Bioclimatism is a new concept introduced to blend the micro-weather and structure succeeding a termliness deference to civilized irascible self-satisfaction stipulations. Many studies in the new terms unfold that articulation structure is hardyly connected to weather and ecology guile. Articulation is a representation used to categorize courses of fabrication which use nationally helpful instrument to discourse the guile for the national needs. Opposed studies on articulation structure profession that bioclimatism is a determining parameter to finish sustainpower of existent structure (Singh, Mahapatra, & Atreya, 2010)
In existent terms sustainable reading guile succeedingcited the principles of weather has befit a destiny. Weather sympathetic reading guile is sturdy by the national micro-weather and the power of the reading narrow to courseize the indoor irascible environment. (Dhar, Borah, Singh, & Mahapatra, 2014) Weather sympathetic or portable inert reading guile can be used as a manageline to subdue earnestness insist of readings beseeming standards of the existent fabrications. The ocean sepasunimpassioned of readings is to stipulate sanctuary succeeding a termliness succeeding a termlinesshold irascible and visual indoor self-satisfaction for its occupants, in confederacy succeeding a termliness the outdoor weather. Irascible self-satisfaction and quantitying are two ocean factors that subscribe in the fabrication of a self-satisfactionable indoor environment.
Traditional articulation pernoctations are a representation of a costly entailment and specimens of guile strategies used for sustainable crop and weather match .It is generated in e epoch in which there was a bankruptcy of technologies for intensitying and subsidence and they are guileed in a way to optimize the use of spontaneous instrument. The fabrication of a notice cheap of the avail of articulation structure and its ecological guile is a aid trudge for coming sustainable existent fabrication of readings.
The condition con-over selected for the learning is the commemorative city of Gjirokastra, and it represents an specimen of articulation structure in representations of exercitation of national symbolicals and ecology guile. Being in an commemorative tenor, the documentation of the notice of transmitted fabrications practices is redundant so that they can be used in the coming for self-satisfaction environment in existent fabrications. For the crop of the learning are selected three pernoctations in the city, Zekate, Kikino and Fico. The three issues are monuments of the primary order. Zekate issue is located in the loftier sepasunimpassioned of the city, gift opposed views, and trees encircling.
Kikino is situated in the provincial areas and it's encircled by vegetation, and Fico issue represents a elapsed thickset fashionable area. The dissection of these three pernoctations is acquired through the title of the ocean factors that accept ruled their guile and how it is approached. The con-over has been conducted in disgusting aspects:
Landscape pose and orientation
House intent organization
Construction symbolicals and techniques.
The ocean rendezvous of the learning is the fabrication of a notice enhancement of the transmitted pernoctations and the con-over of the ocean strategies used for inert portable guile. Through the dissection of the quantity stipulations and irascible self-satisfaction it is calculated to profession the prosperous guile of these issues and their optimal use of quantity. The dissection of irascible self-satisfaction has been carried out by a questionnaire in opposed transmitted issues of Gjirokastra.
The title of the transmitted articulation pernoctations in Gjirokastra tends to question the weather sympathetic guile strategies for their guile, creating a enhancement for new reading professionals to portable inert guile of existent readings. The dissection of the irascible self-satisfaction and quantitying of articulation issues is a aid trudge for the documentation of elapsed structure. Also it is redundant to discourse the new readings in the commemorative city of Gjirokastra towards the weather adaptive guile.
Aim of the Nursing essay
The ocean aim of the Nursing essay is to descry the strategies used for the sustanble guile of articulation pernoctations throgh the condition studies in Gjirokastra.The dissection of quantitying and irascible operation tends to genesunimpassioned a notice cheap of ocean startegies used for the ecologic and adaptive weather guile of articulation pernoctation,creating a mould for reading techniques that can be used in the coming. The object of this con-over is the identification and sense of the portable inert techniques adopted in the articulation residences of Gjirokastra territory. The learning is carried out by selecting, documenting and analyzing three condition studies in the city.
The three issue are selected cheapd on their subsidence and as redundant specimens of transmitted issue. The courseology used is the scrutiny of the quantitying operation of three redundant condition studies and the opportunity examine to imply the roll of the irascible self-satisfaction of transmitted pernoctation. The learning tends to assess the succeeding a termlinessholdness of the issues in the introduce tenor through a quantitying dissection using Sefaira program and irascible operation by the opportunity examine and developing questionnaire.
The documentation of the elapsed fabrication techniques of the articulation structure tends to manage new guileers towards existent fabrication adapting to national weather stipulations and portable inert strategies. Irascible and visual self-satisfaction is an redundant component in transmitted readings as it professions if the pernoctation uses the portable earnestness in an optimal way. The learning develops an dissection of the irascible operation of articulation housing in Gjirokastra through weather zoning, dissection and in-situ examine.This learning wholly questions articulation housing guiles and the ocean objectives are:
Create a notice cheap encircling the ocean factors of articulation guile and ocean components of reading through interdiplomatic condition studies
Develop an dissection of quantitying and irascible self-satisfaction of earnestness operation of pernoctation in Gjirokastra through the title of three issues
Discover the portable inert strategies used for the obtaining of irascible and visual self-satisfaction in the articulation pernoctations in Gjirokastra
Make a comparison of the title of strategies and the quantitying dissection to see their compatibility and acquire the adaptive weather guile
Recommend succeeding a termlinesshold solutions for portable inert and weather sympathetic existent issues in the city
Create a set of managelines of transmitted fabrications techniques and strategies for coming sustainable guile of existent issues in the commemorative tenor
In Provision 1 it is explained the motivation and reasons of the crop of the learning. Also in this sepasunimpassioned it is explained the ocean intent to obtain through the results of the con-over.
Chapter 2 which includes the learning re-examination bring-abouts an effrontery of the elapsed learninges conducted encircling the operation of articulation structure. Opposed studies accept approached the articulation through day portableing and irascible dissection. In the primary sepasunimpassioned it is made an dissection of the ocean factors that rule the operation of articulation readings. The relieve sepasunimpassioned is a title of the ocean components of climatic sympathetic guileed readings and some managelines.
The con-over is plain encircling the components of the reading narrow (walls, roofs, pavements) and the intensitying and scent scheme. The third sepasunimpassioned is an dissection of readings, which are redundant specimens of prosperous articulation structure. This dissection has been made by a picturesque dissection of the pernoctations in three ocean aspects: 1) climatic tenor 2) probability pose and orientation 3) fabrication symbolicals and techniques. Also for the interdiplomatic condition studies it has been generated a board succeeding a termliness notice encircling the weather sympathetic guile strategies used for an optimal use of the sunlight.
Chapter 3 includes the title of courseology used in my learning which is rendezvoused on grounds store and documentation, opportunity learning and collective examine through questionnaires and quantitying dissection using the Sefaira program. The primary sepasunimpassioned bring-abouts a open title of the courseology in the con-over. The relieve sepasunimpassioned generates a enhancement notice encircling the crop of housing in Gjirokastra, ocean commemorative epochs of fashionable crop and changes in reading outline.The third sepasunimpassioned explains the bunch of the three articulation issues and gives some open notice encircling their subsidence, year of fabrication and reading outline .The ocean reasons for selecting the condition con-over issues are explained. The disgustingth sepasunimpassioned bring-abouts a open version of the three issues selected. The title is made encircling
Landscape pose and orientation
House intent organization
The bunch of notice encircling these commemorative readings is redundant to genesunimpassioned a notice cheap encircling the articulation in Gjirokastra.
Chapter 4 bring-abouts a title of the portable inert guile strategies of three condition studies, by making a comparison betwixt schematic dissection through intents and sections. The aim is to descry the ocean climatic sympathetic strategies analyzing the sun angle in solstices and equinoxes .The version has been produced through the dissection of three ocean reading components which are the pavement, walls and roof, their symbolicals and fabrications techniques for visual and irascible self-satisfaction. The con-over of the approaches is made touching the reading narrow and intensitying and scent.The relieve sepasunimpassioned of this provision gives a hypothetical enhancement encircling the quantitying dissection and Sefaira program.
Chapter 5 includes the results of the quantitying dissection and irascible self-satisfaction .In the primary separate, the guile features are compared to the dissection of the quantitying scheme which has been conducted using the Sefaira program. The quantitying dissection has been plain in:
quantity pavement intent and commoned sunlight
quantity factor and
underlit and overlit.
The dissection of the irascible operation has been carried out through questionnaires. The relieve sepasunimpassioned of this provision acquires an version of the results of irascible operation. The third sepasunimpassioned bring-abouts a open overview of the results and argument.
Chapter 6 is the omission, an effrontery of the strategies and techniques that can be used in the coming for existent issues in the commemorative tenor of Gjirokastra.
Chapter 7 includes some suggestions for coming learninges in the coming and the orientations for architects and fashionable intentners who nonproduction to desgn existent housing in the coming in Gjirokastra.
Theoritical Bactheoritical Enhancement of Articulation Architecturekground of Articulation Architecture
Main factors imposing the guile of articulation reading
Vernacular structure reveals the confederacy of national weather stipulations, nationally helpful symbolicals, weak fabrication techniques, assistance title, traditions and socioeconomic stipulations of the territory. (Hal?c?o?lu F. , 2012)It is an redundant specimen of the match of fabrication to the environment and to the locate. (I.J. Gil Crespo, 2015)The spontaneous and civilized environmental match is redundant for nurture and of this cast of structure which can be used for solutions of match to the new separateal and technical standards. Articulation takes zenith service of the environment's possibilities succeeding a termliness the optimal arrangement use. Reading symbolicals are helpful and charmed neighboring the fabrication seat.
The symbolical and the fabrication technique are defined by the spontaneous and civilized characteristics of the zone, creating a territoryal cast of structure. Articulation structure varies widely succeeding a termliness the world's wide-spread spectrum of weather, terrain and culture. (Zhai; Previtali, 2009) It represents an redundant specimen of the optimal use of spontaneous portable. New studies on articulation readings accept professionn that bioclimatism is an perfect sepasunimpassioned of articulation structure and an redundant parameter towards achieving sustainpower of existent structure. (Singh, Mahapatra, ; Atreya, 2010) The world's global trust on earnestness has been increasing at an portentous scold. According to the Interdiplomatic Earnestness Agency (IEA), from1971 to 2014, world-wide earnestness decay has increased by 92%. (Laustsen, 2008)
In the con-over of (Murakami & Ikaga, 2008) seven casts of articulation housing accept been compared succeeding a termliness a existent residential reading in Hanoi and a existent issue in Capadoccia.The results accept professionn that articulation housing are elapsed efficient environmentally. For the con-over the course used is CASBEE, which is a hireling for assessing the environmental assault (L) and environmental nature (Q) of unconnected housing. It can gauge the environmental assault and nature of the indoor environment of articulation housing, enabling the elucidation of the environmental aptitude of articulation structure. (Murakami & Ikaga, 2008)
Table 1.Lighting Dissection of pernoctation in opposed courtyard alterations (Chadalavada, Viswatej, & Srikonda, 2017), elaborated by the constructor)
Good Illuminance roll
A comprehensive courtyard
Good Illuminance roll
A comprehensive courtyard separated in two separates
Bad Illuminance roll
The con-over (Chadalavada, Viswatej, & Srikonda, 2017) analyzes the irascible operation and uncertain spatial guile succeedingcited national weather and tenor of a usual articulation pernoctation in specify of Andhra Pradesh, India. The results of the con-over accept professionn that indoor portableing rolls accept been torpid by 79% succeeding the courtyard alteration of pernoctation from 1909 to Relieve Alteration of primordial fashion of reading 1969. The courtyard alteration progress of the vulgar articulation issue resulted in a substantial contact on irascible self-satisfaction rolls but a indirect contact on indoor portableing rolls of the pernoctation. As it can be seen from the (Table 1) a comprehensive courtyard stipulated emend portableing stipulations and use of sunlight.
Following a condition con-over of a articulation pernoctation in Thanjavur Territory of Tamil Nadu, India (Dhanasekaran & Jayasudha, 2014) through an dissection of the irascible operation it has been professionn that the signed pernoctation is exceedingly sympathetic to the climatic stipulations. The weather is animated and moist which has resulted in low run crop reading and courtyard cast pernoctations. The irascible operation has been plain through an ECOTECT dissection. The results profession that there is a tract-of-fix discord of encircling 10 o C betwixt the zenith outdoor tract-of-lands and poverty outdoor ambient tract-of-lands in twain the hottest and unimpassionedest day. (Figure 1) (Figure 2) The amiable irascible self-satisfaction is finishd through irasciblely insulative reading components and the chattels of inner courtyard.
Figure 1.Thermal operation dissection of the pernoctation in Tamil Nadu, India during the hottest day (April 30th) succeeding a termliness ECOTECT Dissection (Dhanasekaran & Jayasudha, 2014) (Left)
Figure 2.Thermal operation dissection of the pernoctation during the unimpassionedest day (January13th) succeeding a termliness ECOTECT Analysis. [Devadas et.al, 2014] (Right)
The dissection of climatic adaption of articulation structure is cheapd on sundry factors which should be charmed into representation. The ocean and most redundant climatic divisions can be defined: 1) Animated weathers (Desert, Semi-desert, Tropical savanna) 2) Unimpassioned Weather (Continental, Continental subarctic) and 3)Mediterranean. (Zhai & Previtali, 2009) Aftercited the (I.J. Gil Crespo, 2015) it has been analyzed three architectural casts in Spain, of earnestness stabilisation mechanisms in three opposed weather zones.
Dry animated subtropical weather
Eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote and Fuerteventura) profession a animated weather, succeeding a termlinessout rainfalls and a unless and hardy twist. In this territory, pernoctations are shapely encircling the courtyards which are oriented towards southeast to bring-about use of the portable radiation and to fortify the fabrication athwart the hardy twists of these islands. The most of the twistows are sanctuaryed (southeast) termliness twistward walls are luteous. The roofs are violent to behoof scent. The courtyard in animated weathers bring-abouts practicable the scent and principle of indoor scheme. (Figure 3)
Figure 3.Section of a issue in Mácher, Lanzarote, and the indoor conditioning scheme (I.J. Gil Crespo, 2015)
Cold weather of mountain territorys
In a unimpassioned or mountain weather, pernoctations are conglomerateed and gathered. The slopes of the roof are guileed cheapd on the equality of rainfall. In this cast of territorys, eaves are gigantic to impel loose the infiltrate from the fabrication. The twistows are oriented towards south, east or southeast for zenith portable user succeeding a termliness their scant compass for fortifyion. At the identical term, feeble ceilings spare the hot air.
Another specimen of climatic balance guile is the caved structure as cave pernoctation or as underground pernoctation. The irascible inertia of the fix is used to disburse the violent hydroirascible oscillation in geographical areas in which this pernoctation is located. Also, the use of breezes in summerterm as well-mannered-mannered as their fashionable intentning guarantees the self-satisfaction rolls in areas of violent severity. A course for the principle of conditioning scheme in a issue in Mácher, Lanzarote is: air peevishing to subdue the tract-of-fix in summerterm termliness the glasses at the top of the twistows coerce the portable radiation and intensitying of the illimitableness.
Several studies accept revealed the amiable irascible operation of articulation readings in the Mediterranean weather tenor using twain leading dissection and indispensable gaugements for reading operation, emphasizing the behoofs of using national symbolicals. (Fernandes, Dabaieh, & Bragança, 2014) A con-over plain in articulation readings in northern Egypt and Portugal has professionn some of the ocean strategies used for weather adaptive guile. The strategies accept been plain in the fashionable layout roll and scent, reading perversion, symbolical, and commencement and a con-over of intensity and scent. (Table 2)
Table 2.Climate-sympathetic strategies used in articulation structure in northern Egypt and southern Portugal (Fernandes, Dabaieh, & Bragança, 2014)
Strategy Title Northern Egypt Southern Portugal
Urban layout and reading fashion
Compact fashionable layout subdues the compute of surfaces unprotected to the sun (to the left map for Alexandria, Egypt from );
Narrow streets and genial galleries fortify pedestrians from severe summer epochs.
Building's fashion is conglomerate and the closeness of patios in fashionable areas is common. On orientation, readings solicit the south quadrant to maximize portable gains in evening and to subdue them during summer.
Shading and use of spontaneous scent
Proper shading for twistows using screens (mashrabiya) or vegetation when intensity gains are not desired.
The use of grinds boon to aggravate peevish air prevalence in the reading, ensuring retreat and irascible self-satisfaction;
Minimizing the bigness and compute of commencements subdues intensity gains.
Fountains and pools, usually located in patios and cloisters, promote to propitious air by infiltrate evaporation.
Use of vegetation
Materials and irascible mass
The use of national symbolicals, oceanly globe and stone, is exactly advantageous to national weather. Their amiable intensity storage ability stabilized indoor tract-of-fix (that reocean propitiouser during the day and animated at obscurity).
The use of portable-colors for the reading narrow, and especially the roof which is the most unprotected to the sun, boon to subdue intensity gains by thought portable radiation.