replies w13 DB

1-A.G
Childhood asthma is a frequent clinical occurrence associated with respiratory impairments and airway inflammation, which requires immediate treatment and long-term care. The discussed disorder can considerably worsen overall health conditions, reduce the quality of life, and increase the risk of life-threatening implications. The provided asthma-associated case study can be beneficial for reviewing short-term and long-term treatment options efficient for treating the given patient. Furthermore, one’s potential education can be ultimately useful for achieving sufficient treatment outcomes as well as organizing appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions.  
   The provided clinical case exemplifies moderate persistent asthma that requires immediate intervention. It is evident that short-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (SABA), systemic and inhaled corticosteroids, as well as anti-inflammatory medications, can provide quick symptomatic relief by reducing such aberrations as wheezing and bronchoconstriction present in the reviewed patient, normalizing respiration, and improving overall health. Furthermore, such drugs as inhaled steroids, leukotriene modifiers, nedocromil, cromolyn sodium, and methylxanthine can assist in providing long-term asthma control, stabilizing respiratory functions, and preventing possible asthma exacerbations and inappropriate lung growth in children (Woo & Robinson, 2015). It is estimated that a combination of SABAs and inhaled corticosteroids is useful for managing acute asthmatic exacerbations and maintaining normal respiratory functions (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). The beta2-adrenergic agonists like albuterol and levalbuterol are capable of exerting “their bronchodilatory effects through β2 adrenoceptors (β2ARs) located on airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells” and providing significant airway relaxation by activating the aforementioned receptors, whereas the steroid medications are efficient in decreasing airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness by lessening the number of circulating inflammatory mast cells and eosinophils in the respiratory tract (Billington, Penn, & Hall, 2017, p. 23). Furthermore, the use of inhaled corticosteroids can be also beneficial for relieving airway obstruction, normalizing respiratory functions, asthma control, and minimizing the risk of asthmatic exacerbations. 
   Patient education is important for achieving sufficient treatment outcomes. Patients, as well as their caregivers, have to be aware that adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen and recommendations, reporting adverse effects, and regular physical evaluation along with cooperative communication with a physician can assist in stabilizing the patient’s condition and preventing asthma progression. Therefore, asthma is a severe acute or chronic respiratory abnormality that requires competent treatment and care. It is estimated that inhaled SABA, as well as inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, are efficient for achieving short-term therapy goals, whereas leukotriene modifiers, methylxanthines, and anti-inflammatory agents demonstrate normal heir efficacy in providing long-term asthma control and maintaining normal respiratory functioning. Lastly, a patient’s teaching is a critical component of successful medication. 

2-michael V.
The short-term option for this child diagnosed with asthma will be bronchodilators to quickly relieve his symptoms by opening swollen airways that are limiting breathing (Saglani, Fleming, Sonnappa, & Bush, 2019).  Long-term options include Inhaled corticosteroids, Leukotriene modifiers, Long-acting beta agonists, and Combination inhalers. Corticosteroids are the first line of treatment for severe acute asthma, because of the inflammatory process.  Steroids control airway inflammation through a number of mechanisms, such as reducing the number and activation of lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages; suppressing the production of cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, adhesion molecules, and inducible enzymes, including nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2.  The step-up approach involves beginning with low-dose treatment and increasing intensity at subsequent visits if control is not achieved (Bateman et al., 2019). When selecting the medication and dosage, the provider must take into account the risk to the patient, severity of disease, and potential for impairment.
The goal of asthma treatment is to decrease symptoms and reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity.  Healthcare provider should develop written asthma action plan with the patient and his mother for self-management, so they know how to recognize the severity of its symptoms (peak flow) and what to do (Bateman et al., 2019).  Patient should be educated on ways to control exposures to allergens.  An allergy test will be a good plan to identify the patient’s allergy (Bateman et al., 2019).  The patient may need a referral to a pulmonologist if symptoms are uncontrolled with the current regiment.  Pulmonary function testing may be necessary in this child’s case.
References
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