Academic Research Akunna Onyedum

ASPECTS OF THE PHONOLOGY OF GUNGANCHI LANGUAGE BABATUNDE, Oluwatobi Olayemi 07/15CB045 A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF LINGUISTICS AND NIGERIAN LANGUAGES, FACULTY OF ARTS, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN ILORIN – NIGERIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (B. A. Hons) IN LINGUISTICS MAY, 2011. CERTIFICATION This essay has been peruse and public as argueion the exactments of Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. _________________________________________________ DR. (MRS. ) B. E. AROKOYODATE Scheme Superintendent ________________________________________________ PROF. A. S. ABDUSSALAMDATE Head of Department _________________________________________________ EXTERNAL EXAMINERDATE DEDICATION This scheme is-sue is dedicated to the Almighty God, the Alpha and Omega, who imcompressiveness erudition and rarity. My expensive senior, Engr. O. A. Falade, who has been there for me up plow this period. You are my philanthropist. May God honor you. ACKNOLWEDGEMENTS My philosophical thankfulness goes to the Lord for examination me through my studies at the University of Ilorin. He has been the Alpha and Omega, my acceleration, afflatus and the fountain of comprehension and erudition. He exclusive deserves my expectation. Also, my thankfulness goes to my delightful parents, ENGR. AND MRS. O. A. FALADE for their charity, anxiety, command, govern and for providing for all my impartational scarcitys. The Almighty God conciliate cede you hanker activity, and empower you to derive the fruits of your labour (Amen). You are the best parents in the globe, I charity you expensively. I so prize the large trials of my potent superintendent, Dr. (Mrs. ) B. E. Arokoyo, who guided me through in my elaboration is-sue, she gave me her period and maternal support resisting the incommode. May the Lord be succeeding a conjuncture you and honor you (Amen). I so prize all my lecturers. I neglect to so prize the charity and prayers of my kid fellow BABATUNDE JOHN TEMITOPE. And my aunts Mrs. O. Y. Philips and Miss Olushola Faniyi. I so neglect to prize the trial of Ogunbiyi Abayomi. You all tend been portentous. My frank thankfulness goes to my impartant Corptalkative Labbo Alkali who accelerationed me in acquiring all compulsory counsel environing Gunganchi. May the Lord honor you richly (Amen). Also, I prize my friends: Bakare Bimbo, Olagbenro Bola, Dikko Oluwaseun, Adebayo Funke, Saka Tokunbo, Ogunbowale Tobi, Adekoya Oluwaseun, Ajagunna Gideon, Bamidele Bukola, Oyeniran Gbolagade Adebayo Adewale. I so prize the trial of my presbyter, Presbyter Tunde and those who tend in one way or the other contributed to the consummation of this elaboration. Thank you all. TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Pagei Certificationii Dedicationiii Acknowledgements iv Tpotent of Contentsvi CHAPTER ONE: 1. 0Introduction 1 1. 1General Background1 1. 2Historical Setting of Gunganchi People2 1. 3Sociocultural Setting or Line of the Gunganchi People4 1. 4Genetic Genus of Gunganchi10 1. 5Scope and Devise of Con-over 11 1. 6Data Collection12 1. 7Data Analysis13 1. 8Reopinion of the selected Speculative Framework13 CHAPTER TWO: BASIC PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS . 0Introduction 21 2. 1Phonology21 2. 2Sound Register of Gunganchi24 2. 3Phonological Description of Gunganchi Consonants and their Distribution 28 2. 4Vowels42 2. 5Distribution of Vowels45 2. 6Distribution of Nasalized Vowels51 2. 7Tonal Inventory54 2. 8Syllpotent Register 56 2. 9Distinctive Features 59 CHAPTER THREE: PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN GUNGANCHI 3. 0Introduction 70 3. 1Phonological Processes70 CHAPTER FOUR: TONAL PROCESSES AND SYLLABLE PROCESSES 4. 0Introduction 78 4. 1Tone Order in Gunganchi78 4. 2Functions of Intonation in Gunganchi82 4. 3Tonal Processes83 4. 4Syllpotent Structure85 4. 5Syllpotent Constituency Administration in Gunganchi89 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, FINDINGS/OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5. 0Summary93 5. 1Finding/Observations94 5. 2Recommendations95 5. 3Conclusion96 References97 CHAPTER ONE 1. 0INTRODUCTION This journey is aimed at argueing the illustration con-over of the Gungawa populace who pronounce Gunganchi phraseologys. It conciliate silence their notorious setting, literal setting, sociocultural line, the genetic genus of Gunganchi phraseologys. This journey conciliate so argue the depremonition and devise of con-over, the selected speculative framework, postulates store, and the postulates separation for this scheme is-sue. 1. 1GENERAL BACKGROUND The Gunganchi populace are a crowd that are so allured the “Bareshe” populace by their Hausa neighbours which media “Isplant Dwellers”, it was told they were ardent this allure due to their nearness to lakes and rivers. Unformed themselves, they are orderatically allured “Gungawa, Tsureja, Bareshe or Yaurawa” populace. Their phraseologys has incongruous allures interestion: Gunganchi, Tsureshe, Gunga or Tsureja and the allure ardent to their plant is either Reshe or Gungu. The evince Gunganchi populace are the crowd who fled to the nearby Isplant of Niger in the mid nineteenth antiquity and ultimately fixed in a new predicament allured Gungu or Yelwa. The Gunganchi populace are said to be the primeval herd of Yauri. During the British regime, the recite of Yauri as an emireprove and the recite of Yelwa as the gcircular of the Emir of Yauri confirmed that twain Yauri and Yelwa became Hausarized as a disposal of their apsituation succeeding a conjuncture the Hausa populace. Today, the Yauri populace pronounce in-great-meapositive Hausa phraseologys. The Gunganchi populace lived in islets (very feeble islands) and shores of the Niger overhead Bussa until the creation of Kainji Lake in 1974 which disrupted their subsidence and their aid beyond Kebbi State. 1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF GUNGANCHI PEOPLE According to talkative flusht, the Gunganchi populace has incongruous histories that has been narrated which associated succeeding a conjuncture their start that conciliate be argueed subordinate. In the nineteenth antiquity, a house of a protector allured ‘kasira’ who is so unreserved as ‘Kachin’ congenial succeeding a conjuncture the Hausa legion to surmount the region in the distant North who forthcoming fixed succeeding a conjuncture his co-fighters in the evince Yauri town. A artless pronounceer of Gunganchi who is unreserved as “Agmalafiya” appreciate that the Gunganchi populace came from Kabbawa. He said they were hunters from Katsina Recite and raise explained that some populace said the Gunganchi populace are from the other Yauri’s ethnic bunchs which are Shangawa, Kambari, Kabbawa or Sarkawa, Dukawa etc. Another flusht told us of their delineate to the Songhai protectors who came from Mali to pursue territorial govern and they ultimately fixed in Yauri and volume of Lopa and Laru (Gunganchi’s neighbouring areas). From the histories narrated overhead, it is manifest that the Gunganchi populace has no specific flusht minding their start. They are contrariant in their literal radixs. 1. 2. 1Population The Gunganchi populace were environing forty to sixty thousand in 1993. Environing thrity-five percent lived beyond Yauri Topical Government in Kebbi State, sixty percent lived in Yauri town, nine percent in Kotangora, Bussa and Borgu Topical Government and one percent in Kiama Topical Government Area in Kwara State. End to 1990, the population of the pronounceers in Yauri were referred to as Yaurawa or Reshewa in Hausa phraseologys. According to Agmalafiya who was mentioned prior, the Gunganchi populace were allured Yaurawa by Queen Amina of Zaria but notoriously allured Gungawa unformed the Gunganchi in Diaspora and sometimes allure themselves Bareshe, which is the plural, or Ureshe, which is the whimsical. 1. 3SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUND OR PROFILE OF THE GUNGANCHI PEOPLE According to the Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, civilizedization is the way of activity, the duty and beliefs, art and gregarious devise of a detail empire or bunch. The Gunganchi populace tend a gregarious and cultural line that is dishonortalented to that of their neighbouring ethnic bunch, Hausa. It is said that their activitystyle is centered on the Emirate’s order. The Gunganchi populace tend their sociocultural beliefs which are explicit in their civilizedization, administration of verbiage, trade, piety, entertainments, espousals order, naming rite, entombment rite, their impartation order and political government. 1. 3. 1Culture The Bareshe (Gunganchi) populace are exceedingly civilizedizationd which ruminate in their administration of verbiage, greetings, trade and mass picturesqueness interestion decorating the woman’s legs succeeding a conjuncture tattoos and afflictive tribal marks on her appearance during the espousals rite. . 3. 2Mode of Verbiage The Gunganchi populace’s administration of verbiage in the extension-honored days is incongruous from their verbiage in these supportern days. In the extension-honored days, they used to drapery in animal husk, conjuncture in these supportern days, they drapery in ‘Banbariga’ which is the verbal drapery for men conjuncture the women drapery in licentious healed drapery succeeding a conjuncture a topical embroidery scarf which is tied environing the woman’s mass to wade off the sun. They are in-great-meapositive draperyed in licentious clothe for recreation. 1. 3. 3 Trade The Gunganchi populace are in-great-meapositive farmers and fishermen. Their troddenive crops are guinea corn, beans, rice, and onions conjuncture the fishing equipment which is a fish confine is allured ‘Suru’ and ‘Hauwuya’ in Gunganchi phraseologys. The populace are so unreserved for their canoe and mat making. 1. 3. 4 Piety The Gunganchi populace are in-great-meapositive Muslims and few verbal worshippers and very short Christians. 1. 3. 5Festivals The entertainments remainderd in Gunganchi are allured ‘Anipo’ entertainment and ‘Idembe’. Festival. The lineage of animals interestion goat or bushmeat is used as sacrifices to their gods during the entertainment. During the entertainment, a circular gcircular is created by the populace when eating. Such sittings are so deviseed at flushts interestion espousals, naming rite, sallah entertainment and at recreation joints. 1. 3. 6 Espousals Order of the Gunganchi Populace The Gunganchi has a severed way by which espousals is remainderd. It parades a idle man cannot espouse any Gunganchi lady consequently espousals is said to be a bit arduous most obviously for the men. Firstly, a man must importio his parents if he is in charity succeeding a conjuncture a lady. Then, the man’s parents must reach their son’s curiosity-behalf unreserved to the lady’s parents. He conciliate then farm for the lady’s nativity he intends to espouse from precedently giving their agree. The tillage period is not bounded, the man is said to seal the tillage when lady’s senior is content and the decisive agree conciliate be ardent to the man’s nativity. The lady’s nativity conciliate then importio his skinred deviseally environing their daughter’s action-at-law succeeding a conjuncture the man precedently the espousals date is selected. According to Muauzu, the espousals or pledge rite is grounded on Islamic rites whereby the bride figure (Zadaki) conciliate be compensated. The bride conciliate be decorated succeeding a conjuncture tattoos on her legs and afflictive tribal marks on her appearance. Foods eaten at the rite are guinea corn pap, which is served in the waking and rice succeeding a conjuncture fish soup and burukutu is served at dusk. Their sitting situation is allied to that of the entertainment’s as mentioned prior they sit circular a plate of guinea corn pap on a mat, their sitting civilizedization is the corresponding succeeding a conjuncture the Hausas. Hence, the Gunganchi populace entomb espouse succeeding a conjuncture the Hausas. 1. 3. 7Naming Rite The Gunganchi do their naming rite sflush days succeeding the offshoot’s ascend and its hair conciliate be shaved. Rice or guinea corn pap is served at the rite succeeding a conjuncture populace sitting circular the prop. Therefore, the offshoot conciliate be circumcised succeeding ten years. 1. 3. 8Burial Rite Affection most crowds, the Gunganchi glorify the fall of olden portioicular and sadden the fall of a cadetish portioicular. They defy unexpected or extraordinary fall by consulting the solon allured “Gigo” (penny god) or “Ujigo” (a god of roar and rain). The solon conciliate reach the distillation of the departed to vengeance for his or her fall by killing the portioicular who is lawful for his or her fall. However, this performance is exclusive to the topical or distant Gunganchi populace. 1. 3. 9Education System The Gunganchi reprove the Western impartation, they importio impartation to twain their virile and fevirile offshootren. They tend grounds; they so reach use of their portioicularal houses as grounds. 1. 3. 10 Political Government The Gunganchi adopted the order of their neighboring crowd (Hausa) which is the Emirate’s order consequently it is a multi-ethnic area that pause Yelwa, Lopa, Yauri, Laru populace which co-exist succeeding a conjuncture them. The Emir’s palace is situated in Yelwa, thus, the Gunganchi are the primeval settlers in Yauri. The appointed Emir is the supporter of all the ethnic bunchs subordinate Yauri. During the British regime, acknowledgment was ardent to the Yauri emireprove and Gungu (Island) bounds of the Yauri Topical Government which are now the center of Reshe (Gunganchi) population. In the political government of the Gunganchi populace, consummationion is not by lineal consequently the Emir must be appointed, resisting the flusht that a Gunganchi man was the primeval Emir of Yauri. The Emir must tend some qualities precedently he can be appointed, interestion; he must be an old portioicular, illustrious and respected unformed the ethnic bunchs made up of Yauri. When a new Emir is appointed, turbaning conciliate be remainderd as a premonition of leadership. The Emir administrations the region succeeding a conjuncture his topical chiefs allured “Sariki” in areas interestion Gungunsariki, Banha, Rekubolo, Toro, Zamari, Jalubabu etc. Presently, the Topical Government Chairman is lawful for the magistreprove power of Yauri and other governmental activities are remainderd by the Kebbi Recite Government. However, most of the Gunganchi populace are bilingual, (they pronounce twain Gunganchi and Hausa) but the troddeniveity pronounces Gunganchi at abode obviously the youths. Thus, the phraseologys of the emireprove is Hausa succeeding a conjuncture proud prestige. . 4GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF GUNGANCHI Genetic genus is the sub-grouping of all applictalented phraseologyss into genetic nodes (bunch of phraseologyss in each of which one phraseologys is prefer air-tight allied to the other in that bunch than to any phraseologys beyond the bunch). The premise for genetic genus is the subject that bunch of phraseologyss that distribute establidrop orderic resemblances tend inherited those dishonorableities from a dishonortalented start. Thus, genetic genus reachs two recitements. First, it affirms that establidrop phraseologyss are inevent allied to each other (i. e. infrequent a dishonortalented origin). Second, it specifies how the phraseologyss are entomballied in the devise of a branch diagram. Gunganchi phraseologys falls subordinate the Niger-Kordofanian phraseologys nativity. African Accents Afro-AsiaticNiger KordofanianNilo SaharanKhoisan MandeNew Benue Congo AtlanticVolta Congo Kordofanian OkoDefoidKainjiIdomoidEdoidWolof Western KainjiEastern Kainji KamukuKainji LakeGunganchi (Gungawa)KambariBassaLopa 1. 5SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION OF STUDY This is-sue is poor to the appearances of the phonology of Gunganchi phraseologys and it is disconnected into five journeys. Chapter one deals succeeding a conjuncture the commendatory portio, which includes the notorious setting, literal setting, sociocultural line of Gunganchi populace, genetic genus of Gunganchi phraseologys, depremonition and devise of con-over, postulates store, postulates separation and the re-examination of the selected speculative framework. Journey two deals succeeding a conjuncture the basic phonological concepts that implicates the investigate register of Gunganchi phraseologys whereby the tonal register and syllpotent register of the phraseologys of con-over shall be argueed and the investigate distributions which includes severedive portions. Chapter three is grounded on the phonological regularityes radix in Gunganchi phraseologys. Then, journey lewd conciliate insistintention on the tonal and syllpotent regularityes of Gunganchi phraseologys. Journey five conciliate embody and decide the is-sue. 1. 6DATA COLLECTION In this elaboration is-sue, the arrangement used for our postulates store is the trodden translation arrangement from English phraseologys to the scheme phraseologys which is Gunganchi grounded on the Ibadan 400 entiretyitylist. There was a trodden entombopinion succeeding a conjuncture the phraseologys accelerationer, thus, postulates elicitation was carried out succeeding a conjuncture the entiretyitylist recitative on audio cassette. Informant’s Data: Name:Corptalkative Labbo Alkali Occupation:Soldier Age: 40 years Religion:Muslim Languages talkative aportio from Gunganchi: Hausa and English Enumereprove of years spent in Reshe (Gunganchi): 20 years 1. 7DATA ANALYSIS To secure an servile postulates separation in this elaboration is-sue, all the postulates unmoved were anxietyfully and unexceptionably written, intonation conspicuous and transcribed. The postulates unmoved were used according to how the artless pronounceer used them succeeding a conjunctureout impressive any extra administrations or norms. 1. REVIEW OF THE CHOSEN THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The frameis-sue adopted for this elaboration is-sue is Prolific Phonology, which was notorious by Chomsky and Halle in the bulky 1950s; it is a content of prolific style. This frameis-sue assigns the amend phonetic resemblances to ‘utterances’ in such a way as to ruminate a artless pronounceer’s entombnalized style. According to Oyebade (2008: 9), Prolific Phonology is a plan which is built on the recognition of taxonomic phonemics flush conjuncture remodeling the insistintention of phonological separation. The troddenive motivation for this speculative frameis-sue was the jar betwixt speculative convictions and linguistic postulates subordinate the plan of refined (taxonomic) phonemics. Prolific phonology took off at utmost urge in the 1960s, forthcoming the is-sues of Chomsky and Halle (publidrop in 1968 as “Sound Precedent of English (SPE)”. This plan argues that the taxonomic mode of refined phonemics was not protracted plenty to addrapery properly the lion of civilized harangue. The proponents of this new gplump of phonology praise that an protracted plan of phonology must resemblance for: a) The lion of phraseologys merit b) The perplexing flusht that man can splow subordinateinsist the harangue of another flush when this harangue is deficient; and c) The artless pronounceer’s recognition environing the visible reach-up of the harangue of his phraseologys. 1. 8. 1The Constituency of Prolific Phonology Prolific phonology presumes three very searching contents: the subordinatelying resemblance, the phonetic resemblance and the administrations which cohere the two coincidently that is allured the phonological administrations. These contents conciliate be re-examinationed subordinate. 1. 8. 1. 1Underlying Resemblance Oyebade (2008: 12) presumes subordinatelying resemblance to be an intellectual resemblance bulky in the linguistic power of the artless pronounceer. The subordinatelying resemblance is the most basic devise of a entiretyity precedently any phonological administrations tend been applied to it. Underlying resemblance parades what a artless pronounceer knows environing the intellectual subordinatelying phonology of the phraseologys. At this plane, portioiculars succeeding a conjuncture invariant import tend selfselfsimilar resemblance. The subordinatelying resemblance is so unreserved as “the phonological resemblance”, thus, the force (competence) of a artless pronounceer to scold a phrase is referred to as the phonological resemblance and this power can be philosophicalally defyd. There is an conviction of an subordinatelying plane where there is a one-to-one answerableness betwixt devise and import and which is correspondently the corresponding from one fitted pronounceer to another which explains the perplexing reaction of offshootren in the merit regularity. Since the offshoot distributes the corresponding power (and for-this-reason the corresponding subordinatelying resemblance) as the adult, it is reasonpotent to presume that the offshoot conciliate look-for the corresponding output as the adult conciliate look-for. The offshoot may not be potent to remainder such an output gone his origination talent is slower in the merit regularity than his power. The conviction of an subordinatelying resemblance which resemblances for the swift regularitying of deficient input. Both entomblocutors tend a distributed power which is servile and invariant; the decoder portio portioicipant thus has a protosign succeeding a conjuncture which he can reconstituency the deficient cry of the encoder. Also, the subordinatelying resemblance has the attribute of life encoded in “manifest portions” (these portions conciliate be argueed in the abutting journey). This conviction is motivated by the flusht that phraseologys seems to target these portions in making its choices rather than sections. 1. 8. 1. 2 The Phonetic Resemblance The phonetic resemblance is the devise of a entiretyity that is talkative and heard. It is so unreserved as “the surappearance plane”. Phonological constituency ruminates the linguistic power of the artless pronounceer to scold a phonetic resemblance for the speculatively infinite enumereprove of phrases generated by the syntactic content of the style. We can say that there is no pronounceer of a phraseologys that has heard all the phrases in his phraseologys but pronounceer has the force to subordinateinsist any phrase heard. Phonetic resemblance indicates how the lexical portioicular is to be realized in harangue. It is characterized by limit of slenderness such that, at the very lowest, any two investigates that are noted in any civilized phraseologys are incongruously represented. Generative phonology seems to opine this plane as life inconsideroperative and not excellence too abundantly comment exclude, possibly as a fountain for the verification and advocacy of the inadequate subordinatelying resemblance. 1. 8. 13 Phonological Rules Phonological administrations map subordinatelying resemblance onto phonological resemblances. They delete, instil, or alter sections, or alter the portions of sections. They are said to parade the springal forthcoming or course of an portioicular in its travel from the subordinatelying plane to the phonetic plane. They must be potent to siege the phonological lion in the simplest devise. There are two signs of administrations in phonological administrations: portion changing administrations and stuff-in administrations. The portion changing administrations alter the portions of the input to that of the output. However, the other skin of administrations allured stuff-in administrations are administrations, as the allure implies, which stuff in vacuity slots. Phonological administrations tend to be frameal in a philosophical resemblance of linguistic phenomena. It was for-this-reason praiseed that the administrations should tend their own deviseat. For illustration, a administration can say instil a proud face vowel betwixt a group of endureents and we can tend another administration which says instil a proud face vowel succeeding a entiretyity-decisive endureent. These administrations can be devisealized thus: a. O(i/C____C b. O(i/C____# As you can note from the devisealization of the two administrations, they are selfselfsimilar in input and output. Furthermore, they tend a lot of dishonorableities in the environment. If the administrations are left interestion this, that is, as two severed administrations, the implied privilege conciliate be that these are two severed and severed regularityes. This is intuitively inamend and it loses a linguistically premonitionificant notoriousization. These two administrations can then be furled into one and to siege the linguistically premonitionificant flusht that we are communication succeeding a conjuncture the corresponding regularity. Thus (a) and (b) can be fully as in (c) subordinate: C c. O(i/C------ # that is, a proud face vowel is instiled either betwixt two endureents or succeeding a endureent at entiretyity decisive situation. In phonological administrations, notational devices are applied. They are conventions which reach it feasible to concatenate severed but allied phonological administrations in a solitary recitement; administrations may be furled in this way simply if they implicate the corresponding regularity. In other entiretyitys, notational devices are terseness conventions aimed at reducing divers administrations into one. The mind is to evince prefer economically the flushts of phraseologys. There are notational devices interestion: renovate notation ({}), angled connect notation (), varipotent portions or alpha notation ((), multiple varipotent notation ((,(, ? , etc. ). The role of these devices is to reach it feasible for the phonologists to frameally and unambiguously recite in administration devise and the regularity that is taking attribute in phraseologys when a precedent is noted. Secondly, it reachs linguistiscally premonitionificant notoriousizations and privileges environing the way phraseologys is-sues. Finally, and possibly most inconsiderablely, it arranges a shortoperative abbreviatory arrangement by which a tangled regularity can be sieged as little as feasible. CHAPTER TWO BASIC PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS 2. 0INTRODUCTION This journey is grounded on the phonology of Gunganchi phraseologys. The investigate register which implicates the tonal register and the syllpotent register conciliate be argueed. It so insistpointes on the investigate distribution of Gunganchi phraseologys where the severedive portions conciliate be argueed. 2. 1PHONOLOGY According to Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 2), phonology deals succeeding a conjuncture how harangue investigates are unembarrassed into order for each portioicular phraseologys: for illustration: how the investigates can be fully, the homogeneitys betwixt them and how they interest each other. In phonology, the radix ‘phone’ relates to ‘voice’, investigate and ‘logos’ which media ‘word; harangue’ startates from the Greek entiretyitys. Phonology as a subfield of linguistics is the con-over of the administrations subsequently the way investigates encode import in phraseologys. Also, it is the con-over of investigates and precedents in a phraseologys. It can be said that phonology pursues to discriminate the investigates made in all civilized phraseologyss. In con-over, phonology studies how investigates fluctuate that is the minimal importful investigates which are ‘PHONEMES’. However, phonemes are sets of phones, which power as one item in a phraseologys, and arrange dishomogeneousness betwixt incongruous entiretyitys. It is so a investigate section of entiretyitys or propounds. In civilized phraseologys, a phoneme is the feebleest structural item that discriminatees import. The phonemic register of a phraseologys is the set of phonemes it possesses. In the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabets), phonemes are conventionally enshut in self-assertive sashes (//) and harangue investigates that are not phonemes are attributed in connects ([ ]). For illustration, the /t/ investigate in the English entiretyitys ‘tip’, ‘stand’, ‘cat’ and ‘water’ are conceived of as life the corresponding investigate, resisting the flusht that in each entiretyity they are pronounced peculiarly incongruously; the discord may not flush be articulate to artless pronounceers. One of the most troddenive tools for examining phonemes is the ‘minimal span’ which media incongruous entiretyitys but dispute as a disposal of one investigate, that is, a span of entiretyitys which dispute simply in one section. In a minimal span, one can be positive that the discord betwixt entiretyitys is phonemic in erection, consequently the sections in interrogation are surrounded by the corresponding environment and this cannot be allophones of each other. Examples of minimal span in Gunganchi are: [ut(i]‘tree’ [at(i] ‘firewood’ [hina]‘cow’ [wina]‘tail’ [ureta]‘right(side)’ upeta]‘medicine’ [kwubanoh]‘open’ [kwubaloh]‘close’ [itamia]‘push’ [igamia]‘sweep’ A phoneme may adequate divers recognizpotent incongruous harangue investigates allured ‘PHONES’. In phonetics, the feebleest ponderable section is a phone. In the illustrations recited prior, the /t/ in ‘tip’ is aspirated [th], conjuncture the /t/ in insist is unaspirated [t]. Thus, phones that behanker to the corresponding phonemes are allured allophones such as [th] and [t] are allophones of the phoneme /t/ ardent in the illustrations ardent prior. Allophones are frequently conditioned by their environment. For illustration, the English phoneme /t/ is realized as a tap [r] betwixt vowels in natural harangue when not preceeding a stressed vowel as in ‘butter’. In a illustration interestion this we can say that the seal [t] and tap [r] which are allophones of the phoneme /t/ are in ‘complementary distribution’, as entirety environment selects for either one or the other, and the allophones themselves may be referred to as ‘COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION’. 2. 2SOUND INVENTORY OF GUNGANCHI Civilized investigates can be bunched into two basic classes whereby they are radix in Gunganchi. They are: 1. Consonants 2. Vowels 2. . 1Consonants Consonants are investigates remainderd succeeding a conjuncture an hinderance of the air journey somewhere ahanker the talkative rely. A endureent in stipulations of investigate origination is a investigate which is impeded in some way by the harangue or lip apsituation e. g. in Gunganchi, investigates interestion /k/, /p/ as in; /k/([ka? ina]‘reply’ /p/([puteta]‘forget’ as incongruous to the unimpeded investigate of a vowel. Consistent investigates exact a establidrop limit of constriction of the talkative rely in their origination, for-this-reason, at some intention, humorous, impeding or perfectly shutting off the airflow of air in the talkative planeness. This constriction of the talkative rely may implicate adequate clopositive or portioial blank wall. In stipulations of the investigate order, the endureent is a investigate that typically shows at the start or end of the syllpotent rather than in the average of it, thus dissimilaritying succeeding a conjuncture vowels. Thus, the organs of harangue that block at some intention in the talkative planeness are unreserved as the ‘articulators’. From the glottis, late the velum, the firm palate and excavated ridge and the harangue, to the teeth and lips. The endureent investigates are classified by; a) Voicing b) Attribute of flexure c) Manner of flexure 2. 2. 1. 1 Voicing Consonants may be exclamationd or taciturn. As the airstream afters to or from the lungs, it passes through the gap betwixt the glottis. If the talkative cords are notorious, the air passes through succeeding a conjunctureout hinderance and the investigates that are made in this way, are picturesquely as ‘voiceless’. If the talkative cords shut, then the air dying through the glottis actions them to oscillate supple ‘voiced’ investigates. Some of the endureent investigates in Gunganchi after in spans that dispute in life exclamationd or taciturn e. g. /b/ and /p/ ( /b/ is exclamationd and /p/ is the taciturn endureent in one span. /k/ and /g/ are radix in another span, /k/ is taciturn and the exclamationd investigate is /g/. Also, it applied to /d/ and /t/, /d/ is exclamationd conjuncture /t/ is the taciturn endureent which devises another span. 2. 2. 1. 2 Attribute of Flexure It is the intention of flexure where twain the free and enduring articulators engage or apsituation to remainder the desired endureent. Here, we tend to do succeeding a conjuncture the situation of the harangue and lips. The attributes of flexure in Gunganchi are; bilabial, excavated palato-alveolar, velar, labial-velar, palatal, glottal, palatalized velars and excavated, labialized-excavated and velars. 2. 2. 1. 3 Manner of Flexure Manner of flexure reachs mind to the sign of dispraise which the articulators are making to remainder the endureent investigates. The hinderances made may be entirety, entombmittent, portioial or scrutinizing plenty to action attrition. The courtesy of flexure in Gunganchi are seal, nasal, fricative, affricate, chirp, forthcomingal and approximant. However, it is noted that there is the intercourse of endureent groups in Gunganchi phraseologys that is endureents showring coincidently parallelity by parallelity e. g. [riadda]‘matchet’ [ubalkari]‘male’ [kwa] ‘take(one object)’ Thus, the endureents signed in Gunganchi are: /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /tw/ /dw/ /dj/ /k/ /g/ /kw/ /gw/ kj/ /gj/ /gb/ /r/ /m/ /n/ /s/ /z/ /(/ /h/ /hj/ /ts/ /t(/ /? // /l/ /j/ /w/ /r/. 2. 2. 2. 1 Gunganchi Consistent Chart |Bilabial |Alveolar |Labialized |Palatalize |Palate-excavated |Palatal |Velar | | | | |excavated |excavated | | | | |High |+ |- |- |- |- |- |+ | |Low |- |- |- |+ |- |- |- | |Round |- |- |- |- |+ |+ |+ | |ATR |+ |+ |- |- |- |+ |+ | 2. 9. 4Segment Congeries for Gunganchi Consonants Redundancy is the origin that accelerations in predicting some portions from the intercourse of other portions; thus, the portion that predicts the portion of the other is said to be overflowing. Gunganchi phraseologys imply to a enumereprove of portions that are perfectly predictpotent at all stages of spring. All the overflowing portions are explicit as stuff-in administration or [if –then]. However, the output of the phonological contents must state all portion in such a way that it indicates compulsory portions used in spring. i)If:[+ syll] Then:+ son - cons ii)If:[+ cons] Then:+ exclamation - strid iii)If:[+ ant] Then:[+ cons] iv)If:[+ nas] Then:- cont - strid + exclamation + son 2. 9. 5Segment Congeries for Gunganchi Vowels | |i |e |( |a |? o |u | |High |+ |- |(-) |(-) |(-) |- |+ | |Low |(-) |- |- |+ |(-) |(-) |(-) | |Round |- |- |- |(-) |+ |+ |+ | |ATR |(+) |+ |- |(-) |- |+ |(+) | All of the predictpotent redundancies can be explicit as stuff-in administrations which are so allured if –then section constituency constraints as remainderd for endureents overhead. i)If:[+ proud] Then:[- low] ii)If:[+ low] Then:[- proud] iii)If:[+ proud] Then:[+ ATR] iv) If:[+ circular] Then:[- low] v)If:[+ low] Then:[- circular] vi)If:[+ low] Then:[- ATR] vii)If:[+ ATR] Then:[- low] viii)If:[- ATR] Then:[- proud] However, redundancies after from any of two fountains: the primeval is the try to trodden the physiological possibilities (or impossibilities) of the talkative organs. For illustration, the constraints if [+ proud] then [- low] reachs the privilege that the harangue cannot be violent and lowered at the corresponding period. In other entiretyitys, if the harangue is violent then it is not lowered and if it is lowered then it is not violent. Gone the physiological possibilities of the civilized talkative rely is exhaustive to all civilized lifes, this sign of congeries is a exhaustive one. The prevent fountain afters from the flusht that phraseologyss do not regularly maximally localize all combinatorial possibilities logically look-fored when portions after coincidently. CHAPTER THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN GUNGANCHI 3. INTRODUCTION This journey conciliate be argueing the phonological regularityes radix in Gunganchi phraseologys. 3. 1PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES Phonological regularityes are investigate alterations motivated by the scarcity to continue consonance in a phraseologys or to rearrange violations of polite-formedness constraints in the origination of an cry. (Oyebade 2008: 61). Segments are either succeeding a conjuncturein the corresponding morpheme or at morpheme condition subordinate sundry stipulations may subordinatego establidrop alters. Therefore, these alters are unreserved as ‘phonological regularityes’. Environment succeeding a conjuncturein which investigates show may interest alters. The phonological regularityes in Gunganchi are: 3. 1. 1Assimilation According to Oyebade (2008: 63), assimilation is when two abutting investigates which tend incongruous administrations of origination beafter selfselfsimilar in some or all of the portions of their origination. Assimilation is the alteration of investigates in the troddenion of largeer dishonorableity to the embracing phonological environment (Langacker 1972: 270). Assimilation may be either portioial or entirety. Tonal assimilation is the converting of the changing section to beafter selfselfsimilar to other section and assimilation may be portioial such that simply some portions of the changing endureent (or vowel) beseems selfselfsimilar succeeding a conjuncture that of the initiating section. Examples of assimilation in Gunganchi: ugika[ugjka]‘bag’ In the overhead illustration, the exclamationd velar seal permits the portion ‘high’ of the vowel [i]. It is noted that when the exclamationd velar seal show precedently a proud unrounded face vowel, it beseems palatalized which parades assimilation has enslaved attribute. - cont+ syll - ant([high]__________- end - cor- circular + exclamation+ proud unun[unu]‘mouth’ anuhin[anuhi]‘teeth’ In the illustrations overhead, vowels siege on the portion of the excavated nasal. Thus, vowel beseems nasalized precedently excavated nasal. + syll- cont -cons([+ nas]__________+ ant + cor + nas 3. 1. 2Vowel Ellipse Vowel ellipse is another dishonortalented phonological regularity. According to Oyebade (2008: 69), vowels are usually deleted when two or prefer vowels show opposite morpheme condition. When such an showrence is introduced by morphological regularityes, the phraseologys may prefer to emanate the primeval or the prevent of the abutting vowels. Examples in Gunganchi are: [itsuria][akatua]([itsuriakatua] ‘buy’ ‘shoe’‘buy (a) shoe’ [ikabia][uwapo] ( [ikabiuwapo] ‘money’ ‘house’‘house rent’ However, it is noted that low end unrounded vowels are deleted at morpheme condition if the abutting morpheme begins succeeding a conjuncture a vowel. + syll+ syll + low(O___________- cons + end - circular 3. 1. 3Labialisation Labialisation is the super-imsituation of liprounding on a section in such a way that the portion of a vowel now attaches to the endureent organic (Oyebade 2008: 66). Examples of labializationin Gunganchi phraseologys are: [utw? ha]‘ear’ [rotwua]‘neck’ [abakjrdwola]‘animal’ [ndwuwa]‘person’ The excavated seals [t] and [d] that are not naturally, they labialized siege on the portion of the circulared vowels. We can for-this-reason, say that excavated seals beafter labialized precedently end circulared vowels. - cont+ syll + ant([lab]_____________+ end + cor+ circulared Other illustrations of labialization are: [igbagwua] ‘pepper’ [ugwohua]‘kolanut’ [ribulukwu]‘cooking’ [alokwotwo]‘snail’ It is so noted that velar seals [k] and [g] beafter labialized precedently end circulared vowels. - cont+ syll - ant([+lab]_____________+ end - cor+ circular 3. 1. 4Palatalisation According to Oyebade (2009: 65), palatalisation is the super-imsituation of harangue eminence on a section. Here are illustrations in Gunganchi phraseologys: [ugjika:]‘bag’ [akjikwa]‘millet’ [inagji]‘pull’ [gjirana]‘descend’ In the overhead illustrations, velar seals are palatalized precedently proud vowel. - cont+ syll - ant([+ proud]_____________+ proud - cor 3. 1. 5Insertion Oyebade (2008: 74) recites that: “Insertion is a phonological regularity whereby an adventitious ingredient not evince primevally is introduced into the cry usually to smash up unwanted forthcoming”. Examples in Gunganchi are paraden subordinate. [upowabetatsunia]([upowabetatsunia] ten +one‘eleven’ [upowabetat(zuwa]([upowabetat(zuwa] ten +six‘sixteen’ alosobetatsunia]([alosobetatsunia] twenty +one‘twenty one’ [alosobetajisoh]([alosobetajisoh] twenty +two‘twenty two’ 1. 3. 6Nasalisation Nasalisation is a regularity whereby an talkative section acquires nasality from a neighbouring section (Katamba 1989: 93). Nasalisation is premonitionificant in Gunganchi, for illustration; [matsunih? ]‘surpass’ [iji]‘see’ [tsunia] ‘one’ [udaga] ‘stick’ Therefore, vowels beafter nasalised precedently excavated nasal, that is; + syll- cont - cons([+ nas]_____________+ ant + cor + nas CHAPTER FOUR TONAL PROCESSES AND SYLLABLE PROCESSES 4. 0INTRODUCTION This Journey conciliate be argueing the intonation order and the regularityes radix in Gunganchi phraseologys. It conciliate so insistintention on the syllpotent regularityes in Gunganchi phraseologys. 4. 1TONE SYSTEM IN GUNGANCHI Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 84-85) recites that “In frequent phraseologyss, hurl alteration is used to discriminate one entiretyity from another. Languages which use hurl in this way are unreserved as ‘intonation phraseologyss’, and the portioicular hurl precedents associated succeeding a conjuncture entiretyitys or propounds are unreserved as ‘tones’”. According to Carlos and Haike (2005: 12), intonation phraseologyss used hurl dissimilaritys to tend entiretyitys aportio in the corresponding way that phraseologyss use vowel and endureent for this mind. Intonation is the incongruousiation of two entiretyitys succeeding a conjuncture the corresponding sectional evinceation succeeding a conjuncture the use of its hurl. And a phraseologys is said to be a intonation phraseologys when the discords in entiretyity import are premonitionaled by the discords in hurl. Intonation is essentially a attribute of portioicular propounds or entiretyitys and so it is typically used as a way of discriminateing betwixt portioiculars at entiretyity plane (such as minimal spans, entiretyitys which are selfselfsimilar exclude for one content). 4. 1. 1Tone Typologies There are two categories of intonation; a. Plane intonations b. Form intonations 4. 1. 1. 1 Plane Tones The intonations whereby the hurl is continueed at the corresponding reprove for the period of the syllpotent are unreserved as ‘plane intonations’ (Davenport and Hannahs 2005: 85). Plane intonations are proud, mid and low intonations. These intonations may show on all propounds. The proud intonation is implied by an clever phraseology (/), the low intonation is conspicuous succeeding a conjuncture a extension phraseology () and the mid intonation is represented as (-) or unmarked. Thus, the mid intonation is not conspicuous in Gunganchi. 4. 1. 1. 2 Form Tones According to Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 85), form intonations are intonations evinceing hurl alteration during their origination. Form intonations pauses of the elapsing intonation (^) which is a intonation that starts proud and end low, and the mound intonation (V) which starts low and end proud. Form intonations simply show on monosyllables and on the decisive propounds of disyllabic entiretyitys. 4. 1. 2Tonal Precedent in Gunganchi Gunganchi is a intonation phraseologys and it is a plane intonation phraseologys which implys to the proud, low and mid intonations. Each syllpotent of Gunganchi phraseologys permits a intonation. Examples of entiretyitys that permits the proud intonation in Gunganchi are: [kwa]‘take(one object)’ [? w? ]‘sun’ [riba]‘thing’ Adventure of low intonations in Gunganchi phraseologys can be paraden in the forthcoming illustrations: [dja]‘here’ [riadda]‘matchet’ Occurrences of mid intonations in Gunganchi are: [alahagw? mi]‘jaw’ [wuru]‘moon’ [ajaba]‘plantain’ However, there are two or prefer entiretyitys in Gunganchi phraseologys which tend correspondently the corresponding endureents and vowels but tend incongruous import consequently of a discord in dissimilarityive hurl. These are referred to as intonationmes that dishomogeneousness minimally. For illustration; [rotwua]‘neck’HHH [rotwua]‘belly(externall)HHM [kwubaloh]‘cover(in operative)’HLH [kwubaloh]‘close’HML Co-adventure of intonations in Gunganchi In Gunganchi, the low, proud and mid intonations co-occur. There is the co-adventure of the low and mid intonations, illustrations are; [ol? ha]‘nose’ [t(ib? ]‘town’ [hia(i]‘dust’ Examples of the co-adventure of proud, mid and low intonations in Gunganchi are: [hirokwa]‘horse’ [ibulukw? ]‘he goat’ [alakana(a]‘lewd hundred’ 4. 2. 1 Functions of Intonation in Gunganchi Intonation performs two severed powers, they are: a) Lexical power b) Close power 4. 2. 1. 1 Lexical Power Intonation can be used to incongruousiate lexical portioiculars that tend selfselfsimilar sections. For illustration in Gunganchi; [kwubaloh]‘cover (in operative)’HLH [kwubaloh]‘close’HML [rotwua]‘belly(external)HHM [rotwua]‘neck’HHH Note that the incongruous intonationmes tend disposaled in the discords in the import of the entiretyitys overhead. 4. 2. 1. 2 Close Power Intonation is so used to incongruousiate betwixt incongruous close devises. But, this power is not radix in Gunganchi phraseologys. 4. 3TONAL PROCESSES As succeeding a conjuncture sections, intonations are so qualified by their environment. Thus, this imcompressiveness ascend to tonal regularityes. 4. 3. 1 Intonation Ellipse This shows when two intonations are juxtaposed opposite morpheme condition and the decisive vowel of the primeval entiretyity gets elided causing the intonation on it to be elided too. Examples in Gunganchi are: [ikabia][uwapo]([ikabiuwapo]‘house rent’ ‘money’‘house’ [itsuria][akatua](itsuriakatua] ‘buy’‘shoe’‘buy(a) shoe’ 4. 3. 2 Intonation Stability In homogeneity to intonation, the conconsequence is that “…in intonation phraseologyss, we meet that when a vowel desyllabifies or is deleted by some phonological administrations, the intonation it was port does not vanish, rather, it shifts its residuum and parades up on some other vowel”. (Goldsmith1976:30). Illustration of intonation stforce in Gunganchi: [ubula] [alokat(i] ( [ubulalokat(i] ‘rainy season’ ‘rain’‘time’ 4. 3. 3 Intonation Spreading This is a tonal regularity whereby there are prefer sections than intonation, the intonation conciliate then spperuse to the section as it is a must that the sections permit intonation. This regularity is not radix in Gunganchi phraseologys. 4. 3. 4 Unformed Intonation Oyebade (2008: 15) says that during spring, section is bounded for intonation but merges succeeding a conjuncture vowel, thus, dying its tonal demonstration to that vowel. Gunganchi does not tend unformed intonation. 4. 3. 4 Intonation Contraction This is when intonation sectionalization creates two selfselfsimilar intonations on the corresponding propound, the two selfselfsimilar intonations are slender to importio simply one. Gunganchi phraseologys does not imply to this tonal regularity. However, it is noted that there is the illustration of nasal endureent that permits intonation. Such nasal is referred to as a syllabic nasal consequently it is entombpreted as a vowel that carries a intonation. Examples of this in Gunganchi are: [nduwa]‘person’ [nduwakabi]‘old portioicular’ In the entiretyitys overhead, the nasal [n] permits the proud intonation which reachs it to power the way other vowels powers. 4. 4SYLLABLE STRUCTURE The syllpotent is a supra-segmental item. It can be easily certain in a phraseologys. Davenport and Hannahs (2005: 73) recites that: “One such articulatorily grounded try at the determination implicates the expectation of a ‘chest pulse; or ‘initiator extravasate’, that is, a stalwart befoulment in the chest (involving the lungs) which corresponds to the origination of a propound; each propound, on this opinion, implicates one extravasate of stalwart energy”. Williamson (1984) defines the syllpotent as ‘the feebleest item of phraseologys which can be pronounced. It is a item of investigate made up of one or prefer sections during which there is a solitary chest pulse and a solitary peak of sonority. Hyman (1975: 188) recites that ‘a syllpotent is made up of an attack, and a heart. And the heart is raise disconnected into a peak and coda’. However, a syllpotent is disconnected into three volume: 1) The attack 2) The heart or kernel 3) The coda The syllpotent can be represented thus: Syllpotent OnsetCore Peak (Nucleus)Coda C V(C) This can be picturesque in the illustration in Gunganchi subordinate: [joh] ‘insist (up)’ ( OnsetCore ConsonantPeakCoda (Nucleus) JVowel(Consonant) ( h The syllpotent coda and attack are made up of endureent sections conjuncture the peak is made up of vowel section and syllabic endureents. The peak is an inexpedient portio of the propound, thus, there must be a peak. The attack (beginning) and coda (end) which usually pause of endureent(s) are optional volume of the propound. Each syllpotent carries at lowest one premonitionificant item of intonation in tonal phraseologyss. 4. 4. 1 Types of Syllpotent A syllpotent can be either an notorious syllpotent or shut propound. It is phraseologys specific; some phraseologyss may evince either of the two syllpotent signs conjuncture some phraseologyss reach use of the two (notorious and shut propounds) interestion Gunganchi phraseologys. 4. 4. 1. 1Open Syllpotent This is a syllpotent in which entiretyitys end in a vowel, it is a syllpotent succeeding a conjunctureout the coda. Examples in Gunganchi are: [ububa]‘leaf’ [akahoj‘village’ [babi]‘children’ [hilelio]‘elephant’ 4. 4. 1. 2 Shut Syllpotent Shut syllpotent is a syllpotent typology that has at lowest one endureent forthcoming the vowel or delaydrawal the kernel. Examples are: [lakapitwoh]‘old(opp. new)’ [[kakaw]‘pour’ [rimonoh]‘work’ Gunganchi implys to twain the notorious and shut propound. 4. 5SYLLABLE STRUCTURE RULE IN GUNGANCHI This is the administration that recites the feasible forthcoming of investigates or section in a propound. Words dispute succeeding a conjuncture mind to the enumereprove of propounds contained in them. Some entiretyitys tend harmonious one propound, others may tend two or prefer, future, entiretyitys are classified as life monosyllabic, disyllabic, trisyllabic and polysyllabic depending on how frequent propound(s) such entiretyitys tend. The syllpotent constituencys in Gunganchi are: CV VCV N- Syllpotent Constituency Cw- Syllpotent Constituency Cj- Syllpotent Constituency 4. 5. 1 CV-Syllpotent Constituency The CV-syllpotent constituency is the most dishonortalented sign of syllpotent constituency in Gunganchi. It is in-great-meapositive radix in monosyllabic and disyllabic or trisyllabic and polysyllabic. 4. 5. 1. 1 CV-Structure in Monosyllabic Monosyllabic is a entiretyity having a solitary propound. For illustration, in Gunganchi: [dja]‘here’ 4. 5. 1. 2 CV-Structure in Disyllabic Disyllabic is a entiretyity pauseing of two propounds. For illustration: [nana]‘come’ [riba]‘thing’ [riwo]‘corpse’ [hino]‘bee’ 4. 5. 1. 3 CV-Structure in Trisyllabic A entiretyity pauseing of three propounds is allured ‘trisyllabic’. Examples of such entiretyitys in Gunganchi phraseologys are: [rihama]‘food’ [rirogwo]‘cassava’ [rigwula]‘knife’ [hi(aho]‘hawk’ 4. 5. 1. 4 CV-Structure in Polysyllabic Polysyllabic is a entiretyity pauseing of prefer than three propounds. Examples in Gunganchi phraseologys are: [ribulukwu]‘cooking’ [hamatsaro]‘maize’ [[rit(at(? pua]‘chin’ [ri(iteitwo]‘hat/cap’ 4. 5. 2 VCV-Syllpotent Structure Examples of VCV-syllpotent constituency in Gunganchi phraseologys are picturesque subordinate: [uwi]‘die’ [ut(a]‘guest(stranger)’ [ubi]‘child’ [ut? ]‘father’ 4. 5. 3 N-Syllpotent Constituency This sign of syllpotent is a ‘syllabic-nasal’. It conciliate be entombpreted as a vowel consequently interestion a vowel, the syllabic nasal carries at intonation. In Gunganchi, illustrations are: [nduwa]‘person’ [nduwakabi]‘old portioicular’ [ndukami]‘man’ 4. 5. 4 Cw-Syllpotent Constituency The [CwV] constituency in Gunganchi includes the forthcoming: [hitsokwutso]‘guinea fowl’ [ukwulu]‘room’ [mutwo]‘ashes’ 4. 5. 5 Cj-Syllpotent Constituency Examples in Gunganchi phraseologys are: [inagji]‘pull’ [(ikjitwo]‘learn’ [gjirana]‘descend’ CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, FINDINGS/OBSERVATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5. 0SUMMARY This elaboration is-sue has examined the phonological appearances of Gunganchi phraseologys. Suffrage are said to be polite-patterned and the origins of polite-formedness are followed. The arrangement used for the postulates store in this elaboration is-sue is the trodden translation arrangement from English phraseologys to Gunganchi phraseologys grounded on the Ibadan 400 entiretyity-list. There was a trodden entombopinion succeeding a conjuncture the impartant, thus, postulates elicitation was carried out. The being of using the illuminating postulates is to be potent to reach linguistically premonitionificant notoriousizations. This scheme is-sue is disconnected into five journeys. Chapter one is the commendatory portio which dealt succeeding a conjuncture the notorious setting of Gunganchi populace, their sociocultural line, genetic genus of the phraseologys, the depremonition and devise of con-over, re-examination of the selected speculative framework, postulates store and postulates separation. Journey two of this is-sue examined the basic phonological concepts. The investigate register which implicates the tonal register and syllpotent register of Gunganchi phraseologys was argueed, so, their investigate distributions whereby the severedive portions was examined. The third journey then argueed phonology itself, thus, examined the phonological regularityes in Gunganchi phraseologys. Meanwhile, the phonological regularityes radix in Gunganchi phraseologys are: assimilation, nasalisation, labialisation, palatalisation, instilion and vowel ellipse. However, the phonological administrations were so resemblanceed for. Chapter lewd of this is-sue argueed the tonal and syllpotent regularityes. These regularityes were polite examined succeeding a conjuncture illuminating illustrations from Gunganchi phraseologys. Finally, journey five embodyd the is-sue. It so made comments, praiseations and disposal. 5. 1FINDING/OBSERVATIONS Bulk of Gunganchi pronounceers so pronounce Hausa phraseologys and it is noted that some entiretyitys in Gunganchi are acquired from Hausa phraseologys. Gunganchi phraseologys implys to twain notorious syllpotent constituency and shut syllpotent constituency. Also, when some entiretyitys in Gunganchi show opposite morpheme condition, the conclusive vowel of the primeval entiretyity gets deleted. There is the illustration of endureent group in Gunganchi phraseologys which is another comment. It was so noted that Gunganchi imply to the plane intonations (high, mid, low) and these intonations co-show in entiretyitys. Finally, there are some entiretyitys in Gunganchi that disputes as a disposal of intonation which is intonationmic dissimilarity. 5. 2RECOMMENDATIONS Through this elaboration, beneficial recognition has been drawn from the phonological appearances of Gunganchi phraseologys. As a subject of flusht, the phraseologys has not been unguarded to entire linguistic investigation. There is scarcity for linguists to insistintention their comment prefer on the phraseologys. This scheme has premeditated the appearances of the phonology of Gunganchi phraseologys. I hereby praise that linguists should drop prefer unweighty on this appearance and other appearances of Gunganchi phraseologys. Researchers who would interestion to elaboration raise on Gunganchi conciliate meet this elaboration is-sue a relipotent mind. 5. 3CONCLUSION Some appearances of the phonology of Gunganchi phraseologys tend been surveyed. For neglect of extension and period, it has not been feasible to manage all appearances of the phraseologys. However, I desire this con-over conciliate encourage raise elaboration in the phraseologys. REFERENCES Carlos, G. and Haike, J. (2005). “Understanding Phonology” (2nd Edition). Large Britain: Hodder Arnold. Goldsmith, J. (1976). Autosegmental Phonology. MIT DIssertion IVLC, New York: Grandplant Press. Hyman, L. M. (1975). “Phonology: Plan and Analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Katamba, F. (1989). “An Introduction to Phonology”. New York: Longman Inc. Langacker, R. W. (1972). “Fundamentals of Linguistic Analysis”. New York: Harcourt Brace, Javanovich Inc. Mike, D. and Hannahs, S. J. (2005). “Introducing Phonetics and Phonology” (2nd Edition). India: Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. Oyebade (2008). “A Course in Phonology” (2nd Edition). Ijebu-Ode: Shebiotimo Press. Oxford (2006). “Advanced Learners Dictionary” (7TH Edition). Oxford. Oxford University Press. Pike, K. L. (1943). Phonetic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Pike, K. L. (1948). Intonation Languages. Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press. Welmers, W. E. (1973). African Accents Structures. Los Angeles: University of California Press.