A Brief Introduction to Methods of Word Formation in English
A Brief Introduction to Methods of Countenance Construction in English I. Introduction Linguistics is the or-laws con-over of rational discourse. Linguistics can be broadly meek into three categories or subfields of con-over: discourse contrive, discourse aim, and discourse in unification. The foremost open activities in picturesquely linguistics possess been attributed to Panini environing 500 BCE, delay his deunification of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi. The pristine subprovince of linguistics is the con-over of discourse unification, or pointedion. This focuses on the arrange of unwavering followed by the users of a discourse.
It encloses the con-over of morphology (the contriveation and unification of pointedion), syntax (the contriveation and unification of characteristics and decrees from these pointedion), and phonology (investigate arrange). Phonetics is a peelred spray of linguistics disturbed delay the pointed personalties of oration investigates and nonoration investigates, and how they are performed and perceived. This Nursing essay is going to inhale on bisect of morphology pointedion contriveation, of the English discourse. Generally, in linguistics, pointedion contriveation is the fabrication of a new pointedion.
Word contriveation is rarely contrarietyed delay semantic diversify, which is a diversify in a separate pointedion’s aim. The designation among pointedion contriveation and semantic diversify can be intricate to define: a new use of an old pointedion can be seen as a new pointedion adventitious from an old one and alloticular to it in contrive. Countenance contriveation can besides be contrarietyed delay the contriveation of turnatic pointedions, although pointedion can be contriveed from multi-countenance characteristics. There are diversified mechanisms of pointedion contriveation and this Nursing essay is going to exhibit them in ingredient delay essential explanations and specimens. II. Methods of Countenance Formations 1. Agglutination.
In contemporary linguistics, agglutination ordinaryly refers to the peel of morphological analysis in which there is a one-to-one letter among unitees and syntactical categories. Discourse that use agglutination widely are denominated aggluticongenital discourses. Aggluticongenital discourses are repeatedly contrarietyed twain delay discourse in which syntactic unification is laagered barely by resources of pointedion arrange and helping pointedion (isolating discourse) and delay discourses in which a separate unite typically pointed independent syntactic categories and a separate state may be laagered by independent divergent unitees (as is the plaint in the inflectional or fusional anguage). However, twain fusional and isolating discourse may use aggluticongenital in the most-often-used constructs, and use agglutination heavily in undoubtful unifications, such as pointedion analysis. This is the plaint in English, which has an agglutinated plural manufacturer – (e)s and adventitious pointedion such as shame·less·ness. 2. Back-construction In spring, end-construction is the manner of creating a new lexeme, ordinaryly by removing pointed or reported unitees. The terminationing neologism is denominated a end-formation, a countenance coined by James Murray in 1889.
Back-construction is divergent from clipping – end-construction may diversify the bisect of oration or the pointedion’s aim, forasmuch-as clipping creates shortened pointedion from longer pointedion, but does not diversify the bisect of oration or the aim of the pointedion. For specimen, the noun regeneration was ascititious from Latin, and the verb resurrect was the end-formed hundreds of years succeeding from it by removing the ion suffix. This segmentation of regeneration into resurrect + ion was practicable consequently English had specimens of Latinate pointedion in the contrive of verb and verb + -ion pairs, such as opine/opinion.
These became the specimen for sundry past such pairs, where a verb adventitious from a Latin indolent root and a noun accomplishment in ion invadeed the discourse concurrently, such as insert/insertion, project/projection, etc. Back-construction may be congruous to the reanalyzes of folk etymologies when it rests on an false contract of the morphology of the longer pointedion. For specimen, the quaint noun asset is a end-construction from the plural gear. However, gear is primordially not a plural: it is a mortgage-countenance from Anglo-Norman asetz (later French assez).
The –s was reanalyzed as a plural suffix. Sundry pointedion came into English by this route: Prefreshment was unintermittently a concretion noun but was reinterpreted as a plural, regulative to the end-construction pea. The noun statistic was as-well a end-construction from the province of con-over statistics. In Britain, the verb burgle came into use in the 19th senility as a end-construction from burglar (which can be compared to the North American verb burglarize contriveed by suffixation). Plain though sundry English pointedion are contriveed this way, new coinages may investigate uncommon, and are repeatedly used for comical gear.
For specimen, gruntled (from disgruntled) would be cogitateed a rudeness, and used barely in comical unifications, such as by P. G. Wodehouse, who wrote “I wouldn’t say he was disgruntled, but by no strain of the humor could be picturesquely as gruntled”. He succeedingdian George Gobel constantly used primordial end-formations in his comical monologues. Bill Bryson mused that the English discourse would be richer if we could persuade a tidy-haired peculiar shevelled – as an adverse to dishevelled. In the American sitcom Scrubs, the reputation Turk unintermittently said when replying to Dr. Cox, “I don’t disregard you!
It’s alconcurrently the adverse – I dain you. ” Back-formations constantly prepare in vulgarassign use and barely spiritual beseem received. For specimen, enthuse (from zeal) is gaining widespreadity, though it is stagnant cogitateed subsymbol by some today. The elephantine celebrations in Britain at the tidings of the alleviation of the Siege of Marketing little created the verb to maffick, aim to grandeur twain extravagantly and openly. “Maffick” is a end-construction from Mafeking, a assign-call that was treated comically as a gerund or bisecticiple. There are sundry other specimens of end-construction in the English discourse. . Acronym An acronym is an abbreviation contriveed from the primal ingredients in a characteristic or a pointedion. These ingredients may be separate scholarship (as in CEO) or bisects of pointedion (as in Benelux and Ameslan). There is no boundshort contract on the pointed determination of diversified calls for such abbreviations nor on written performance. In English and most other discourses, such abbreviations unadornedly had scant use, but they became fur past vulgar in the 20th senility. Acronyms are a cast of pointedion contriveation manner, and they are viewed as a subcast of mergeing.
There are sundry divergent casts of the pointedion-construction manner acronym. Here are independent pairs of them. (1) Pronounced as a pointedion, containing barely primal scholarship, approve the subjoineds. AIDS: extraneous immune shortcoming syndrome NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Produce Scuba: self-contained inferiorwater alert retinue Laser: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (2) Pronounced as a pointedion, containing non-primal scholarship Amphetamine: alpha-mehyl-phenethylamine Interpol: International Criminal Police Produce Nabisco: National Biscuit Company 3)Pronounced as a pointedion, containing a settlement of primal and non-primal scholarship Necco: New England Confectionery Company Radar: radio competition and ranging 4. Clipping In linguistics, clipping is the pointedion contriveation manner which stops in the diminution of a pointedion to one of its bisects. Clipping is besides open as “truncation” or “shortening”. According to Marchand, clippings are not coined as pointedion appertaining to the symbol lexicon of a discourse. They commence as countenances off a independentive knot approve trains, legion, police, the medical occupation, etc. in the acquaintance of a milieu where a suggest is satisfactory to betoken the total. For specimen, exam(ination), math(ematics), and lab(oratory) commenced in train lang. suitableness clipping countenances of some potent knots can by into vulgar performance, befitting bisect of Symbol English, clipping of a connection light dispose or knot conquer last knot slang. Also, clipping principally stops of the subjoined casts: end clipping, fore-clipping, intermediate clipping and unification clipping. (1) End clipping End clipping is the most vulgar cast, in which the preparening is restrained.
The unclipped primordial may be either a homely or a composite. Examples are: ad (advertisement), cable (cablegram), doc (doctor), exam (examination), fax (facsimile), gas (gasoline), gym(gymnastics, gymnasium), memo (memorandum), mutt(muttonhead), pub (open manifestation), pop (widespread voice). (2) Fore-clipping Fore-clipping restrains the final bisect. Examples are: chute (parachute), coon (raccoon), gator (alligator), phone (telephone), pike (turnpike), varsity (university). (3) Middle-clipping In intermediate clipping, the intermediate of the pointedion is restrained.
Examples are: flu (influenza), jams or jammies (pajamas/pyjamas), polly (Apollinairs), recoil (head-shrinker), tec (detective). (4) Unification clipping Clipped dorms are besides used in unifications. One bisect of the primordial unification most repeatedly lasts uninjured. Examples are: cablegram (cable telegram), obisect (optical art), org-man (produce man), and linocut (linoleum cut). Rarely twain halves of a unification are clipped as in navicert (navigation certification). In these plaints it is intricate to inferiorstand whether the subordinate contriveation should be treated as a clipping or as a merge, for the barrange among the two casts is not constantly manifest.
According to Bauer, the easiest way to inhale the contrariety is to say that those contrives which restrain unification strain are clipped unification, forasmuch-as those that catch homely pointedion strain are not. By this measure bodbiz, Chicom, Comsymp, Intelsat, midcult, pro-am, photo op, sci-fi, and sitcom are all unifications made of clippings. 5. Semantic mortgage A semantic mortgage is a manner of hypothecateing semantic aim (rather than lexical severs) from another discourse, very congruous to the contriveation of calques.
In this plaint, plaintually, the accomplished pointedion in the hypothecateing discourse already pauses; the diversify is that its aim is wide to enhalt another aim its bulky translation has in the regulative discourse. Calques, mortgagecountenance and semantic mortgages are repeatedly knoted roughly inferior the characteristic “borrowing”. Semantic mortgages repeatedly befall when two discourse are in halt continuity. 6. Unification In linguistics, a unification is a lexeme that stops of past than one root, unificationing or unification is the pointedion contriveation that creates unification lexemes.
Compounding or pointedion-compounding refers to the boon and symbol of a discourse to contrive new pointedion by combing or putting concurrently old pointedion. In other pointedion, unification, unificationing or pointedion-compounding befalls when a peculiar attaches two or past pointedion concurrently to gain them one pointedion. The aims of the pointedion interrelate from the aims of the pointedion in insularity. Also, there is separation contriveation. Separation is a lion by which a pointedion, ordinaryly a verb, contrives a peel of unification delay, for point, its plain motive or adverbial modifier, suitableness restraining its primordial syntactic duty.
Incorporation is convenient to sundry polysynthetic discourses such as those set-up in North America, but polysynthetic does not essential involve separation. Neither does the intercourse of separation in a discourse involve that that discourse is polysynthetic. Though not constantly. English shows some document separation, as in breastfeed, and plain motive separation, as in babysit. Etymologically, such verbs in English are ordinaryly end-formations: the verbs breastfeed and babysit are contriveed from the adjective breast-fed and the noun babysitter grandeurively.
Incorporation and denial unificationing sundry be fuzzy categories: cogitate endstabbing, call-calling, and axe-murder. In sundry plaints, a characteristic delay an incorporated noun carries a divergent aim delay grandeur to the equiponderant characteristic where the noun is not incorporated into the verb. The contrariety seems to lean environing the body and definiteness of the announcement. The incorporated characteristic is ordinaryly general and ambagious, suitableness the non-incorporated one is past favoring. 7. Conversion
In linguistics, transmutation, besides denominated cipher analysis, is a peel of pointedion transformation: favoringally, it is the fabrication of a pointedion (of a new pointedion dispose) from an bulky pointedion (of a divergent pointedion dispose) delayout any diversify in contrive. For specimen, the noun crude in golf (referring to a putting-green) is adventitious however from the adjective crude. Conversions from adjectives to nouns and evil versa are twain very vulgar and unexalted in English: fur past reremarkable upon is the fabrication of a verb by converting a noun or other pointedion (e. g. , the adjective neatlyly beseems the verb to neatly). 8. Loanword
A mortgagecountenance (or mortgage pointedion) is a pointedion ascititious from a donor discourse and incorporated into a repository discourse. By contrariety, a calque or mortgage translation is a peelred concept where the aim or turn is ascititious rather than the lexical sever itself. The pointedion mortgagecountenance is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort, suitableness calque is a mortgagecountenance from French. The countenances hypothecate and mortgageword, although oral, fight delay the conventional aim of those pointedion consequently pin is returned to the donor discourses. However, voice that this similitude is not pure to the concept of mortgagewords, but besides set-up in the turn “to hypothecate an subject. An joined manifestation delay the countenance mortgagecountenance is that it implies that the mortgageing is scant to one separate pointedion as irrelative to deja vu, an English mortgagecountenance from French. Suitableness this characteristic may be used as one lexical sever by English orators, that is to say, an English orator would not say barely deja to transfer the aim associated delay the liberal countenance deja vu, in the donor discourse (French), orators would be known of the characteristic stoping of two pointedion. For artlessness, adopt/adoption or adapt/adaption are used by sundry linguists, either in analogous to, or in preference to, these pointedion.
Some researchers besides use the countenance lexical hypothecateing. Some English mortgagecountenance last proportionately firm to the donor discourse’s phonology, plain though a bisecticular phoneme energy not pause or possess contrarietyive foothold in English. The priority of English unitees, such as -un, –ing, and –ly, were exhibit in older contrives in Old English. However, a few English unitees are ascititious. For specimen, the agentive suffix –er, which is very efficient, is ascititious unlimitedly from Latin- arius. The English unwritten suffix –ize succeedings from Greek –izein via Latin –izare. 9.
Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia (vulgar countenance is investigate pointedion) refers to the gear of such pointedion. Vulgar befallrences of onomatopoeia enhalt voluptuous noises, such as “oink” or “meow” or “roar” or “chirp”. Some other very vulgar English-discourse specimens enhalt hiccup, zoom, bang, beep, moo, and splash. Machines and their investigates are besides repeatedly picturesquely delay onomatopoeia, as in honk or beep-beep for the horn of an automobile, and vroom or brum for the engine. When someone speaks of a mishap involving an ringing arcing of electricity, the pointedion “zap” is repeatedly used.
For voluptuous investigates, pointedion approve quack (duck), moo (cow), husk or woof (dog), peal (lion), meow or purr (cat) and baa (sheep) are typically used in English. Some of these pointedion are used twain as nouns and as verbs. Rarely fictions are denominated from the investigates they gain. In English, for specimen, there is the boundshort fastener which is denominated for the onomatopoeia of the investigate it gains: the zip (in the UK) or zipper (in the U. S. ). sundry birds are denominated succeeding their persuades, such as the Bobwhite cower, the Weero, the Morepork, the killdeer, chickadee, the cuckoo, the chiffchaff, the whooping crane and the whip-poor-will. 0. Phono-semantic matching Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is a linguistic countenance referring to camouflaged hypothecateing in which a extraneous pointedion is matched delay a phonetically and semantically congruous pre-existent congenital pointedion/root. It may alternatively be defined as the register of a multisourced neologism that preserves twain the aim and the direct investigate of the analogous pointedion in the rise discourse, using pre-existent pointedion/roots of the target discourse. Phono-semantic matching is independent from calquing. Suitableness calquing encloses (semantic) translation, it does not stop of phonetic matching (i. . restraining the direct investigate of the ascititious pointedion through matching it delay a congruous-sounding pre-existent pointedion/morpheme in the target discourse). Phone-semantic matching is besides independent from homophonic translation, which restrains barely the investigate, and not the semantics. 11. Eponym An eponym is a peculiar or fiction, whether existent or fictional, succeeding which a bisecticular assign, herd, era, solution. Or other sever is denominated or deliberation to be denominated. Eponyms are aspects of spring. There are divergent casts of eponym which succeeding from diversified area.
Places and towns can besides be ardent an eponymous call through a analogy (existent or imagined) to an great aspect. Peloponnesus, for point, was said to deduce its call from the Greek god Pelops. In unadorned times, new towns possess repeatedly been denominated (and older communities renamed) succeeding their set-upers, discoverers, or succeeding exalted separates. Examples enhalt Vancouver, British Columbia, denominated succeeding the explorer George Vancouver; and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, primordially denominated Isbister’s Settlement but redenominated succeeding Queen Victoria’s mate and fraternize in 1866.
Also, in truth and technology, discoveries and innovations are repeatedly denominated succeeding the discoverer (or reported discoverer) to grandeur some other potent workers. Examples are Avogadro’s number, he Diesel engine, Alzheimer’s sickness, and the Apgar mandible. Consequently personal nouns are capitalized in English, the ordinary want for eponyms is to capitalize the eponymous bisect of a countenance. The vulgar-noun bisect is not capitalized (spontaneous it is bisect of a address or it is the pristine pointedion in a decree). For specimen, in Parkinson sickness (denominated succeeding James Parkinson), Parkinson is capitalized, but sickness is not.
However, some eponymous adjectives are nowadays invadeed in sundry dictionaries as lowercases when they possess evolved a vulgar foothold, no longer deriving their aim from the personal-noun rise. For specimen, Sinewy when referring to Hercules himself, but repeatedly sinewy when referring to the emblematical generalized production appreciation. For any ardent countenance, one tidingsbook may invade barely lowerevent or barely cap, forasmuch-as other dictionaries may know-again the capitalized statement as a contradictory, either similar vulgar as, or short vulgar than, the pristine-listed styling (remarkable delay labels such as “or”, “also”, “often” or “sometimes”).
English can use either genitive plaint or direct standing to betoken the adjectival sort of the eponymous bisect of the countenance. (In other pointedion, that bisect may be either possessive or nonpossessive. ) Thus Parkinson’s sickness and Parkinson sickness are twain gratifying. Medical dictionaries possess been exexchange inland nonpossessive styling in new decades, thus Parkinson sickness is past approvely to be used in the final medical literary-works (especially in support prints) than is Parkinson’s sickness. American and British English spelling contrarietys can casually employ to eponyms.
For specimen, American name would typically be cesarean exception forasmuch-as British name would typically be caesarean exception. III. Conclusion In a pointedion, there are independent ways of pointedion-construction in the English discourse. However, not all these ways are pure from each other. In certainty, some of them all overlapped which resources that a new pointedion may be cogitateed as a termination of divergent ways of contriveation. Also, contract these diversified methods of contriveing a new pointedion, as an integrated ingredient of linguistics, enables us to dig out the mysterious rules astern thousands of new emerging pointedion.
Therefore, although sundry new pointedion would show as the cosmos-crowd progress on and new technologies are laagered, crowd are able to seize these new pointedion delay refreshment consequently of these pointedion-construction rules. Meanwhile, crowd are laagered to divergent accesses of contriveing new pointedion delay already bulky ones to pointed the unforeseen lion or tectonics in the advenient. Works cited: (1) Crystal, David. A Wordbook of Linguistics and Phonetics, Sixth Edition, Blackwell Publishers, 2008. (2) Fischer, Roswitha.
Lexical diversify in exhibit-day English: A corpus-based con-over of the motivation, institutionalization, and productivity of conceptional neologisms. 1998 (3) Marchand, Hans. The Categories and Types of Present-Day English Word-formation. Munchen: C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung,1969 (4) Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Language Continuity and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003 (5) Baker, Mark C. The Polysynthesis Parameter. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998 (6) Mithun, Marianne. The disconnection of noun separation. Language, 1984