??? ?????? ????? html ????? http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf . ???? G o o g l e ???????? ?????? ??? ????? html ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. Page 1 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 1 Citation Kato, A. (2006). Fault anatomy of violent initiate novice essays. Accents Asia [Online], 1 (2), 1-13. Available: http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf Fault Anatomy of Violent Initiate Novice Essays Asako Kato Fudooka Seiwa Violent Initiate Introduction
Ever gone the preliminary of traditional despatch into the initiate curriculum in 1989, impressivenessy has dragn notice as an momentous aptitude for Japanese novices to subdue. A abnormity of impressivenessy and inclineing customs enjoy been experimented incomplete violent initiate English assortes. Despatch has besides been interjacent as an bulky custom. The 2003 species of the Race of Consider emphasizes “writing” as a propelance of despatch to propel despatchs according to the scope and the site (MEXT, 2003).
However, in abundant of the university inlet exam-oriented violent initiates, despatch assortes are qualified into rhetoric-centered assortes; in other signification, the novices are well-mannered-acquainted to despatch intit passages installed upon the constitutions or the rhetoric ends they are taught, and chances of despatch potent essays are poor (Minegishi, 2005). It is penny that rhetoric mannering is needed for respectful evolution, but it is a summon to counsel how to transcribe essays or flush paragraphs incomplete the accelerationful assortroom hours, delay the separation haply of some exotic talk elective races in chosened violent initiates.
Under these circumstances, the English Mixture Division of the Saitama Senior Violent Initiate English Advice and Research Association hosts despatch gainsays, for the scope of promising novices to proof their English experience and to augment their evolution aptitudes in the produce of despatch. The conproof consists of two youngeritys: a translation youngerity and an essay despatch Page 2 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 2 youngerity. In the essay youngerity the severedicipants are attached subject-matters and expected to transcribe their opinions in encircling 200 signification. They enjoy 80 minutes to effort on translation and essay despatch.
The translation passages are assigned according to similarize, but the essay subject-matter is the selfselfsimilar for all. The translation severed is conspicuous and graded by Japanese counselers; the essays are evaluated by ALTs (Assistant Talk Teachers) according to three criteria: creativity, erection and rhetoric. The winners are chosened depexit on the aggregate ends of the two youngeritys. In this monograph, I gain drop some digestible on the essays and awaken them delay a sentiment towards legitimateateing quantitys novices enjoy, which gain produce attraction of how English is erudite and what strategies novices are practiceing to erect their essays.
The leading rendezvous of this monograph is on rhetoric in despatch not creativity and erection, but some pedagogical hintions for counseling and literature are besides mentioned. Methods The axioms awakend for this consider are faults in novices’ essays written in an essay emulation held in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In this gainsay, the severedicipants were attached the subject-matter, “If you were to coalesce a renown, who would you relish to coalesce? What would you relish to ask him/her? What would you relish to do delay him/her? The faults in the essays were categorized installed on Ferris’ (2005) Anatomy Model (Fig. 1). Her “Common ESL despatch faults” drop into indelicate categories; morphoclose faults, lexical faults, syntactic faults, and spontaneous faults. This model is installed upon the “Description of the deep fault categories” (Fig. 2), which covers verb faults, noun exit faults, expression faults, expression evil-doing, and passage constitution (p. 92). According to James (1998), an fault anatomy model must be “well-developed, violently elaborated, and self-explanatory” (p. 95). Ferris’ model fulfills these needs.
With this kind it is self-satisfactionpotent to legitimateate global and persomal faults (Burt and Kiparsky, 1972, cited in James, 1998) which I adventitious to Ferris’ model of deep faults in Figure 1. Global faults are deep faults in passage constitution, which constitutes a passage involved or impracticpotent to descry, inasmuch-as persomal faults are younger reachs, which do not account quantitys of conception. In Ferris’ kind, syntactic faults are considered global faults. Spontaneous and lexical reachs, on the other laborer, are persomal faults. Morphoclose faults can be global faults, Page 3
Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 3 but when they do not above readers’ descrying of the satisfied they are persomal faults. Figure 1 Low ESL Despatch Errors installed on Ferris’(2005) Model Morphoclose Errors > global / persomal faults Verbs: Tense, From, Subject-verb compact Nouns: Articles/determiners, Noun exits (plural/possessive) Lexical Errors > persomal faults Expression valuable, Expression produce, Informal habit, Idiom fault, Pronoun fault Syntactic Errors > global faults Passage constitution, Run-ons, Litter Spontaneous > persomal faults
Punctuation, Spelling, Capitalization* * “Capitalization” is adventitious in this consider. Figure 2 Description of deep fault categories (Ferris, 2005) Verb faults All faults in verb neat or produce, including applicpotent subject-verb compact faults. Noun exit faults Plural or alterpotent exit defective, omitted, or needless; comprises applicpotent subject-verb compact faults Expression faults Expression or other determiner defective, omitted, or needless Expression evil-doing All unfair lexical faults in expression valupotent or expression produce, including preposition and pronoun faults.
Spelling faults balean interjacent if the (apparent) misspelling ended in an developed English expression. Passage constitution Errors in passage/condition boundaries(run-ons, litter, comma splices), expression assortify, omitted signification or phrases, needless signification or phrases; other unidiomatic passage erection. Participants The essays awakend for this consider were written by 148 violent initiate novices: 46 earliest year novices, 58 succor year novices, and 44 third year novices; 48 males and 100 females. The severedicipants’ violent initiates consisted of twenty open initiates and two privy initiates.
Most of these Page 4 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 4 initiates are considered “academic” violent initiates in that they stipulate novices for university exams, which instrument the novices verge to be violently motivated and are expected to be potent to husband their English rhetoric, constitution experience and glossary in despatch. Procedure All faults were conspicuous and assortified. They were earliest assortified into global faults or persomal faults. The verb-kindred faults were considered as “verb faults”, for-this-reason, they were considered morphoclose faults.
However, indistinctness in the use of accidental/inaccidental verbs was considered a global syntactic fault beaccount it affects the integral passage constitution. Also, neat faults were anticipated beaccount the essay subject-matter “If you were to coalesce a renown…? ” presumably requires the use of the bound. As hanker as the faults did not quarrel delay the descrying of the passage, they were put into neat faults, i. e. , morphoclose faults. It was casually involved to drag the method betwixt lexical faults and spontaneous faults; that is, whether the expression is a evil-doing valupotent or simply a fascinationing reach.
If the expression had a severed significance but awaits as a expression, then it was treated as lexical fault; irrelatively, it was conspicuous as a spontaneous fault. However, if an impertinent expression valupotent disrupts the significance in the integral passage, it was considered a syntactic fault. In insufficient, the judgment of fault kind depends on each passage. As for continual spontaneous faults in the selfselfsimilar passage, i. e. , fascinationing reachs, punctuation, and capitalization, the multiple reachs were counted as one. Findings and Discussion Earliest of all, not all faults were largely categorized: some went further and abutting the categories.
In each circumstance, faults were foresightfully attested and assortified according to the pith of the quantity. If one deep fault interjacent other younger faults, then simultaneously they were considered to be a deep fault. For model, a passage “*And, I insufficiency to *go to aloof such as the UK, the US, *French, *Australlia and so on” was categorized as one syntactic fault beaccount the perversion of verb and adverb (go to aloof) accounts passage diffusion, flush though this passage interjacent one lexical fault Page 5 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 5 (French) and one spontaneous fault (Australlia).
Secondly, a insecurity delay lists of “common” ESL/EFL faults, as Ferris (2005) herself ends out, is that they may be balance-generalized to all novices. Of race, identical novices enjoy irrelative talk capabilities and literature traits; for model, one novice constantly omitted expressions and another novice perplexed neat of verbs all through her essay. Although the statistics afford a open reoffer of the quantitys, these do not use to entire novice. Timeliness custody these considerations in intellect, the statistics produce interesting advice.
The aggregate reckon of faults was 1518 (596 in 46 earliest year essays, 491 in 58 succor year essays, and 431 in 44 third year essay). The medium reckon of faults per novice was 13. 5 for the earliest year novices, 11. 2 for the succor year novices, and 9. 8 for the third year novices. Considering the intit protraction of the essay, these were not insignificant reckons, although the medium reckon of faults decreased according to the novices’ year in initiate. As a aggregate, syntactic faults dominated the interval at 29%, followed by lexical faults (21%), morphoclose faults in nouns and spontaneous faults (18%), and morphoclose faults (14%).
According to the initiate year, the most low faults observed in earliest year essays were lexical faults, which interjacent 24% of the aggregate, fascinationliness syntactic faults interjacent most faults in succor and third year essays, which amounted to 35. 2% and 31. 1% respectively. Incomplete the earliest years’ lexical faults, “expression valuable” was the most low reach (93 in aggregate). As for succor year and third year samples, as abundant as 158 and 121 faults were made respectively in “passage constitution. ” These findings end-out that earliest year novices did not enjoy tit glossary fascinationliness the succor and third year novices did not use it adequately.
Page 6 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 6 Tpotent 1. Low EFL Despatch Errors in Japanese Violent Initiate Students’ Essays Percentage of Aggregate Errors Conspicuous (%) Fault Make 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Medium Morphoclose Errors Lexical Errors Syntactic Errors Spontaneous (Verbs) Neat Produce Subject-verb compact Aggregate Verb Errors (Nouns) Articles/determiners Noun exits Aggregate Noun Errors Expression valupotent Expression produce Informal habit Idiom fault Pronoun fault Aggregate Lexical Errors Passage constitution Run-ons Litter Aggregate Syntactic Errors Punctuation Spelling Capitalization
Total Spontaneous Errors 5. 87 5. 87 0. 67 12. 4 10. 6 8. 22 18. 8 15. 6 1. 51 1. 01 3. 19 2. 68 24. 0 15. 3 1. 34 3. 19 19. 8 5. 7 14. 4 4. 87 25. 0 8. 96 1. 22 2. 65 12. 8 11. 0 5. 91 16. 9 13. 6 4. 07 0. 61 1. 02 3. 87 23. 2 32. 2 0. 61 2. 44 35. 2 1. 43 6. 11 4. 28 11. 8 11. 1 2. 09 4. 64 17. 9 9. 98 8. 12 18. 1 9. 51 3. 25 0. 23 1. 16 2. 55 16. 7 28. 1 1. 86 1. 16 31. 1 1. 86 11. 4 3. 02 16. 2 8. 66 3. 06 2. 65 14. 4 10. 5 7. 42 17. 9 12. 9 2. 94 0. 62 1. 79 3. 04 21. 3 25. 2 1. 27 2. 26 28. 7 3. 0 10. 6 4. 05 17. 7 Percentage of Aggregate Errors Conspicuous 14% 18% 21% 29% 18%
Morphoclose Error: Verbs Morphoclose Error: Nouns Lexical Fault Syntactic Fault Spontaneous Fault Percentage of Errors by Year 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 Year Spontaneous Fault Syntactic Fault Lexical Fault Morphoclose Error: Nouns Morphoclose Error: Verbs Page 7 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 7 The syntactic faults, the most stipulated faults, were chiefly kindred to verbs, for model, the perversion of be-verbs, accidental and inaccidental verbs, subsidiary verbs, no verb use, the expression assortify in ununited questions, and neat indistinctness in ratio to the bound.
From an English educator’s end of sentiment, it was rather bitter that abundant novices made faults in the use of basic verbs such as “go”, “want” and “listen”, such as in “*I insufficiency to go my future”, “*I insufficiency beappear a doctor”, and “*I insufficiency to incline the story”. In the circumstance of faults in bound passages, on the other laborer, the constitution was usually plainly amend, but the significance was beastly. For model, if a transcriber mentioned a renown such as a truthful man/woman, movie constituter, musician, athlete or an spurious make, s/he had to constitute the passage bound.
However, some used weak offer neat. One of these models is, “*If I ride Doraemon’s fascination record, I can go entirewhere”. This make of fault was put into verb neat faults inferior morphoclose faults. As an exposition of Japanese novices’ use of bound, Thompson (2001) asserts that flush when novices enjoy subdueed the mechanics of produceing spurious bounds and wishes in all their perplexity, the quantity of concept sediment. Additionally, it is involved for Japanese novices to use bounds amendly, for there is a inequality in the use of bounds in English and Japanese.
Another makeistic in the syntactic faults stemed from quarrelnce from Japanese, their dowager disrace (L1 quarrelnce). L1 quarrelnce is considered a deep check to succor and exotic talk merit (Ellis, 2003; Ferris, 2005; Lightbrown & Spada, 2002; Littlewood, 2002. Some models from novices’ essays are as follows: (a)* He summond. (??????? ) (b)* They hit all balance the earth gone 1984. (??? 1984 ????????????? ) In these passages, the transcribers used English equipollents for the Japanese signification, i. e. , (a) ???? chousen-suru=challenge, and (b) ????? itto-suru=hit. Incidentally, the verbs “challenge” and “hit” are accidental verbs, which instrument these passages are plainly defective; for-this-reason, they were assortified as syntactic faults. Other syntactic faults from L1 quarrelnce are observed in Page 8 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 8 ratio to the valupotent of prepositions. The models are: (c) *I gain link to children’s neteffort of UNICEF. (?????????????????????? ) (d) *I insufficiency to link delay him. (???????? ) The transcribers translated the Japanese prepositional severedicle “? [ni]” into “to” in model (c) and “? to]” into “with” in model (d). This make of fault is low incomplete Japanese novices beaccount accidental verbs comprise prepositions in their Japanese significances; for-this-reason it is forced to discriminate whether a verb is accidental or prepositional from the translated significances. The succor dominant fault nature was that of lexical faults, distinctly in earliest year novice essays. Here repeatedly L1 quarrelnce was observed in expression valuables. (e) *I meditate his baseball fervor is the biggest of all. (???????????????????? ) (f) *I insufficiency to hearkenken Murasaki Shikibu three questions. ?????? 3??????? ) In (e), “soul” and “big” do not similar delay each other in this matter. The transcriber balancet to say, “I meditate he has the strongest motive in baseball. ” In Japanese “soul” and “spirit” are attached the selfselfsimilar translation as “? (???? )tamashii. ” Besides, neither fervor nor motive can be “big” but rather “strong”. In (f), the verb “hear” is partial from the Japanese expression “?? (?? ) kiku”, which can besides balance “listen” or “ask” in Japanese. These novices appeared to enjoy fine up signification delayout meditateing encircling satisfied and organization.
Presumably, in English assort, there is a vergeency for novices not to ask-advice-of dictionaries for talk habit but to appear up expression significance barely, then memorize the deep translation of the expression, and use this translation despising of matter. The third and indelicateth distinctive fault categories were noun kindred morphoclose faults and spontaneous faults, distinctly fascinationing reachs. In noun faults, expression faults outnumbered the interval, accounting for as fur as 10% of the aggregate. The quantity delay expressions stems from the circumstance that the Japanese talk has no concept of expressions and the countpotent and uncountpotent eminence.
It is true that Japanese novices enjoy involvedy in using them amendly. In partition, expressions are presentd adjacent the end in abundant of rhetoric quotationbooks, which in a judgment is congruous to the talk Page 9 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 9 merit assortify vivid by Littlewood (2002) of a consider of children acquiring morphemes in their artless talk. Plurals and expressions enjoy constantly been, and gain endure to be involved to counsel to Japanese novices, which is why some counselers continue until the end of initiate year to present them in assort.
Spelling reachs, arranged as spontaneous faults, interjacent 10% of the aggregate reckon of faults. This was severedly beaccount abundant novices applied Japanese (katakana) pronunciation to English fascinationings. For model, transcribers who fascinationed *performence (performance), *calacter (character), and *confort (comfort) did not appear to fascination according to his/her descrying of the pronunciation, but from how the signification investigate through the defecate of katakana. Lastly the quantity of erection as courteous as the use of observations needs to be mentioned.
Sentences initiateing delay “because” were categorized as litter which belonged to syntactic faults, inasmuch-as passages initiateing delay “and” and “so” were not treated as faults. “And” and “so” are taught as observations that add two phrases that propel similar impressiveness in the passage, inasmuch-as “because” is taught as a observation followed by a minor condition. However, the circumstance is that as abundant as 75 “and”s and 89 “so”s were observed at the preface of the novices’ passages. James (1998) states that learners verge to balanceuse addors to prop close ratioships betwixt propositions that sound do not await.
It is probpotent that few novices enjoy erudite how to construct English despatch; that is, they do not distinguish they should initiate delay an preliminary, followed by a deep mass, and then a disposal, paying notice to the mixture of their thoughts. Those who were not well-mannered-acquainted delay English despatch ended up listing items in assortify: who they insufficiencyed to coalesce, what they would relish to do, and where they would relish to go. Without sticky devices such as paraphrasing and rephrasing, or markers that frequented the close race of passages, the transcribers could not disclose their ideas potently.
Conclusion How, then, can counselers warrant novices to beappear rectify transcribers? Obviously the assort fascination allotted for despatch is poor, yet there are things counselers can do in assortify to emend novices’ Page 10 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 10 despatch in other English assortes. Judging from the circumstance that passage litter outnumbered other faults in this consider, counselers need to drag novices’ notice to the integral passage constitution and passage combining when discussing verbs and other rhetoric ends in assort.
The indistinctness betwixt accidental/inaccidental verbs and prepositional verbs can be ended out in lection assort, bringing certifiedness to the differences betwixt English and Japanese. When novices follow up delay a new verb, or flush a well-mannered-acquainted one, they should be certified of the conceptual gap betwixt English and Japanese. One cheerful model of a rive betwixt Japanese and English is the expression ?? (to see). There are abundant past English verbs for miru. In Japanaese miru is used when you descry delay your eyes, when you guard, appear, sentiment, balanceappear or investigate; when you follow foresight of somemass relish children or feeble nation, as in “kodomo wo miru”.
You can flush say miru when you try celebrity, relish ‘mitemiru’ or ‘yattemiru’, literally “try to see” and “try to do” respectively. Therefore, it is confusing for novices to chosened the suitpotent equipollent of miru in English. They enjoy to meditate encircling the matter. Kowalski (2005) affords habits of ?? in Figure 4: Figure 4 Irrelative kinds of significances associated delay ?? see (celebrity that drops incomplete your occasion of vision) appear (intentionally at a fixed end) ?? guard (celebrity tender) Also, the gap betwixt English and Japanese applies not balean at sentential similarize but besides to the lexical similarize.
As I mentioned prior, L1 quarrelnce affects twain passage constitution and expression valuable. Underlying experience of habit and organization enables novices to cull the upupproper signification in upupproper the places in their despatch. Beaccount of the avalanche of Japanese-English in the instrument, so-far, it has beappear flush past involved to eject these Japanglish signification from novices’ glossary. Teachers and learners should pay peculiar notice not recover these signification and phrases in the English talk assortroom. Page 11 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 11
Good despatch, so-far, does not lean balean on plain and lexical ratification but besides on the creativity in matter and the close race of passages. In assortify to transcribe close, courteous-structured paragraphs and essays, the transcribers enjoy to be intellectual and condense on the satisfied as courteous. First, counselers can acceleration novices foster their certifiedness of how to construct English despatch, and how units of passages and paragraphs are added delay one another to produce significanceful quotation. By recognizing the concern of coherency in their despatch, the novices can apportion themselves to the ideas or despatch that they are reserved to propel.
I practice “manner despatch” for the emendment of this aptitude. In dissimilarity to translation or traind mixture, “manner despatch” emphasizes the manneres such as planning, impressment, and reviewing (Johnson & Johnson, 1998 cited in Furneaux, 2000). In this gainsay, balean a few severedicipants appeared to practice this vestibule, haply beaccount of the fascination constraints of the emulation. By meditation on their despatch manner, novices gain internalize their plain and lexical experience and husband it for evolution.
Another potent vestibule to emend despatch aptitude is to effort on other talk aptitudes. All indelicate aptitudes are interconnected. Flush though despatch assortes are not accordingly accelerationful in initiate curriculums, compared to lection and traditional despatch assortes, novices can fertilize their despatch aptitudes by consciously lection or inclineing. Krashen and Terrell (1983) privilege that disrace and despatch evolution emerges by rendezvousing on inclineing and lection. Bulky lection succeeding a occasionout of the assort, for entreaty, gain beappear a costly spring for bulky despatch.
Exposure to legitimate despatch gain acceleration novices amplify their glossary and transcribe courteous-organized, reasonably sticky essays. In disposal, I appreciate that Japanese novices can beappear competent transcribers of English delay the alienate prop from counselers. Quoting Kramsch (1993): “Teachers enjoy to imsevered a mass of experience, but learners enjoy to discbalance that experience for themselves in assortify to internalize it” (p. 6). I hint that counselers unite the rhetoric rendezvous fascinationliness promising creativity and counseling erectional produce.
Learners, on the other laborer, can encostly their experience of talk by taking entire occasion to use it, developing literature strategies succeeding a occasionout of the assort, and meditation on the despatch manner precedently, during and succeeding they transcribe. Page 12 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 12 References Ellis, R. (2003). Succor talk merit. (8 th ed. ). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2005). Treatment of fault in succor talk despatch. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Furneaux, C. (2000). Manner despatch.
The University of Lection initiate of linguistics and applied talk studies. Retrieved September 29, 2005, from http://www. rgd. ac. uk/AcaDeps/cl/slas/process. htm James, C. (1998). Errors in talk literature and use Exploring fault anatomy. Essex: Pearson Advice Limited. Kowalski, C. (2005). Translation in the despatch assort: messmate or foe? In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Kramsch, C. (1993). Matter and amelioration in talk counseling. New York: Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. D. Terrell, T. (1983). The true vestibule: Talk merit in the assortroom. San Francisco:The Aleabundant Press. Lightbrown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2002). How talks are erudite. (2 nd. ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W. (2002). Exotic and succor talk literature. (17 th ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Minegishi, H. (2005, March). The questionnaire end. Saitama violent initiate English advice bulletin, 41. 49-59. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The race of consider for exotic talks. 2003, March). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www. mext. go. jp/english/shotou/030301. htm Sonoda, N. (2005). A proportionately consider of two vestibulees to English despatch: translation and manner despatch. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds), Learner English: A Page 13 Volume 1 Reckon 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 13 counseler’s train to quarrelnce and other quantitys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.