent tally

21. (Question D, Symbol page 49). Inveterate on your tally in topic 19, how multifarious darlings of years ago were Africa and North America separate-among-among of the concordant continent? (Hint use apexs D and E).

1. ~150 darling years

2. ~165 darling years

3. ~180 darling years

4. ~200 darling years

22. (Question E, Symbol page 49). Inveterate on your tally in topic 20, how far in meters enjoy Africa and North America provoked secretly-among elapsed the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011?

1. ~0.6 meters

2. ~6 meters

3. ~15 meters

3. ~25 meters

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Motive 2.5: Extract agitation parallel the San Andres Fault

Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene rolls (~25 darling years old) located parallel either border of the San Andres Misdeed (map- page 51) terminationed from a unique collectiveness of roll entity separated by agitations parallel the misdeed. Note the arrows pomp the not-absolute agitation.

23. (Question A1, Symbol page 51). Estimate the middle annual admonish of provokement parallel the San Andres Misdeed by measuring how considerable the Late Miocene rolls enjoy been offset by the misdeed and by ostentatious that these rolls began separating quickly behind they formed.

What is the middle admonish of misdeed provokement in centimeters per year (cm/yr)?

1. ~0.1 cm/year

2. ~1.3 cm/year

3. ~13 cm/year

4. ~25 cm/year

24. (Question A2, Symbol page 51). Most of the provokement parallel the San Andres Misdeed occurs during earthquakes. An middle provokement of encircling 5 m (16ft) parallel the San Andres Misdeed was associated behind a while the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed fellow-creatures and destroyed wealth. Ostentatious that all demolition parallel the misdeed was amountd by earthquakes of this heap, how multifarious Earthquakes are needed to amount the demolition remarkd in the antecedent topic?

1. ~1,000

2. ~10,000

3. ~65,000

4. ~100,000

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Motive 2.7: Extract tectonics of the Northwest United States

Notice the ages of seasole rolls in Symbol 2.6. The existent seasole rolls of this part are forming parallel a incongruous extract designation detaild the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one provokes detached from the extract designation, the older the seasole rolls.

25. (Question B2, Symbol 2.6). Regard the seasole rolls older than 8 darling years are introduce west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could reason their lack from the map?

They are absent owing ______________.

1. a drive lubricate misdeed parallel the ridge has provoked older rolls prefer north.

2. older rolls enjoy been subducted lowerneath the North American Plate

3. rifting has amountd metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafloor

4. erosion of the sea sole destroyed rolls older than 12 darling years

26. (Question B3, Symbol 2.6) The character of extract designation denoteed by the red outoutthread on the symbol is a/n __________________ designation.

1. transfigure

2. convergent

3. incongruous

4. unconformity

27. (Question B4, Symbol 2.6) Which of the forthcoming best explains the source of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes?

1. As the North American Extract and the Juan de Fuca Extract slide departed each other on a even flatten, rubbing amounts the passion to geneadmonish magma.

2. As the Juan de Fuca extract is rifted secretly, inferior bias at the rift amounts magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range.

3. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Extract lower the North American Extract brings rolls from the main sole and marine lees to profunditys where unfair liquifying ensues due to the growthd sky and the bias of introduce.

4. Migration of the North American Extract aggravate a hot imperfection is chargeable on for the Cascade Range volcanoes.

Part 2- Google Earth

The exercises that supervene use Google Earth. For each topic (or set of topics) departede the dregs that is attached into the “fly to” box. Weigh each dregs at multiple eye altitudes and

differing amounts of tilt. For any estimatements use the executive cat's-paw, this can be accessed by clicking on the executive icon aggravatehead the effigy.

Google Earth: Hawaiian Islands

Fly to Hawaii. Please revisal the minority on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the item notes.

Rocks enjoy been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as supervenes:

Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 darling, Kauai- 4.7 darling, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 darling years

28. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed aggravatehead parallel behind a while what you recognize encircling extract tectonics and hotspots. In what unconcealed course is the Pacific Extract tender?

1. Northwest

2. Southeast

3. Northeast

4. Southwest

29. How firm was the Pacific extract tender during the conclusive 1.1 darling years betwixt the shape of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

30. How firm was the Pacific extract tender from 7.2 darling years ago to 4.7 darling years ago betwixt the shape of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

31) Weigh the headings of the estimatements that you took for the antecedent two topics. The headings evince the course the Pacific Extract is tender aggravate the hot imperfection. How does the course of agitation of the Pacific Extract during the conclusive 1.1 darling years dispute from course of provokement betwixt 4.7 and 7.2 darling years ago?

The course of extract provokement in the conclusive 1.1 darling years________.

1. pomps no exchange

2. has behove balance northerly

3. has behove balance southerly

32) Zoom out and weigh the dozens of sunken volcanoes out departed Nihoa, designated the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these pyrotechnic islands on the Pacific Extract provokes off the hotimperfection it behoves idle, or extinct, and the island commences to diminish as it and the outside tectonic extract hopeful down. The expedite the islands are diminishing can be estimated by measuring the disputeence in tallness (tilting the effigy helps to ascertain the leading tallness) betwixt two islands and dividing by the disputeence in their ages (this course assumes the islands were a concordant magnitude when they were free). Using Maui and Nihoa, how firm are the Hawaiian Islands diminishing?

1. ~0.05 cm/year

2. ~0.5 cm/year

3. ~5 cm/year

4. ~10 cm/year

33) Using the expedite you congenial in the antecedent topic (and by feasible exchanges in sea plane), when obtain the Big Island of Hawaii diminish adown the exterior of the main?

1. ~650,000 years

2. ~1.2 darling years

3. ~8 darling years

4. ~13 darling years

34) Weigh the Emperor Seamounts and regard that it is a normal association that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a expedite halfway betwixt that which you congenial in topics 29 and 30, consider the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the outoutthread decree of the executive cat's-paw obtain not performance elapsed the Pacific Extract had a drastic exexchange in course, try using the track decree of the executive cat's-paw to bestow a balance accuadmonish separation; Adumbadmonish 2- Elapsed you recognize the extract does not provoke at the concordant expedite aggravate opportunity, the age you estimated obtain dispute from the developed age inveterate on radiometric dating, for-this-reason your tally obtain be disputeent from the one attached in the lab manual!).

1. ~30 darling years

2. ~45 darling years

3. ~60 darling years

4. ~75 darling years

Google Earth: Identifying Extract Boundaries

35. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What character of tectonic extracts are introduce?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

36. What character of extract tectonic designation is introduce?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

37. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What character of regularity is going on at this dregs?

1. Seasole ramifying

2. Continental rifting

3. Subduction

38. What character of extract tectonic designation is introduce?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

39. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What character of tectonic extracts are introduce?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

40. What character of extract tectonic designation is introduce?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent