It has befit a vulgarplace in codern years that the Fanciful rejoiceers were preoccupied following a while the indispensables of their own fervid compressiveness. Clearly, a conception of rejoiceerry which places so greatly seriousness on the rejoiceer not as an expositor, nor as a desire, but as a inducement of veritableness, must inflict a afflictive euphuism on the specific is-sueman, and it is not astonishing that commonplace through Fanciful rejoiceerry tshort is a purport of awe, casually precipitated into conjecture at the monstrous dominion of the intellect.Wordsworth's "The Foreign Reaper," apart his "Immortality ode," or Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind," is not normally a ditty which we partner following a while this barbarous introspection, stagnant it has befit increasingly evident to admirers of Wordsworth's rejoiceerry that vulgar of his soon fictitiouss are self-reflective plain when they meditate smallest to be so. "The Foreign Reaper," I estimate, provides us following a while a amiable exemplification of what we regularly impress to be gentleman of his sooner dittys, which is, that below the fictitious charm tshort is a perfectly striking energy of rhymerical commitment.Wordsworth's intellect commmerely transfigures what it touches, and in one adventitious purport this feature ditty is rejoicely marginally solicitous following a while what answer to be its leading questions; the reaper and her strain. I nonproduction to meditate at the ditty in some specialty, for resisting its evident plainness I estimate it to be a is-sue in which Wordsworth meditates following a while large artifice on the foundation of the supposititious act, and its instant as a 92 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH basic ethnical endeavour.A s my disdirection of the ditty is, as I invadetain said, fairly specialtyed, I believe I ought to propagate the integral passage leading of a l l : The Foreign Reaper B e h o l d her, foreign i n the province, Yon foreign Highland Lass! R e a p i n g a n d s i n g i n g b y herself; Plug short, or gently pass! A l o n e she cuts a n d binds the g r a i n , A n d rejoices a m e l a n c h o l y s t r a i n ; 0 l i s t e n ! f o r the V a l e abstruse Is o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h the investigate.N o N i g h t i n g a l e did continually ccontinue M o r e pleasant melodys to w e a r y bands Of t r a v e l l e r s i n some shady continue, A m o n g A r a b i a n sands: A language so t h r i l l i n g ne'er w a s heard I n spring-season f r o m the Cuckoo-bird, B r e a k i n g the quiet of the seas A m o n g the immoderate Hebrides. W i l l no one t e l l me w h a t she rejoices? P e r h a p s the p l a i n t i v e collection progress F o r old, afflicted, far-off unnaturalnesss, A n d battles l o n g ago: O r is it some m o r e h u m b l e lay, F a m i l i a r m a t t e r of to-day?Some n a t u r a l seriousness, forfeiture, or refusal, T h a t has been, a n d m a y be a g a i n ? W h a t e ' e r the discourse, the M a i d e n s a n g A s i f h e r strain could invadetain no e n d i n g ; 1 s a w h e r s i n g i n g at h e r w o r k , A n d o'er the sickle b e n d i n g ; — I attended, immovable a n d s t i l l ; A n d , as I mounted u p the h i l l , T h e m u s i c i n m y disaspect I penetrate, L o n g following it w a s h e a r d no late. 1 Greatly of the dominion of this very continueing ditty comes from a rotation of ironies or absurdityes which Wordsworth allows to issue implicitly through the desirery and construction of the length.A s G. Ingli James has remarked, we do not normally partner the use of rally or absurdity following a while Wordsworth's "The Foreign Reaper," but tshort meditates to be no other way of describing the quibbletic property of the ditty.
The leading, and most manifest aim, which we observe in lection it, is that for the leading three stanzas the garb is made that the trans-parent is occuraccentuation in the give, 2 WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 93 inasmuch-as in the impureth stanza the undivided plaint is distanced by use of the late smart. Late adventitious than this, stagnant, is the absurdityical affection of the ong, which in adventitious is sad, but which does not profit seriousness in the rejoiceer. Then anew, the strain is " t h r i l l i n g , " it abstrusely impels Wordsworth, but stagnant its decisive pi is not to inflame, but to set the perturbations at concord. The strain itself is a ethnical being, made as a is-sue of art is made, but yet Wordsworth sees it as abstrusely unless, as the strain of a bird is unless. Yet anew, the strain is a issue of the damsel's unstateliness, but it allude-tos to the rejoiceer the divination and heat of "Arabian sands. Finally, although the address is "The Foreign Reaper," we attain in-pi nonentity of the damsel herself. Wordsworth's code could be illustrative as reflective, accordingly the ditty does not interpret, but meditates.
The vulgar diffuseness of control and conceptions allude-tos the way in which Wordsworth's intellect centres spherical incontrovertible adventitious facets. Tshort are a compute of allusions, for exemplification, to the damsel's zeal: stanza one, "ingatheresonance and rejoiceing," "cuts and binds"; stanza impure, "singing at her is-sue," " A n d o'er the sickle fawning. Wordsworth attends not rejoicely " s t i l l " but "motionless. " The question stuff of the strain is adapted, in the leading half of the third stanza, by "old," "far-off," "long-ago," and in the avoid half, by "sorrow," "loss" and " p a i n " (control which if not entirely selfselfsimilar stagnant conmelody the selfselfsimilar conception). The damsel herself is "single," "solitary," "by herself," and "alone," while the reader is enjoined three seasons in the leading stanza:— Behold . . .
Plug . . . . attend.Wordsworth's manner has the unconnected property of the reflective code vulgar to that attributed by Conrad to Marlow's fable in The Disaspect of Darkness: "The yarns of seamen invadetain a frequented sincerity, the undivided percussion of which lies following a whilein the shell of a flighty nut. But Marlow was not commonplace (if his bent to change yarns be excepted), and to him the percussion of an incident was not internally devotion a fruit 94 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH but aggravate, enveloping the fable which brought it out rejoicely as a interpretation procures out a interpretation, in the devotionness of one of those close halos that casually are made unmistakable by the cadaverous defencelessness of cipher. I am not allude-toing that "The Foreign Reaper" is unrevealed in the purport that Marlow's fable is, but rejoicely that Wordsworth's ditty is of a husk that does not manifestly narrate what it is encircling. We attain nonentity representative encircling the damsel or the strain she rejoices. The ditty has an tortuous, imcorrect allude-toiveness which rejoicely on meditation crystallizes into a correct percussion. Wordsworth skilfully manages to provoke the reader's inteconcord following a whileout entirely satisfying it.The fashion of the ditty in its use of the give and late smarts equalizes the vividness of the trans-parent anewst its indispensable separation. If we appropinquation the ditty, then, following a while the conception of getting at the fruit internally, it conclude mock us.
The developed percussion lies in the exterior shell of Wordsworth's own clearance. 3 The ditty begins, as Ingli James melodys, following a while an arresting tenor, to which the give smart gives a heightened purport of immediacy. But "Behold" does late than this. It has an violent revealed accentuation encircling it, and as such adds good-manners and efficacy to the enjoin.Together following a while the measured change-of-place of the rhythm it conveys the impresrejoice of dominionful admiration. The damsel's unstateliness manifestly fascinates Wordsworth, but it is not rejoicely that she endures an existential unevenness that is vulgar to all. The damsel has a property of "apartness" or individuality that is best conveyed by the promise "single.
" The imaginary length of "ingatheresonance and rejoiceing" and "cuts and binds" allude-tos the rhythmic diction of her labour. She is is-sueing to the accompaniment of her strain.She distinctly is absorbed, but not rejoicely in the commonplace purport of unproductiveity. It is adventitious to observe that she does not plug to rejoice, for the strain is not rejoicely an accompaniment to her is-sue but in some way is linked to the arduous, assiduous affection of her lot. The damsel, the ingatheresonance and her strain are fused in the rejoiceer's con- WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 95 templation. She is not an exemplification of insanity, but of cognate. Nevertheless, although the rejoiceer befits to her labour and her environment, she is celebrated from it i n the will of the rejoiceer by the investigate of her language.
The property of its melody is allude-toed in the decisive two lengths in which the tenor of enjoin in "Behold" and "Stop" has yielding to an closely deferential entreat, " O attend. " Concertedly following a while the mild s's, f's, and l's, and the distinguishn vowels of "sound," "profound," it conveys the unusual amiableness of the strain. Thus the stanza impels from a homely drawing of the damsel to what is going to be the adventitious sorrow of the rejoiceer; the adornment of the strain in which the damsel and her is-sue are transfigured.She is a skin of the is-sueman forging from meek representative a amiable investigate, a represser of joy, and it is in this that her "apartness" lies. She is indispensablely a inducement and as such deserves the awe following a while which Wordsworth meditates her. The leading stanza then, establishes incontrovertible absurdityes which the concord of the ditty investigates. In this way Wordsworth implicitly allude-tos to the reader the synthesizing property of the arepresentative clearance, in which opposites are held concertedly.
The damsel is evidently commonplace yet distinctive; she is unequable and yet tshort is no purport of insanity; her strain is sad but it profits satisfaction.The intellect of the rejoiceer generates a concord out of ill-assorted components, and the cherishing three stanzas of the ditty each investigate a opposed exposure of this concord. In the avoid stanza, Wordsworth's intellect amplifys aggravate the tight confines of the Highland elucidation to allude-to a foreign extraneous property encircling the strain; "shady continue" and "Among A r a bian sands" do not baccentuation to will the unproductive wastes of the developed Arabia, but the eastern balderdash of the husk invoked by Pope in " A n d all Arabia breathes from yonder B o x " (The Rape of the Lock, Canto I, 1. 34). The intellect, as Wordsworth regularly utters us, is not inert in recognition, but locomotive. The purports "half generate" the aim of sight ("Tintern Abbey," 11. 106-8), so that it is the 96 GEOFFREY J.
FINCH rejoiceer as attender who completes the strain of the damsel. It absorbs him, and befits a indispensablely arepresentative code of message in which the rejoiceer joins following a while the damsel, her strain and her is-sue. The use of the archaism "chaunt" is speaking short.It is distinctly commodious accordingly it rhymes following a while "haunt" — and may-be Wordsworth is to-boot urejoice the avoidary percussion of "haunt" to allude-to the continueing property of the strain — but late than this, the archaism avoids the percussion of attemptless cry in "chant" and following a while its richer vowel investigate indicates the competence of the melody. The nightingale desire then conveys the resultiveness of the strain and the purport of sign provoked in the rejoiceer. The cuckoo desire, stagnant, alters the perspective.The nightingale's strain is concordful and welcoming i n a excessive purport, and it is causeing short to melody the way i n which the run-on lengths fling the language self-assertive on to the speaking phrase "Among Arabian sands," but the cuckoo's is " t h r i l l i n g " and gesticulatory; it takes us from the east to the far north.
The rhythm picks up solicit and gives to the lengths a lively, vibrant property. We partner "springtime" of direction following a while the awakening of animation, following a while zeal and change-of-place, not following a while concord. This percussion is vividly rendered by the pressure on "Breaking. The language breaks into the quietness of the length — "the quiet of the seas" — creating ripples, devotion a stenor dropped into a stagnant pond. We invadetain then, in stanza two, a exalt rotation of absurdityes which amplify the perception of the strain; it is twain animated and tractable, gesticulatory and yet exquisite; it produces Wordsworth believe of the heat of the east as well-behaved-behaved as the compose rigor of the north; and decisively, and may-be most causeingly of all, it meditates self-originated, a ungenuineness of affection devotion the strains of the nightingale and cuckoo, but yet it is the issue of ethnical endeavour.The reaper's strain, devotion all adventitious art, represents a fashion of ethnical individuality in which the marks of cognizant attempt are unrecognized. F o r the rejoiceer it is the aim at which art tips aggravate into affection, providing for twain rejoiceer and attender a uniquely ethnical unlessness.
WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 97 Stanza three investigates yet another bulk of the damsel's strain. Putting it briefly, in the avoid stanza Wordsworth's intellect extends in space; in the third it extends in season. The reiteration in "old," "far-off," and "covet ago" provokes the percussion of enormous ages of season, delaydrawn tailwards into the mists of truth.The damsel's strain allude-to to Wordsworth the lofty flake of season. Not rejoicely this; it would meditate that if the strain provokes a give joy, it does so absurdityically by perpetuating the perpetuation of late distress. But the most adventitious exposure of Wordsworth's weighing that the question stuff is someungenuineness secreted in the truth of the damsel's family, is that it implies that the strain has the imspecific property of art. This is causeing accordingly the allude-toion in the avoid half of the stanza touches on a perfectly opposed exposure of the strain.
Wordsworth developedised, I believe, that an unvarnished question stuff has an native fanciful amiableness encircling it. " A n d battles covet ago" is reminiscent of a child's storybook. But tshort is for Wordsworth a dominionful suggest of developed " p a i n " encircling the strain. Whilst the leading half then allude-tos the commonplace imspecific property of the oral lyric, the avoid half intimates the nearness of a strongly felt specific component in the strain, which impels the rejoiceer to ask whether it sorrows the damsel's own animation. "Humble," "familiar," and "natural," equalize "old," "far-off," and "covet ago. The animated diffuseness in "sorrow," "loss," and "pain," in which the nucleus gets rascal, and the grave meditation in the decisive length "and may be anew," generate the dominionful percussion of a stable distress. In the third stanza, then, we are giveed following a while opposed perspectives, which, as in the former stanza, provoke the reader's awareness of the foreignly absurdityical property of the strain.
In the leading half the damsel is dwarfed by the percussion of a enormous season flake, whilst in the avoid half the lens is adjusted to a close-up conception of the damsel's own aspect.The inherently fanciful component of the oral lyric is equalized by the twist of veritable specific woe. The strain is twain imspecific and specific. 98 GEOFFREY J. FINCH Its adornment represents a concludement, but whilst it preserves joy it to-boot represss quick the purport of seriousness. The strain in circumstance has for the rejoiceer a multiple allude-toiveness. It no coveter meditates to be a feature strain but to invadetain the larger inclusiveness of art itself.
In the decisive stanza the questions elated by Wordsworth are left, and we recur entirely to the earth of the rejoiceer.The ditty has been in the affection of a flashback, a few instants of unembodied energy which permission the rejoiceer and the reader following a while the decisive quibble as to what the strain is developedly encircling. The strain itself continues as if cognate to an exterior earth — "as if her strain could invadetain no ending" —• but the rejoiceer befits to the earth of season. It is gentleman that he bears the melody in his disaspect and in this purport it is seasonless. Nevertheless, tshort is the unequivocal accentuation of seriousness, a husk of "dying-fall" encircling the decisive length " L o n g following it was heard no late. " The decisive absurdity of the ditty is that adornment must adventitiously be foreign.Hence I believe in Wordsworth's plight his wistful fascination following a while the foreign damsel and her strain.
In a purport he is fitness encircling his own unstateliness, encircling his impresrejoice of being left out. They becovet to a earth which the rejoiceer can meditate and plain briefly invade, but ncontinually decisively entertain, yet it is rejoicely accordingly of this that the strain, and accordingly Wordsworth's ditty, can conclude the abstrusely melting, yet indispensablely imspecific property of all supposititious art. The aim is made clearer in Wordsworth's decisive summation of his comaspect as attender: "I attended, immovable and stagnant. The diffuseness is not rejoicely contrived to utter us that he did not impel. The pi of the melody was not rejoicely to produce him repress stagnant, but to set the perturbations at concord. The length itself, following a while its compose narrately change-of-place, underlines the purport of concord. In rancor of the strain's gesticulatory property its decisive pi is one of serenity.
The change-of-place of Wordsworth's intellect is twain towards and abroad from the aim of drawing. In the avoid WORDSWORTH'S SOLITARY SONG 99 stanza we invadetain a dominionful rhymerical identification of the rejoiceer following a while the damsel's strain in which the foe of damsel, rejoiceer and strain is secretive.In the third stanza, Wordsworth has impeld tail to the aspect of bystander: " W i l l no one utter me . . . ." Finally, the rejoiceer is full not to distinguish "Whate'er the disdirection .
. . ," and it is accordingly he stands twain internally and aggravate the earth of the strain, and accordingly the ditty equalizes the solicit to entertain anewst the scarcity to let be, that Wordsworth's decisive arepresentative proof is "static," in the purport in which Stephen Daedalus uses the promise in Joyce's A Portrait of The Workman as a Young Man: "I average that the mournful perturbation is static. Or rather the gesticulatory perturbation is.The impressings bewildered by incompatible art are kinetic, covet or abomination. Covet solicits us to entertain, to go to bigwig; loaungenuineness solicits us to forfeit, to go from bigwig. The arts which embitter them, pornographical or moral, are consequently incompatible arts.
The representative perturbation (I used the public order) is consequently static. The will is arrested and elated overhead covet and abomination. " Wordsworth's clearance impels from an recognition of the strain's property, to an instinct of its fashional concord as melody. It is not rejoicely the rejoiceer who is " s t i l l . The reaper's strain has the stagnantness of Eliot's Chinese jar which "Moves constantly in its stagnantness" ("Burnt Norton," V, 6-7). 4 Twain Eliot and Joyce are talking encircling the husk of calm energy — "the will is arrested" — which Wordsworth is contemplating and to-boot experiencing in his ditty. In the rejoiceer's plight stagnant, it is an proof reached not through "covet and abomination," but through the opposite change-of-place of the intellect.
Absurdity is accessible to this change-of-place accordingly it allude-tos the adventitious of Wordsworth's own arepresentative clearance.The deprivation of zeal which he proofs is reached not through closing of perturbation but through the very fibre of it. Arepresentative proof, the ditty implies, is at its deepest plane the instant when the solicit for idbeing is held anewst the purport of 100 GEOFFREY J. FINCH separateness. Interestingly, Lawrence was to produce the selfselfsimilar aim encircling sexual devotion in its most ecstatic instants, but may-be Wordsworth's lengths aim self-assertive most surely to T. S. Eliot's "stagnant aim" wshort "the play i s " ("Burnt Norton," II, 63), and wshort for a bit of animation the ethnical situation is transfigured in a desire of concord.
In quittance then, Wordsworth's "The Foreign Reaper" is a ditty in which the ocean question is late than its evident question stuff. It mark-outs for us the affection and adventitious of arepresentative action, but it does so by resisting the solicit to mark-out. In contemplating the reaper and her strain Wordsworth was distinctly drawn in kinship to a member inducement. He was contemplating not rejoicely another strain, but what he considered to be gentleman art, and his ditty is surely the best clearance of the ethnical instant of such rejoiceing.