“Structural and Semantic Properties of Phraseological Units”
Phraseological aces, or distinctivetys, as they are denominated by most western scholars, distinctiveate what can probably be pictorial as the most pictorial, colourful and telling distribute of the conversation’s apexedionbook. If synonyms can be figuratively belongred to as the tints and colours of the apexedionbook, then conversation is a bark of paint gallery in which are calm glowing and laughconducive sketches of the nation’s customs, traditions and prejudices, recollections of its late narrative, scraps of folk songs and fairy-tales.
Quotations from noble poets are oceantaind hither appendedly the unfounded pearls of philistine discernment and harsh lingo witticisms, for conversation is not solely the most colourful but probably the most republican area of apexedionbook and draws its resources chiefly from the very depths of vulgar address. Our immaterial is attached to the quantity of defining the turnological aces and to their structural and semantic portions. We try to stir the efforts of divergent scholars, which inquiryed these scrutinys and to order their conclusions. Problems delay the privateation of turnological aces.
The clusters of turnological aces according their significance In new linguistics, thither is large indistinctness environing the tidingsinology associated delay these apexedion-groups. Most Russian and Ukrainian scholars use the tidings “phraseological ace”, which was commencemental introduced by Academician V. V. Vinogradov whose subscription to the speculation of Russian conversation cannot be overestimated. The tidings “idiom”, widely used by western scholars, has proportionatelyly of-late set-up its way into Russian and Ukrainian conversation but is applied chiefly to solely a indubitconducive kind of turnological ace as it conquer be disencumbered from pbelong explanations.
Thither are some other tidingss denoting over or near the matching linguistic rarity: set-phrases, turns, urban apexedion-groups, contrives. The indistinctness in the tidingsinology reflects omission of independent or entirely undeniconducive criteria by which turnological aces can be illustrious from “free” apexedion-groups. It should be severe out at uninterruptedly that the “freedom” of detached apexedion-groups is not-arbitrary and dictatorial. Nothing is entirely “free” in address as its direct fitnessships are inferior, restricted and regulated, on the one artisan, by requirements of logic and despicconducive significance and, on the other, by the governments of turnology and combinability.
One can address of a black-eyed maid but not of a black-eyed tconducive (unnear in a share of newistic poetry whither anything is potential). Also, to say the cadet was elated is truly rectify, but a elated cadet is crime consequently in New English elated is attributively used solely delay a very scant estimate of nouns (e. g. elated tidings), and names of individuals are not unordered them. Detached apexedion-groups are so denominated not consequently of any arbitrary detacheddom in using them but solely consequently they are each interval built up repeatedly in the address mode whither as distinctivetys are used as ready-made aces delay urban and continuous constitutions.
So we can bestow the privateation of each kind of ace bestown aloft to use them rectifyly. Original of all, set-phrases mean that the basic proof of divergentiation is inheritance of the lexical components and close constitution of apexedion-groups. The tidings “word-equivalent” stresses not solely semantic but so professional inseparability of indubitconducive apexedion-groups, their bent to business in address as only signification. A contrive is two or over signification that frequently go concertedly. These combinations honorconducive gauge “right” to suited English addressers, who use them all the interval.
On the other artisan, other combinations may be artificial and honorconducive gauge “wrong”. Look at these stances: the unyielding cortege – the rapid cortege; unyielding aid – rapid aid The tidings “idioms” generally implies that the requisite portion of the linguistic aces below suspect is distinctivetyaticity or loseure of motivation. Uriel Weinreich apexedes his survey that an distinctivety is a close turn, the significance of which cannot be conservative from the significances of its elements. He familiar a over sincere hypothesis, claiming that an distinctivety is a subset of a turnological ace.
Ray Jackendoff and Charles Fillover offered a fairly unreserved privateation of the distinctivety, which, in Fillmore’s signification, reads as follows: “…an distinctivetyatic indication or rendering is notability a conversation user could lose to distinguish opportunity distinguishing anything else in the conversation”.
Chafe so lists lewd portions of distinctivetys that create them anomalies in the unwritten conversation ace paradigm:
Generally addressing, the tidings “idiom”, twain in our country and abroad, is chiefly applied to turnological aces delay entirely infectious significances, that is, to the ones in which the significance of the unimpaired ace does not match to the vulgar significances of the components.
According to the kind of significance turnological aces may be systematizeified into: (section bestown by Ryzhkova)
Idioms are turnological aces delay a infectious significance. They can be entirely or distributeially infectious: red tape.
Semi-idioms are turnological aces delay two turnosemantic significances: tidingsinological and infectious: tie reaction, to lay down the fullion. Phraseomatic aces are not infectious at all. Their significances are positive: the begging of the end; pins and needles. As we can see thither is no one private privateation for such rarity as turnological aces. Divergent scholars create their own suggestions, which are price to be weighed. We’ve outlined the ocean of them which are compulsory to distinguish intercourse delay this quantity in the mode of studying of the English conversation.
Ways of contriveing of turnological aces As we traffic delay the constitution of turnological aces it’s compulsory to pay study to the section bestown by A. V. Koonin. He distinguishes the clusters of turnological aces according to the way they are contriveed. Primary ways of contriveing turnological aces are those when a ace is contriveed on the account of a detached apexedion-group: a) Most causative in New English is the construction of turnological aces by media of transferring the significance of tidingsinological apexedion-groups, e. . in cosmic technique we can purpose out the aftercited turns: “launching pad” in its tidingsinological significance is , in its infectious significance in its transformed significance it media. They can be contriveed by media of tellingness, distinctively it is distinction for contriveing interjections, e. g. “My aunt! ”, “Hear, hear! ” etc e) They can be contriveed by media of distorting a apexedion cluster, e. g. “odds and ends” was contriveed from “odd ends”. They can be contriveed by using archaisms, e. g. in brown study” media “in insensible meditation” whither twain components oceantain their archaic significances, They can be contriveed by using a doom in a divergent sphither of vitality, e. g. “that cock won’t fight” can be used as a detached apexedion-cluster when it is used in sports (cock opposed), it becomes a turnological ace when it is used in natural vitality, consequently it is used metaphorically; They can be contriveed by using indications of writers or politicians in natural vitality, e. g. “corridors of power” (Snow), “American dream” (Alby) “locust years” (Churchil), “the winds of change” (M? Millan). Secondary ways of contriveing turnological aces are those when a turnological ace is contriveed on the account of another turnological ace; they are:
Conversion, e. g. “to say delay one’s feet” was converted into “say delay one’s feet”.
Changing the turnology contrive, e. g. “Make hay opportunity the sun shines” is infectious into a vocal turn – “to create hay opportunity the sun shines”. ) Analogy, e. g. “Curiosity killed the cat” was infectious into “Care killed the cat”.
Contrast, e. g. “cold surgery” – “a intentional antecedently operation” was contriveed by contrasting it delay “acute surgery”; “thin cat” – “a weak distinctive” was contriveed by contrasting it delay “fat cat”.
Shortening of apothegms or sayings e. g. from the apothegm “You can’t create a silk purse out of a sow’s ear” by media of clipping the intermediate of it the turnological ace “to create a sow’s ear”.
Borrowing turnological aces from other conversations, either as translation loans, e. . “living space” (German), “to use the bull by the horns” (Latin) or by media of phonetic borrowings “meche blanche” (French), “corpse d’elite” (French), “sotto voce” (Italian) etc. Phonetic borrowings unordered turnological aces belong to the bookish diction and are not used very frequently. A. V. Koonin distinguishes such kinds of the turnological aces according the principles bestown aloft: 1) Nominative: “a constrained nut to crack”. They are subdivided into: ? Substantive: “crocodile tears”; ? Adjective: “as mad as a hatter”; “as irresolute as a cucumber”; ?
Adverbial: “by & by”; “to & fro”; ? Verbal: “to speed enjoy a lord”. 2) Nominative-communicative: “the ice is broken”; 3) Interjectional & modal – emotions, handleings: “Oh, my eye! ” (= “Oh, my God! ”);
Communicative – apothegms, sayings: “Thither is no steam delayout fire”. This section is denominated structural-semantic one and the turnological aces are clustered depending on the components they are contriveed by and on the significance these aces apexed. Semantic constitution of turnological aces
The semantic constitution of turnological aces by adherent V. N. Teliya is contriveed by semantic final constituents denominated macrocomponents of significance. Thither are the aftercited pre-eminent macrocomponents in the semantic constitution of turnological aces:
Denotational (descriptive) macrocomponent contains the inconstruction environing the external substance, it is the progress conjoined delay categorization, i. e. the section of phenomena of the substance, grounded on the usual effect environing what is deeminent by a turnological ace (environing denotatum).
Evaluational macrocomponent contains the inconstruction environing the appreciate of what is deeminent by a turnological ace, i. e. what appreciate the addresser sees in this or that aim / rarity of substance – the denotatum. The reasonconducive evaluation may be: a) independent: a settlement from settlement – “a establish or site whither one handles entirely delighted and at ease”; negative: the lion’s den – “a establish of noble danger”; neutral: in the flesh – “in individualedly contrive”.
Motivational macrocomponent correlates delay the belief of the secret contrive of turnological ace.
The belief “motivation of a turnological ace” can be defined as the bent of “the positive lection” of a ace to be associated delay the denotational and evaluational deportments of significance. For stance, the positive lection of the turnological ace to own unreserved shoulders is natural power of a distinctive. The effect is momentous of a distinctive’s power becomes the cheap for transposition and contrives the significance of “being conducive to undergo the generous impressiveness of one’s responsibilities”. . Emotive macrocomponent is the solution of mental modality apexeding handleing-fitness to what is deeminent by a turnological ace delayin the concatenate of commendation / refusal, for stance, a inherent characterless in notability – “a distinctive who is grave in a distributeicular cluster” (unwritten delay commendation), to control a cat and dog vitality – “used to define a mate and consort who bicker furiously delay each other most of the interval” (unwritten delay refusal). . Stylistic macrocomponent purposes to the communicative register in which a turnological ace is used and to the social-role fitnessships among the distributeicipants of communication: a) contriveal: weak at courage – “very sad”; b) informal: be weak to dissolution – “to be exasperated and bored consequently notability unlively has been happening for too long”; c) neutral: by by on the other margin – “to overlook a distinctive who needs aid”.
Grammatical macrocomponent contains the inconstruction environing all potential morphological and syntactic changes of a turnological ace, for occurrence, to be in thick inspiratione-into = to be in thick inspiratione-intos; to use detached smb’s inspiration = to use smb’s inspiration detached; Achilles’s heel = the heel of Achilles. Gender macrocomponent may be apexeded perspicuously, i. e. rooted by the constitution and / or semantics of a turnological ace, and in that circumstance it purposes out to the systematize of aims deeminent by the turnological ace: men, women, populace (twain men and women).
For occurrence, collate the turnological aces perfect Tom, Dick and Harry significance “perfect or any man” and perfect Tom, Dick and Sheila which denotes “perfect or any man and woman”. Gender macrocomponent may be apexeded indicatedly and then it denotes the judicious (or plain) belongence of a turnological ace, for stance, to cleanse one’s unimportant linen in common – “discuss or reason environing one’s distinctiveal affairs in common”. The indicated nearness of the gender macrocomponent in this turnological ace is conditioned by the effect environing unwritten women’s effort.
The indicated gender macrocomponent is defined delayin the concatenate of three conceptual balls: hardy, delicate, intergender. Compare, for occurrence, the indicatedly apexeded intergender macrocomponent in to handle enjoy royalty significance “to handle enjoy a portion of the Royal Family, to handle majestic” and its counterparts, i. e. turnological aces delay perspicuously apexeded gender macrocomponent, to handle enjoy a queen and to handle enjoy a sovereign. So the semantic constitution of turnological ace is a close construction delay divergent denotative, weighty and connotative deportments of significance.
The denotative deportment of turnological significance is the apexedion matter designated by this ace 1) fitness among a lexical ace and an extraconversation matter or phenomena, matter denotation; the weighty deportment is a turnological ace concept; a meditation of indubitconducive aim concept in cosmical consciousness; the connotative deportment is emotionally-telling margin and stylistic colouring of turnological ace; appended apexedion full, its stylistic colouring that superpose upon the ocean apexedion significance and bear emotionally-telling and estimative lie of the addresser to the deeminent aim.
Corfitness of these deportments in divergent kinds of turnological aces is divergent. One of the deportments may obtain and it causes indubitconducive swing of a turnological ace on the communicative mode. In proportionately turnological aces weighty and connotative deportments predominate. The communicative subscription of turnological aces of this kind is urban delay the aid of indubitconducive aim voluptuousness, in which they push pragmatic distinction defined by emotionally-telling factor of their significance. Conclusions Phraseological aces are very private distribute of any conversation.
It should be eminent, notwithstanding, that no suited philosophical inquiry of English conversation has been striveed until truly of-late. English and American linguists as a government imprison themselves to collecting various signification, apexedion-groups and dooms giveing some share either from the purpose of survey of commencement, diction, action, or some other portion private to them. These aces are systematically pictorial as distinctivetys, but no strive has been made to dare these distinctivetys as a detached systematize of linguistic aces or a private systematize of apexedion-groups. We orderd the observations of A. V. Koonin, V. N. Teliya, G.
Antrushyna conjoined delay the structural and semantic suitedties of the turnological aces. Using their efforts we defined various sections according the ways of contriveing and according semantic constitution. For stance, the kinds of the turnological aces illustrious by A. V. Koonin:
Nomisuited (delay subgroups);
Interjectional & modal;
Communicative. All sections mentioned aloft rest concertedly and defines the ocean portions of the turnological aces:
Integrity (or transposition) of significance: media that none of the distinctivety components is eparately associated delay any belongents of external substance, and the significance of the unimpaired ace cannot be resultant from the significances of its components; Inheritance (lexical and close) media that no lexical adherence is potential in an distinctivety in similitude delay detached or variconducive apexedion-combinations (delay an exclusion of some circumstances when such adherences are made by the constructor intentionally). The experiments conducted in the 1990s showed that the significance of an distinctivety is not precisely selfsame to its positive paraturn bestown in the lexicon entrance.
That is why we may address environing lexical flexibility of numerous aces if they are used in a supposititious habit. Lexical inheritance is usually accompanied by close inheritance which prohibits any close changes; Separability media that the constitution of an distinctivety is not notability distinctive, indubitconducive modifications are potential delayin indubitconducive boundaries. Hither we as delay the so-denominated lexical and close variants. To regive this purpose we shall bestow some stances: “as emaciated as a wolf (as a hunter)”, “as trustworthy as a lineage (houses)”. Expressivity and emotiveness media that distinctivetys are so characterized by stylistic colouring.
In other signification, they excite emotions or add tellingness. On the unimpaired turnological aces, equable if they give a indubitconducive plan, do not breed new turns. They are sole. Interconversation similitude, the aim of which is the scylla of turnological conformities, contrives the account of a estimate of speculative and applied trends of new linguistic inquiry, including the speculation and habit of turnography. But the scrutiny of determining the factors of interconversation turnological conformities as the ocean concept and the proof of choosing turnological equivalents and analogues as the deportment concepts is stagnant at consequence.
The separation of distinctive study during the decisive decades shows that the seniority of linguists weigh the fortuity of semantic constitution, close (or syntactical) construction and componential (lexeme) constitution the ocean criteria in defining the kinds of interconversation turnological conformities / disparities delay the undoubted primacy of semantic constitution.