The Simucouple example were contrived and the fruit are in the consultation 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, beneath.
Direct torque tranquillityrain (DTC) and fuzzy logic after a while responsibility harmony example were calculated.
Because we neglect to tranquillityrain the motor accelerates in regulate to rankify the eminent ripple torque of the motor.
In the principles of plain torque tranquillityrain of motor, the ripples in the motor can be rankifyd if the hallucinations of the torque and the flow coupleage and the lowerhanded portion of the flow coupleage are sub-divided into sepaobjurgate weaker sub-section then the hallucinations should be eliminate and compared in other to prime voltage vector after a while less ripples, in doing so, a aggravate complimentary voltage vector is being primeed in the switching of the trodden future the torque and flow coupleage hallucinations were rankifyd.
In the commonplace plain torque tranquillityrain, a voltage vector is applied for the liberal switching bound, and this causes the stator usual and electromagnetic torque to growth aggravate the well switching bound. Thus for weak hallucinations, the electromagnetic torque exceeds its relation objurgate future during the switching bound, and continues to growth, causing a eminent torque ripple. This is then followed by switching cycles in which the cipher switching vectors are applied in regulate to rankify the electromagnetic torque to its relation objurgate.
The ripple in the torque and flow can be minimize by frequenteding the primeed inverter vector for a exhaustive switching bound, as in the commonplace plain torque tranquillityrain motor accelerate, but merely for a dissect of the switching bound. The spell for which a non-cipher voltage vector has to be applied is primeed honest to growth the electromagnetic torque to its relation objurgate and the cipher voltage vector was applied for the tranquillity of the switching bound.
During the impression of the cipher voltage vector, no government was consumed by the implement, and thus the electromagnetic flow is closely faithful, it was merely declines slightly. The mediocre input DC voltage to the motor during the impression of each switching vector was Vdc. By arrangeing the responsibility harmony betwixt cipher and one, it is feasible to frequented voltage to the motor after a while an mediocre objurgate betwixt 0 and Vdc during each switching bound.
Thus, the Torque ripple accomplish be low compared to when the liberal DC couple voltage was frequenteding for the exhaustive switching bound. This growths the require of the voltage vector, after a whileout an growth in the calculate of semiconductor switches in the inverter.
The responsibility harmony of each switching bound is a non-linear business of the Electromagnetic torque hallucination, stator flow-linkage hallucination, and the pose of the stator flow coupleage distance vector. Therefore, by using a fuzzy-logic-based plain torque tranquillityrain trodden, it is feasible to effect fuzzy-logic-based responsibility-harmony tranquillityrain, where the responsibility harmony is solid during each switching cycle. In such a fuzzy logic trodden, there are three inputs, the electromagnetic torque hallucination, the stator flow-linkage distance vector pose (??) after a whilein each sector assigned after a while the voltage vectors and the flow hallucination where the output of the fuzzy-logic tranquillityrainler is similar to the objurgate of responsibility harmony.
There are several signs of fuzzy logic tranquillityrainler for this dissecticular impression. A Mamdani-sign fuzzy logic tranquillityrainler, which contains a administration mean, a fuzzifier, and a defuzzifier, is primeed. Fuzzification is effected using connection business. The inputs and the output of the fuzzy tranquillityrainler are assigned Gausian connection businesss. The cosmos-people of yarn for the torque hallucination and the responsibility harmony is numerous using airss to get accepconsultation torque ripple decline.
The care in the fuzzy administration is to rankify the torque ripple. Generally the responsibility harmony is proportional to the torque hallucination, gone the torque objurgate of shift is proportional to the predilection betwixt the stator flow and the applied voltage vector, the responsibility harmony depends on the pose of the flow after a whilein each sector. The use of two fuzzy sets is the circumstance that when the stator flow is elder than its relation objurgate a voltage vector that remove the stator flow vector by two sectors is applied which fruit in a eminenter objurgate of shift for the torque compared to the impression of a voltage vector that remove the stator flow vector by one sector when the stator flow coupleage is inferior than its relation objurgate.
The responsibility harmony is primeed proportional to the lump of the torque hallucination so that if the torque hallucination is Small, Balance or Capacious THEN the responsibility harmony is Small, Balance orLarge respectively. The fuzzy administrations are then arrangeed to image the property of the flow hallucination, torque hallucination and pose of the distance vector hallucination. If the torque hallucination is balance and the stator flow lies in sector after a while lump elder than its relation objurgate then the voltage vector Vk+2 is primeed.
If the flow pose is weak, that instrument there is a capacious predilection betwixt the flow and the primeed voltage vector that makes the primeed vector aggravate efficacious in increasing the torque so that the responsibility harmony is set as weak rather than balance, the fuzzy administration is reordinary as IF (torque hallucination is balance) AND (flow pose is weak) THEN (responsibility harmony is weak)IF (torque hallucination is capacious) AND (flow pose is weak) THEN (responsibility harmony is balance).
Using the over reasoning and airs to invent the fuzzy administrations, the two sets of fuzzy administrations are summarized in Consultation 3.2 beneath.
Table 3.2 Rules for the responsibility harmony fuzzy tranquillityrainler
Flux Torque hallucination dT=k1 Weak Balance Large
Negative
d?=0 Weak Inferior Weak Medium
Large Weak Balance Large
Positive
?d=1 Weak Inferior Balance Large
Medium Weak Balance Large
Large Balance Capacious Large
The fuzzy logic instrumentbox was used in the implementation of the responsibility harmony fuzzy tranquillityrainler. The Picturesque User Interface interposed in the instrumentbox was used to edit the connection businesss for the inputs (the torque hallucination and the flow pose),the output (the responsibility harmony). The connection businesss and the fuzzy administrations were arrangeed using the airs until an accepconsultation torque ripple decline was achieved.
Simulate the example over in the Simucouple environment and validate the fruit.
The example that accomplish rankifyd the eminent ripple torque in the collation motor were plain.
To qualify us con-over the effectance of the usual plain torque tranquillityrain and fuzzy logic after a while responsibility harmony tranquillityrainler for disgusting (4) pole motor torque tranquillityrain and so to counterfeit for the identical and signed for the scope of reducing the eminent torque ripple in the motor accelerate.
The motor facts's
Definition of terms
Pa = Active government per presentation
Qa = Presentation reactive government
Ia = Presentation usual
Va = presentation voltage
Rs = Stator curveing hindrance
Rr = Rotor curveing hindrance
Lm = Magnetizing inductance per presentation
Xis = Stator leakage reactance
Lis = Stator inductance per presentation
Xir = Rotor leakage reactance
Lir = Rotor leakage inductance per presentation
Dc = Plain usual
Rdc = Hindrance in plain usual
X = Reactance
Xm = Magnetizing reactance
Xn = Total reactance
DETERMINATION OF INDUCTION MOTOR DATAS
The motor is a three presentation 158-W, 240-V collation motor (Model 295 Bodine Electric Co.)
The motor is Y-connected after a while no appropinquation to the indifferent aim.
DC Hindrance Test:
To detailize R1;
Connect any two stator leads to a capricious voltage DC government furnish.
Adhonest the government furnish to agree objurgated stator usual.
Determine the hindrance from the voltmeter and ammeter readings.
As shown in illustration 3.7, a DC voltage VDC is applied so that the usual IDC is peace to the motor rating.
Because the implement is Y-connected: RS = Rdc/2 = (VDC/IDC)/2.
From extent, VDC = 30.6V, IDC = 1.05A.
Hence, RS = RDC = (31.5/1.04) = 15.14?/phase.2 2
Figure 3.7 Circumference for DC hindrance criterion.
BLOCKED – ROTOR TEST
To detailize X1 and X2
Determine R2 when wholly after a while facts from the DC criterion.
Block the rotor so that it accomplish not adapt.
Connect to a capricious voltage furnish and adhonest until the obstructed – rotor usual is similar to the objurgated usual.
NO LOAD TEST
To detailize the magnetizing reactance, Xm and wholly kernel, rubbing, and curve age losses.
Connect as in obstruct rotor criterion beneath.
The rotor is unblocked and recognized to run unloaded at objurgated voltage and abundance.
The set up for no enjoin criterion and obstructed rotor criterion is shown in the illustration beneath:
Figure 3.8 Circumference for no enjoin and locked rotor criterion.
With the motor present at no enjoin, mete V, I and P to invent the implement reactance Xn =Xis+Xm
Table 4.3 Measured objurgate
Frequency (Hz) 50
Voltage (V) 230
Current (A) 1.32
Real government (W) 158
At no enjoin the per-segregate lubricate is closely cipher, future the equiponderant circumference is as shown in illustration 3.9 beneath.
Figure 3.9 Equiponderant circumference of three presentation collation motor lower no enjoin criterion.
The genuine government P represents,
Hysteresis and Eddy usual losses (kernel losses)
Friction and curve age losses (rotational losses)
Copper losses in stator and rotor (usually weak as no enjoin)
Phase voltage:
Va =V = 220 = 132V
?3 ?3
Phase usual:
la = 1.32A
Phase genuine government:
Pa = Pa/3 = 138.2 ÷3 = 46.1W
Phase reactive government:
Q_a = ??(VaIa)2-P2a= ?(((137 x 1.32)2)-(46.1)2)=174.86VAr?_
Xn = Qa=174.86 =100.36?
I2a 1.322
Since S ~ 0,
Xn~ Xls +Xm
3. Locked rotor criterion
With the rotor locked, the rotor urge is cipher and per- segregate lubricate is similar to segregatey. The equiponderant circumference is as shown in Illustration 3.10 or Illustration 3.11.
Figure 3.10 Equiponderant circumference of three presentation collation motor lower locked rotor criterion.
Figure 3.11 Simplified equiponderant circumference of three presentation collation motor lower locked rotor tranquillity.
Table 4.4 the criterioned objurgate
Frequency (Hz) 50
Voltage (V) 68.52
Current (A) 1.3
Real government (W) 105.33
Phase voltage:
Va =V = 68.52 = 39.56V
?3 ?3
Phase usual:
la = 1.3A
Active government per presentation
Pa = P = 105.33=35.1W
3 3
Reactive government presentation
Q_a = ??(VaIa)2-P^2 a= ?(((35.56 x1.3)2)-(35.1)2)=30.08VAr?_
For a rank C motor.
Xls = 0.3 x Qa= 0.3 x 30.08 = 5.34?
I2a 1.32
Xlr = 0.7 xQa = 0.7 x 30.08 = 12.46?
12a 1.32
From the no – enjoin criterion, Xn = 100.36?, so
Xm = Xn – Xls = 100.36 - 5.34 = 95.02?
R = Pa = 35.1 = 20.77?
12a 1.32
From illustrations 3.11,
R2 = R – Ris= 20.77 – 5.34 = 1 5.43?
Comparing illustrations 3.10 and 3.11,
R2 + jX2 = (Rr + jXir) x jXm
(Rr + jXir) + jXm
R2 =Rr X2m
Rr + (Xlr + Xm)2
Rr = R2 x (Xir + Xm)2 = 15.43 x (12.46 + 95.02)2 = 19.74?
Xm 95.02
Summarizing,
Stator curveing hindrance Rs = 15.14?/phase
Rotor curveing hindrance Rr = 19.74?/phase
Magnetizing reactance Xm = 95.02?/phase
The magnetizing inductance per presentation is
Lm = Xm = 95.02 = 0.3024H
2?f 2? x 50
Stator leakage reactance Xls= 5.34?/phase
The stator inductance per presentation is
Lls = Xls= 5.34 = 0.0169H.
2?f 2nx50
Rotor leakage reactance Xlr = 12.46?/phase,
The rotor leakage inductance per presentation is
Llr = Xlr =12.46 = 0.0396H.
2?f 2?x50
Table 4.5: Motor parameters
Rated voltage 240V
Maximum torque 1.5N-m
Poles 4
Rated urge 1440rpm
Stator hindrance 15.14?
Rotor hindrance 19.74?
Stator leakage inductance 0.0169H
Rotor leakage inductance 0.0396H
Mutual inductance 0.3024H
IMPLEMENTATION
MATLAB fuzzy logic instrument box was used in the implementation of the responsibility harmony fuzzy tranquillityrainler. The picturesque user interface interposed in the instrument box was used to edit the connection businesss for the inputs (the torque hallucination and the flow pose), the output (the responsibility harmony). A Mamdani sign fuzzy consequence engine was used in the airs. The connection businesss and the fuzzy administrations were arrangeed using the airs until a dissecticular torque ripple decline was achieved.
To recognize the effectance of the responsibility harmony tranquillityrainler, the airs was run at switching abundance of 5KHz. The variety betwixt the usual DTC and DTC after a while responsibility harmony fuzzy tranquillityrain was clfuture genuineized by monitoring the switching action of the stator voltage and the electric torque. The primeed voltage vector is applied for the exhaustive sampling bound and the torque keeps increasing for the exhaustive bound, then a cipher voltage is applied and the torque keeps decreasing for the exhaustive sampling bound and these fruits in eminent torque ripple.
The primeed voltage vector is applied for dissect of the sampling bound and removed for the tranquillity of the bound. As a fruit, the electric torque growths for dissect of the sampling bound and then starts to decline. By arrangement of the responsibility harmony, the desired mediocre torque may be uniformly maintained. The responsibility harmony tranquillityrainler smoothly arranges the mediocre stator voltage.