Introduction to International Environmental Law Critical Essay
2/11/2013 M28CLS: Intergregarious Environmental Law Lecture 1: Introduction Dr Francis Boateng Agyenim [email protected] edu. gh or dean. [email protected] edu. gh Tel: +233 (0) 302 200 622 Introduction • • • • Adapted Module Outcome Unconcealed tidingsinologies Tribute and requirements Large indispensable conception of • intelligence, • taint, • environmental sustainforce Monday, February 11, 2013 Break: 15minutes sever at 9. 30am 30 minutes sever at 12. 30pm 15 minutes sever at 3. 00pm 2 Adapted Module Outcome 1. 2. 3. 4. Review the intergregarious law referring-to-to to environmental guard and taint organize.
Detail the impression of detail interpolitical, regional and bi-generally-known conferences referring-to-to to inequiconsultation aspects of environment guard and taint organize. Appreciate the roles of intergregarious and intergovernmental agencies, advisory bodies and non -governmental organisations in formulating, implementing and enforcing inequiconsultation environmental guard. Perceive and precariously evaluate key truths and theories of intergregarious environmental law. 1 2/11/2013 Career Structure Lecturer Topic No 1 FA 2 FA Introduction : Large Fundamentals Concepts of Environmental Issues
Introduction and truth of Intergregarious Environmental Law 3 FA Intergregarious laws referring-to-to to environmental guard and taint regupast 4 FA 5 FA 6 FA 7 FA 8 FA 9 FA 10 Monday, February 11, 2013 4 Guidance Environmental Areas • • • • • • • Curbing Global Warming Creating Clean Intelligence Advenient Reviving the cosmos-people’s deeps Defending Endangered Wildconduct and Wildplaces Protecting our soundness by nullifying taint Ensure fortifyed and enough infilttrounce Fostering sustainable communities Some unconcealed tidingsinology Compact - An concord inferior intergregarious law – carrys to Protocols Protocol - A dignified concord betwixt avows or nations e. . Kyoto Protocol, Montreal Protocol. Forms premise for generally-known/regional policies. Synod - a career of enjoyment adopted and pursued by an peculiar, union, synod, subsistenceer, gregarious behalf, etc. e. g. a nation's strange synod. Synod - a crave tidings guile, way, or rotation of manoeuvres or stratagems for achieving synod objectives e. g. A symptometing synod is a way that can avow an structure to congregate its (frequently scant) instrument on the proudest opportunities to augmentation sales and suspend a sustainable competitive utility. Remelt – An estimated completion of fuel that has to be amply explored or evaluated.
Reserve – Proven completion of fuel that is unconcealed to halt in a retained subsidence. Carbon Footprint - The unimpairedty completion of untriedhouse gases done to straightway and instraightway subsistence rational activities, usually open in equipollent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Monday, February 11, 2013 6 2 2/11/2013 Tribute and Requirements Dates Attendance Final Symptom Required throughout the module Sat February 16th, 2013 Assignment 1: Progeny Date Peculiar Written Assignment Submission Date Friday, 15th March, 2013 Project 2: Progeny Date Sat February 16th, 2013 Student assignment Essay Hand-in Date Friday 15th March 201 (remotest at 7. 00pm) 30% Entirety 0% 100% Pass requirements: • Pass symptom is 40% • Each gaining must be at lowest 35% ? 7 Monday, February 11, 2013 Review of some large indispensable concepts connected to Global Warming and Clean Intelligence Advenient • Intelligence individuals • Intelligence melts & uses • Carbon tension (CO2 discharges from fossil fuels) - Fuel chemistry - Carbon discharges per individual of delivered intelligence • Calorific Prize • Sustainforce and Environmental Synod Plan Monday, February 11, 2013 8 Intelligence individuals and command of heap • Intelligence – – – – – – Basic Individual of Energy, J = 1 N. m Basic Individual of Power, W = J/s Convenient remelt estimate, Wh (1W for an hour)
Commmerely used electrical intelligence estimate, 1 kWh = 3. 6MJ 1 Tonne oil equipollent (toe) = 41,868 MJ 1 Tonne coal equipollent (tce) = 29,307. 6 MJ • kWh – A unique 1-bar electric fire for 1 hour – One 100W incandescent buoyant bulb for 10 hours 9 Monday, February 11, 2013 3 2/11/2013 Prefixes (multiples of 10) of intelligence individuals Prefix Symbol Factor (x10) µ 10-6 Microns (used in settle of micrometers) – triumphlength of distinguishable buoyant m 10-3 Milliampere – introduce career from a unique photovoltaic cell K 103 Killowatthour – individual of flake of electricity to a residential customer Mega- M 106 Megawatt – Maximum susceptibility output of the liberalst ommercial twine turbines Giga- G 109 Gigawatt – estimate of a the annual output from a ordinary fossil-fuel-powered electric susceptibility guilet Tera- T 1012 Terawatt – estimate of the unimpairedty trounced deal-outs of all susceptibility guilets in the cosmos-people Peta- P 1015 Petajoule – Estimate of all the intelligence used by the railroads in the US in 1 year Exa- E 1018 Exajoule – estimate of all the intelligence used by an unimpaired 10 kingdom in 1 year. MicroMilliKilo- Example of where it is regularly used Intelligence Sources Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuel – Coal – Oil – Spontaneous gas • Emerging – Shale oil – Tar sands • Superior Uses – Electricity epoch – Boundlessness ebullitioning and cooling – Conveyance Fossil fuel accounts for encircling 86% of all intelligence genesis • In insufficient countries thus-far, biofuels such as grove manage intelligence genesis. Monday, February 11, 2013 11 BP, 2006 Statistical Review Coal: Intelligence gaining, Superior Manner • Intelligence gaining is estimated in tidingss of intelligence shortsightedness defined as the completion of intelligence per individual lump or cleverness conducive. • • • • • Coal 27 tonne Bulk shortsightedness = 600 kg/m3 Cleverness = 45m3 Intelligence gaining (calorific prize) = 36 MJ/kg • How frequent kWh? = 270,000 kWh • Scant to motionless impressions (cannot be combusted straightway in inedge ignition engines) - Electricity epoch - Industrial impressions Small flake domiciliary impressions (cooking, boundlessness ebullitioning) Monday, February 11, 2013 12 4 2/11/2013 Non Stipulated Fossil Sources • Oil Shade - Moored of association of fossil fundamental subject and sedimentary buffet • Tar sands - Moored of association of sand and very-large gummy hydrocarbon tar • Synthetic gas and clear fuel products from coal - Transformation of stipulated coal into substitutes for conveyance and boundlessness ebullitioning Oil and gas • Flexible in manner and in tidingss of ignition - Conveyance - Motionless impressions 13 Monday, February 11, 2013 Intelligence gaining of fossil fuels • • • • Gasoline 50 litre tank
Gasoline shortsightedness = 0. 74 kg/litre Intelligence gaining (calorific prize) = 46 MJ/kg • How frequent kWh? = 473 kWh • • • • • Coal 27 tonne Bulk shortsightedness = 600 kg/m3 Cleverness = 45m3 Intelligence gaining (calorific prize) = 36 MJ/kg • How frequent kWh? = 270,000 kWh Note: 1 kWh equals one 100W incandescent buoyant bulb for 10 hours 14 Monday, February 11, 2013 Nuclear Intelligence • • • • • • Fission – Splitting of central-deal-out of one sluggish deal-outicle producting in two or past nuclei Fusion – Joining simultaneously of two buoyant nuclei into a liberalr one. Intelligence liberated during fission/fusion reactions is epidemic to started exoteric Commonest use is in electricity genesis from fission of
Uranium deal-outicle, U-235 Estimated to ultimate into the 22nd epoch accounted on U-235 Proud intelligence shortsightedness Monday, February 11, 2013 15 5 2/11/2013 Coal vrs Nuclear 1 kg of guileless coal (no impurities and dampness gaining) gain libetrounce 32. 8MJ/kg 1 : 1 kg of guileless U-235 (85% conflict producing fission) gain libetrounce 200MeV/particle (0. 85) = 4. 36 x 1032 eV ? 69. 8 TJ 2 favorite 16 Monday, February 11, 2013 Issues forthcoming a while Nuclear Intelligence • • • • • Synod of radioactive substances during epoch of nuclear intelligence (Chernobyl Nuclear Susceptibility Settle in Ukraine on the 26th of April 1986 quiescent dross radioactive and there is a 30 deprivation kilometre zone).
Radiation risks during nobility, guilet exercise and lavish synod, Wholesale use and interruption of proliferation (Atomic bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki Deaths in August, 1945) Generally-known sight (insufficient fortifyedty proceedings; Partial meltdown, Fukushima nuclear susceptibility guilet torment forthcoming spherequake (March, 2011) Require Monday, February 11, 2013 17 Sustainable product and renewable intelligence • Intelligence pawn - arrest accoutre, original infrastructure • Economic well-behaved-nature - economic product, affordable intelligence prices • Environmental guard - Carbon disappearance, plant and infilttrounce use Monday, February 11, 2013 18 6 2/11/2013
COMMON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES Photovoltaics Biomass/Biofuel Solar Interested Hydrosusceptibility Flow Geointerested Twine Triumph Ebullition Cross-examine Fuel cell Sustainable Conveyance Edifice Competency Monday, February 11, 2013 19 Issues forthcoming a while Renewables: Solar Photovoltaic • Higher enterpmelt cells/modules • Advanced manufacturing techniques • Efficient intelligence storage Solar Interested • Low require proud enterpmelt storage for medium accuse symptomets • Advanced reflector guile and ebullition exdiversify exoterics Monday, February 11, 2013 20 Wind, triumph and flow intelligence Improved enterprise: • Advanced rotor guile • Integration into halting susceptibility grid Intelligent and low require regupast • Electricity storage Edifice intelligence competency • Edifice plans integration competency • Computerised edifice intelligence optimisation models • Passive edifice air regupast Monday, February 11, 2013 21 7 2/11/2013 Fuel cell & Sustainable conveyance • Reliforce of fuel cells for edifice and electricity impressions • Low-air fuel-cell use in enravishment • Research into materials • Intelligence storage - conduct and require • Utility collisions • Vehicle require • Recharging subsidences Monday, February 11, 2013 22 Biofuel (Biolump and Biogas) • Utilisation of residues Intelligence crops • New biofuels Geointerested and Ebullition Cross-examine Low air geointerested for • trodden use and • account melt ebullition cross-examine • Retrofitting (Existing edifices) Monday, February 11, 2013 23 Fossil intelligence v. renewable intelligence 1. V. Gasoline 1 tank liberal (50 litre Tank) PV ? ~5m2 PV accoutre permitted for 1 year in the UK V. 2. Coal 1 traffic accuse = 100,000 kWh electricity at ~37% alteration competency Rossendale Twine Farm - Lancashire ? 1 liberal twine turbine forthcoming a while generating deal-outs of 2. 5MW exoteric for 6 days 24 8 2/11/2013 Carbon Voluntary of Coal • Coal is the proudest emitter of Carbon of all the fossil fuels 1 tonne coal contains ~ 900 kg Carbon Ignition • equation C + O2 = CO2 • mols 1 +1 =1 • mol wt 12+ 32 = 44 • kg 12+ 32 = 44 • kg 1 + 2. 67 = 3. 67 Thus 1 kg C requires 32/12 = 2. 67kg oxygen and products 44/12 = 3. 67 kg CO2 • 1 tonne coal (900 kg) = 3. 67 x 900kg CO2 =3303 kg CO2 Atomic weights: O = 16 C = 12 N = 14 H=1 S = 32 25 Ignition of Methane CH 4 ? 2(O2 ? (79 / 21) N 2 ) ? CO2 ? 2 H 2O ? (2 ? 79 / 21) N 2 16 kg 2 ? 32kg 2 ? 3. 76 ? 28kg 44kg 36kg 7. 52 ? 28kg 16 kg 274. 56 kg Air (O2 ? N 2 ) ? 44kg 36kg 210. 56kg Thus 1 kg methane : • Requires 17. 16 kg air for adequate ignition and Produces 18. 16 kg of lavish gases including 2. 75kg CO2 Monday, February 11, 2013 26 Inequiconsultation CO2 Emissions • Carbon – CV = 32. 8 MJ/kg (net = outrageous past no infiltrate! ) – 1 kg products 3. 67 kg CO2 – Inequiconsultation discharge = 112 gm/MJ = 403 gm/kWh • Methane – CVoutrageous = 55. 58 MJ/kg – 1 kg products 2. 75 kg CO2 – Inequiconsultation discharge = 49 gm/MJ = 178 gm/kWhoutrageous Monday, February 11, 2013 27 9 2/11/2013 Coal and Spontaneous Gas compared (premise 1 kg) Coal Air required 11. 45 kg 17. 16 kg CO2 done 3. 67 kg 2. 75 kg Ebullition libetrounce (CVgross) 32. 8 MJ 55. 58 MJ Inequiconsultation CO2 discharge • Methane 403 gm/kWh 178 gm/kWhgross
Methane requires past air/kg fuel owing of the haltence of hydrogen in the atom which burns to product H2O. 28 Monday, February 11, 2013 CO2 discharges from incongruous fuels (kg/GJgross) 120 101 94. 6 100 77. 4 80 74 56 60 40 20 0 0 Lignite Hard coal Sluggish fuel oil Gas oil Spontaneous gas Hydrogen Monday, February 11, 2013 29 CO2 from electricity Lavish ebullition 210kW Fuel input 318kWoutrageous Transmission & Distribution losses = 8kW Susceptibility standing Delivered electricity 100kW Intelligence (gross) profited competency = 31. 4% Liberal completion of low degree ebullition lavishd Monday, February 11, 2013 30 10 2/11/2013 CO2 discharges from electricity - incongruous enerating technologies (gm/kWe. h) Stipulated fume turbine (lignite eff=34%) Stipulated fume turbine (coal eff=34%) Clean coal (Gasification CC, eff=46%) Stipulated gas turbine (eff=42%) Totally cycle gas turbine (CCGT, eff=55%) New CCGT (eff=59%) Biolump Nuclear Renewables 1100 850-1050 700 500 400-425 350 ? 0 0 31 Monday, February 11, 2013 Gas v. Electricity • Gas plans… 0. 19 kg/kW-h(gross) • Electricity…0. 537 kg/kW-h • Untried electricity…0 kg/kW-h Monday, February 11, 2013 32 Eg U. K. GHG discharges includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 33 11 2/11/2013 U.
K. GHG discharges by melt includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 34 U. K. GHG discharges includes (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 ) Monday, February 11, 2013 35 Issues of Intergregarious Anxiety • Primary intelligence accoutre – Oil, Coal, Spontaneous Gas, Biomass, Renewable, Nuclear – Forecasts • Pawn of accoutre – Crave tidings – Short tidings • Environmental Sustainforce – Latitude diversify – Ozone depletion – Integrated taint regupast – Developing countries Monday, February 11, 2013 Connected Issues • Population augmentation • Poverty (fuel, food) • Developing economies 36 12 2/11/2013
Trend of intelligence use and sustainable product Pre-industrial era Civilization was susceptibilityed by carbon impartial melts, chiefly biolump Industrial winding and the use of coal Negative proceeds were generally-known at the duration Fume engines and locomotives Cleaner beaming guilets, ebullitioning of homes Gas Conveyance – Vehicles and forthcoming jet susceptibilityed aircraft Oil Cleaner compared to coal But unswerving extrenjoyment of fossil fuel increasing CO2 Promised: 1. no discharges of injurious air pollutants and 2. proud intelligence shortsightedness Nuclear Susceptibility Insurance progenys Renewable intelligence Increased population augmentation Share of benefits from Developing countries
Where we are today !! 37 Problems we visage 1. How to expand the benefits of intelligence 2. How to grapple forthcoming a while true want of non-renewable intelligence melts and 3. How to nullify latitude diversify Motivations and Drivers for Sustainable Product Diversity of accoutre Pawn Sustainforce Monday, February 11, 2013 38 Breakdown of completions we visage… • Instrument and availforce – Finite essence of fossil fuels • Environmental taint from intelligence genesis and use – Carbon impartial melts that has to resettle fossil fuels • Uncertainty encircling the advenient – Interrelation unordered factors important intelligence use – Prediction correction Over-simplistic tribute of technology – Optimism in new technologies expand through use of IT – Underestimates difficulties and truth • The role of intelligence to global economics - Vital • Limitation of duration to execute wanted diversifys • Proposed solutions and their effectiveness – Technology is terminable by spontaneous laws – Constrained by instrument and availforce – Drawbacks of new melts usually not unconcealed Monday, February 11, 2013 39 13 2/11/2013 The forthcomingmath of Efflation Katrina, New Orleans, 2005 Latitude Change? Is Latitude Diversify Happening? 20 warmest years on proceedings (°C abnormity from 1901–2000 medium) Year Global Land
Ocean 1983 0. 2817 0. 3718 0. 2508 1987 0. 2968 0. 2963 0. 2999 1988 0. 3006 0. 4196 0. 2585 1990 0. 3861 0. 5484 0. 3279 1991 0. 3360 0. 4094 0. 3105 1994 0. 2934 0. 3597 0. 2699 1995 0. 4073 0. 6531 0. 3191 1997 0. 4782 0. 5584 0. 4498 1998 0. 5971 0. 8321 0. 5087 1999 0. 4199 0. 6760 0. 3237 2000 0. 3886 0. 5175 0. 3406 2001 0. 5173 0. 7208 0. 4416 2002 0. 5745 0. 8318 0. 4794 2003 0. 5818 0. 7726 0. 5109 2004 0. 5416 0. 7095 0. 4812 2005 0. 6154 0. 9574 0. 4886 2006 0. 5601 0. 8151 0. 4664 2007 0. 5472 0. 9827 0. 3889 2008 0. 4803 0. 7784 0. 3727 2009 0. 5556 0. 7595 0. 4830 The prizes in the consultation counteract are anomalies rom the 1901–2000 global medium of 13. 9°C. For exemplification, the +0. 55°C abnormity in 2007 adventitious to the 1901–2000 medium of 13. 9°C gives a global middle air of 14. 45 °C for 2007. The coolest year in the proceedings was 1911. [ Years 1880–1889 1890–1899 1900–1909 1910–1919 1920–1929 1930–1939 1940–1949 1950–1959 1960–1969 1970–1979 1980–1989 1990–1999 2000–2009 Temp. abnormity (°C) abnormity from 1951–1980 medium) ?0. 274 °C ?0. 254 °C ?0. 259 °C ?0. 276 °C ?0. 175 °C ?0. 043 °C 0. 035 °C ?0. 02 °C ?0. 014 °C ?0. 001 °C 0. 176 °C 0. 313 °C 0. 513 °C • Top five warmest years past 1890 are: 2005, 1998, 2003, 2002, 2006 Analyses (from trees, corals, ice cores and truthful proceedingss) pretence that the 2000 2009 is the warmest decade followed by the 1990’s in the ultimate millennium. • STOP PRESS - June 2007 wettest month past proceedingss began in 1914. Annual Middle Global Survisage Air Anomalies 1880-2008 Global Plant and Sea Temperatures Climatic Research Individual and the UK Met. Office Hadley Centre 14 2/11/2013 The Greenhouse Effect Sunbuoyant enters the Earth's clime, perishing through a flake of untriedhouse gases. As it reaches the Earth's exterior, plant, infiltrate, and biosphere retain the sunlight’s intelligence. Intelligence retained is sent end into the clime.
Some of the intelligence passes end into boundlessness, but large of it dross trapped in the clime by the untriedhouse gases, causing the cosmos-people to ebullition up. Rational activities entertain augmentationd corporeally the tension of untriedhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, HCFCs, nitrous oxide). As a product, a corporeal warming of the sphere survisage and clime occurred that agency adversely profit the spontaneous ecosystem. Counteract the ultimate hundred years, the medium airs entertain augmentationd by 0. 3±0. 68C. Doubling the completion of carbon dioxide in the clime is mitigated to relinquish a advance air augmentation by 1. 5±4. 58C.
If no enjoyment is enthralled to contract untriedhouse gas discharges, the trounce of augmentation of the aver- age airs is mitigated to abound that which occurred in the ultimate 10,000 years [Houghton, 1995] Global requires of final temperature events (inflation adjusted) • Entirety economic losses and estimate of events entertain been incresing counteract the decades • Amid the ultimate decade, 72 superior events occurred, suspend to 100% augmentation counteract the 1980-1990 decade. Latitude Diversify • Latitude Diversify is not a new progeny. In the forthcoming 1980s philosophical compact grew - latitude diversify was a precarious global progeny. Forthcoming from this, synods normal the Intergovernmental
Panel on Latitude Diversify (IPCC) in 1988 to succor them inferiorstand and found some intergregarious compact on the essence of the completion. 15 2/11/2013 Is the merge forthcoming a while CO2 and other GHG’s confirmed? • The Inter-governmental Panel on Latitude Diversify in its most new-fangled reverberation avowd: 'the counteract of proof suggests a manifest rational govern on the latitude plan. ' Contributors to Global Warming Greenhouse gas Source/Application CO2 All ignition wayes Global warming implicit (GWP) referring-to to CO2 Methane (CH4) Oil/Gas accoutre Agriculture Landfill Nitrous oxide (N2O) Agriculture Ignition (IC engines) Chemical industry
Perfluorcarbons (PFC) Manufacturing 6,500 to 9,200 Hydrofluorcarbons (HFC) Refrigerants Propellants 140 to 11,700 Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Electrical switchgear 1 21 310 23,900 Increased elysian CO2 levels as estimated in the clime and in ice cores. The completion of net carbon augmentation in the clime compared to carbon discharges from beaming fossil fuels. 16 2/11/2013 New-fangled trends in estimated elysian CO2 tensions Projected CO2 Emissions Ozone depleting chemicals Substances that assist to ozone depletion and latitude: • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), • Halons (CCl4), • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs) Substances that assist to latitude diversify but not ozone depletion: •Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) 17 2/11/2013 Emissions from Common Industrial Fuels Monday, February 11, 2013 53 Lecture 2 Truth of Intergregarious Environmental Law 18 2/11/2013 Truth of Intergregarious Environmental Affairs Most intergregarious environmental initiatives entertain occurred past 1960, forthcoming the emergence of the pastr environmental move in the West There were balmy attempts at regional and global coexercise for the environment dating as far end as the past 1800's, for-the-most-deal-out emanating from Western
Europe and North America. These attempts mirrored domiciliary environmental synod products and were frequently solicitous forthcoming a while wildconduct guardianship. Intergregarious Efforts pre-1960 • 1872: Swiss mean intergregarious trust to fortify wandering birds • 1900: Earliest dignified concord: Conference for the Guardianship of Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa, verified in London by European colonial susceptibilitys forthcoming a while the fixed to fortify African sport mark, peculiarly to name ship-produce of ivory to contract violent hunting hurry on African elephant • 1900: European avows prefiguration compact to regupast conveyance of toxic substances on Rhine River 1909: Canada-US Boundary Waters Compact • 1911: North Pacific Fur Seal Trust normal by USA, Canada, USSR and Japan to regupast bud of seals in North Pacific • 1918: US-Canada Wandering Bird Compact Act, guileed to fortify bird mark–esp. infiltratefowl--that seasonally migtrounce betwixt the two nations Forthcoming Intergregarious Efforts, cont’d • 1931: Earliest attempts to regupast wholesale whaling, led (in 1946) to Intergregarious Conference for the Truth of Whaling and literature of Intergregarious Whaling Commission, a enduring collectiveness binding for negotiating & setting synod re- the bud and guardianship of whales. 1940: Conference on Essence Guard and Wildconduct Guardianship in the Western Hemisphere • 1946: Founding of the United Nations and Cosmos-people Bank, which would avow garbal roles in intergregarious environmental coexercise (World Bank, UNIMO, FAO, UNDP, WHO, UNEP & UNESCO) • 1954: Intergregarious Conference for the Interruption of Taint of the Sea by Oil, apex of 28 years of negotiations by European and N. A. nations • 1958: Intergregarious Mariduration Consultative Structure (UN-IMCO) normal forthcoming a while function for negotiating intergregarious concords on deep taint 19 2/11/2013 Intergregarious Efforts (1960-1972)
Context: Augmentation in intergregarious environmental attempts mirrored melt in Later Environmental Move in west • Cumulative environmental proceeds of Post-war yell (industrialization, well-behaved-being, consumerism) • Affluence = superior anxiety counteract “disposition of conduct” • New environmental science: e. g. , Rachel Carson “Silent Spring” published in 15 countries, 1962 • Growing instrument coverage of environmental events e. g. 1954 London “Killer Smog”, 1959 Mercury poisoning in Minimata Bay, 1967 Torrey Canyon oil pour in the English Channel • Melt of Vietnam, affable hues & counter-culture protests across groundwork quo Globalization of communication; augmentationd confession of interdependence unordered nations: Apollo 11 “Earth-rise” photo in 1969 Efforts 1960-72 , cont’d. • Creation of earliest conspicuous and sincerely intergregarious environmental NGO’s (e. g. , Greenpeace, WWF, etc. ) • Emergence of earliest “Green” gregarious deal-outies in New Zealand, Western Europe and Australia • Betwixt 1970 and 1972: 14 industrialized nations normal environmental ministries and passed prefigurationificant environmental comp (Environment Canada, Clean Infilttrounce Act, Clean Air Act, etc. ) • But, inlarge proficiency in LDC’s or Communist Bloc 1971: RAMSAR Conference on Wetlands of Intergregarious Importance • 1972: UNESCO-sponsored Conference for the Guard of Cosmos-people Cultural and Spontaneous Heritage. • 1972: Oslo Conference for the Interruption of Marine Taint by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft. • 1972: US-Can Great Lakes Infilttrounce Disposition Concord U. N. Stockholm Conference on the Rational Environment (1972) UN Unconcealed Assembly decomposition to number intergregarious discussion “... to produce a framework for generic importance forthcoming a whilein the UN of the completions of the rational environment in direct to convergence the circumspection of synods and generally-known estimation on the mportance and crisis of this question” • Preparatory epoch managed by Western, industrialized countries • Soviet bloc boycotted attempt owing of ideological differences and unconnected gregarious conflicts • LDCs encouraged to join-in, but remained skeptical: feared environmental initiatives agency get in way of economic product priorities • LDCs gaining to remedy, but merely if product profits were not implicated and the West assisted them forthcoming a while finances and technology to endue in environmental guard. To-boot disapproved forthcoming a while West’s fixation on want for LDC population organize. 0 2/11/2013 Stockholm, cont’d 114 nations, 1200 delegates (2 heads of avow)–liberal by UN standards. Large instrument coverage and 500 NGO’s join-ind in equidistant “Environmental Forum”. Outcomes… • Stockholm Statement of the UN Conference on the Rational Environment: 26 truths, adapted as a groundwork for advenient products in intergregarious environmental coexercise – normal basic truths of intergregarious environmental law. • Enjoyment Guile for the Rational Environment: 109 recommendations for govt and inter-govt. enjoyment on progenys ranging from mark onservation, forests and elysian and marine taint, to product synod, rational settlements, and technology exchange. • Normal United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Environment Fund • Dignified acknowledgment of Additionality Principle: rich North should pay for some or all of adventitious requires of environmental initiatives in developing south • Emergence of environmental affable community move as a prefigurationificant intergregarious stakeholder Betwixt Stockholm & Rio (1972-1992) Open Western Nations: • Large proficiency forthcoming a while domiciliary comp and programs had been made in the past 1960s/forthcoming 1970's.
The benefits of these attempts were nature felt by the past 1970s, forthcoming a while improvements in infilttrounce & air disposition, reductions in toxins affect carry & DDT, and augmentations in fortifyed areas. Lesser Open Nations: • Environmental stipulations diminished violently: fashionable taint & squaller, deforestation, tarnish erosion, infiltrate-born ailments. In pique of hostility at Stockholm, frequent LDCs began to answer by establishing environmental ministries & associated laws (from 11 nations in 1972 to 102 in 1980). As well-behaved, frequent moved onwards forthcoming a while distasteful population guilening (e. g. India, China). Soviet Bloc: Environmental completions worsened: air & infilttrounce taint, nuclear stain, environmental soundness & ailment. • Had boycotted Stockholm and made scant proficiency forthcomingward (economic augmentation remained the guidance). Civic activism & notification remained stifled until the gravitate of Communism in past 1980's Betwixt Stockholm and Rio, cont’d • 1972: London Conference for the Interruption of Marine Taint by Dumping of Wastes (toxic & nuclear lavish dumping at sea). • 1973: Intergregarious Conference for the Interruption of Taint from Ships (MARPOL). • 1973: Conference on the Intergregarious Commerce of Endangered Mark (CITES). 1974: Paris & Helsinki Conventions to fortify marine environments of the North and Baltic Seas. • 1974/84: 1st & 2nd UN Population Conferences. • 1979: Conference on Long-Range, Transboundary Air Taint (LRTAP). Canada, US & Europe concord to oration anxietys encircling fine rain; earliest superior intergregarious attempt to regupast air taint. • 1980: IUCN/WWF/UNEP Cosmos-people Guardianship Strategy. promoted guardianship guilening in LDCs. 21 2/11/2013 Cont’d… • 1982: UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). 200 mile territorial jurisdictions normal, etc. • 1982: IWC wholesale whaling moratorium. 1987: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Flake • 1988: Intergovernmental Panel on Latitude Diversify formed by UNEP & WMO • 1989: Basel Conference on the Regupast of Trans-boundary Movements of Dangerous Wastes • 1991: Canada-US Air Disposition Concord to contract SO2 discharges that origin fine rain • 1991: Protocol on Environmental Guard of Antarctica: moratorium on inanimate and connected investigation and product for 50 years • European Union: Broad proficiency on regional, intergregarious environmental coexercise pertaining to toxics, infilttrounce disposition, lavish synod, air taint, wildconduct guard and din taint
Rio Summit: UN Conference on Environment & Product (1992) Context: • “Rio Summit” wants to be seen in buoyant of the accelerated resurgence of environmental anxiety in the 1980s. New, threatening environmental completions emerging and producting instrument coverage: * Three Mile Isplant nuclear blight (1979) * Bhopal Union Carbide chemical garb (1984) * Ozone cavity counteract Antarctica discovered (1985) * Chernobyl nuclear garb (1986) * Violent drought/famine in Africa (mid-80s) * Caribbean efflation David (1988) * Violent floods in Bangladesh (1988) * Assassination of activist Chico Mendes (1989? ) Duration repository (1988): “Earth: Planet of the Year” * Exxon Valdez oil pour in Alaska (1989) Effect: • Proceedings augmentation in environmental NGO conjunction • Huge subsistence for Untried deal-outies in Europe & Australia • Growing hurry on synods to act Rio Summit, cont’d. • 1985-87:World Trust on Environment & Development: UN peculiar trust moored of elder officials tasked by UN Unconcealed Assembly to evaluate avow of the global environment and product. Findings published in Our Common Advenient (1987). Document had dreadful collision owing: * Timing coincided forthcoming a while proud environmental anxiety Credibility and pragmatism of the authors Our Common Advenient made current “sustainable product: product which coalesces the wants of the introduce forthcoming a whileout compromising the force of advenient epochs to coalesce their own wants”. • UN Unconcealed Assembly aback sponsored UN Conference on Environment and Product to oration frequent of the progenys tall in Our Common Future. • The “Rio Summit” was earliest-ever “World Summit” and was unequalled in flake: * Largest discussion of cosmos-people carryers ever: 178 nations; 118 heads of avow * 1,400 NGOs introduce in equidistant “Global Forum” forthcoming a while 18,000 deal-outicipants 22 /11/2013 Key Outcomes of Rio Summit • Rio Declaration: avowment of key truths on environment & product • Agenda 21: detailed register of recommendations • Statement of Forest Principles: infiltrateed down rendering of forest conference • Biodiversity Convention: weakened by United States. • Latitude Diversify Convention: Pre-cursor to Kyoto Protocol • Global Environment Facility (GEF): finance enduements in environmental guard in LDCs • UN Trust on Sustainable Development: Produce followup to Rio Proficiency Past Rio… • 1993: North American Trust for Environmental Cooperation: NAFTA edge concord 1994: 3rd Intergregarious Population Conference, Cairo. • 1997: Intergregarious concord to contract the genesis, storage and use of plant mines. • 1997: Kyoto Protocol on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases. • 1998: Rotterdam Conference on Prior Informed Acquiesce for commerce in dangerous chemicals and pesticides • 2000: Ozone Annex to 1991 Canada-US Air Disposition Agreement, smogcausing discharges (NO-x) • 2001: Cartegena Bioinsurance Protocol on Genetically Modified Organisms (Biodiversity Convention) • 2001: UN-Stockholm Conference on Persistent Fundamental Pollutants (DDT, PCBs, dioxin) UN Cosmos-people Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10,
Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Sphere Summit • Event held in the excite of 9-11 and in the texture of a uprightwing, unilateraregister US synod forthcoming a while inlarge profit in the environmental agenda and inlarge subsistence for UN initiatives • Summit proud on language and platitudes, low on express acquirements • Discussions convergenceed past on discussion inequiconsultation product rather than environmental objectives • Constructive agreement of private-generally-known sector deal-outnerships, etc. • Goals normal to augmentation peoples’ avenue to sanitation, fortifyed drinking infiltrate, etc. 23 2/11/2013 UN Cosmos-people Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10,
Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Sphere Summit • Event held in the excite of 9-11 and in the texture of a uprightwing, unilateraregister US synod forthcoming a while inlarge profit in the environmental agenda and inlarge subsistence for UN initiatives • Summit proud on language and platitudes, low on express acquirements • Discussions convergenceed past on discussion inequiconsultation product rather than environmental objectives • Constructive agreement of private-generally-known sector deal-outnerships, etc. • Goals normal to augmentation peoples’ avenue to sanitation, fortifyed drinking infiltrate, etc. UN Cosmos-people Summit for Sustainable Development: Rio + 10,
Johannesburg, 2002 • Follow-up to 1992 Sphere Summit • Event held in the excite of 9-11 and in the texture of a uprightwing, unilateraregister US synod forthcoming a while inlarge profit in the environmental agenda and inlarge subsistence for UN initiatives • Summit proud on language and platitudes, low on express acquirements • Discussions convergenceed past on discussion inequiconsultation product rather than environmental objectives • Constructive agreement of private-generally-known sector deal-outnerships, etc. • Goals normal to augmentation peoples’ avenue to sanitation, fortifyed drinking infiltrate, etc. New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) Latitude diversify has emerged as foremost global environmental progeny • Yet, proficiency on this and other intergregarious environmental challenges has been varnished, forthcoming a while large gains forthcoming a whilein the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas • 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, totally forthcoming a while an ideological uncongeniality to synod truth and multilateralism, has inferiormined proficiency on latitude diversify, etc. • Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil bombastic a large superior gregarious vote and govern on the cosmos-people mark but, for the most deal-out so far, entertain not made environmental anxietys a guidance Momentum appears now to be variation intermittently in a untried troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the exhibition, Barack Obama ascends, and proof of global warming mounts 24 2/11/2013 New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) • Latitude diversify has emerged as foremost global environmental progeny • Yet, proficiency on this and other intergregarious environmental challenges has been varnished, forthcoming a while large gains forthcoming a whilein the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas • 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, totally forthcoming a while an ideological uncongeniality to synod truth and multilateralism, has inferiormined proficiency on latitude diversify, etc. Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil bombastic a large superior gregarious vote and govern on the cosmos-people mark but, for the most deal-out so far, entertain not made environmental anxietys a guidance • Momentum appears now to be variation intermittently in a untried troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the exhibition, Barack Obama ascends, and proof of global warming mounts New-fangled Proficiency (or Not! ) (2002 +) • Latitude diversify has emerged as foremost global environmental progeny • Yet, proficiency on this and other intergregarious environmental challenges has been varnished, forthcoming a while large gains forthcoming a whilein the European Union; but virtually none in the Americas 9/11 & US-led “War on Terrorism”, totally forthcoming a while an ideological uncongeniality to synod truth and multilateralism, has inferiormined proficiency on latitude diversify, etc. • Emerging economies of China, India and Brazil bombastic a large superior gregarious vote and govern on the cosmos-people mark but, for the most deal-out so far, entertain not made environmental anxietys a guidance • Momentum appears now to be variation intermittently in a untried troddenion as George W. Bush fades from the exhibition, Barack Obama ascends, and proof of global warming mounts Intergregarious Environmental Law 25 2/11/2013 Definition and Purpose
Intergenerally-known Environmental Law await of a association of treaties, truths and protocols that regupast the interenjoyment of rationality and spontaneous environment. Essentially, it deals forthcoming a while: a) taint regupast b) b) remelt synod The scope is to contract the collision of rational activity on the spontaneous environment forthcoming a whilein nations and over. Sources of the Law • • • • a) Treaties b) Protocols c) Conventions d) Intergregarious Courts and Tribunals Principles of Intergregarious Environmental Law • a) 1972 Stockholm Statement on the Rational Environment. (Principle 21 concept of “Good eighborliness”) • b) “All citizens entertain a upupright to a becoming and soundnessy environment” • c) The “polluter pays” truth. • d) The “duty to communicate and consult” other avows 26 2/11/2013 Principles of Intergregarious Environmental Law (Continued.. ) • e) Duty to do Environmental Collision tributes. • f) The “precautionary truth” • g) 1982 UN Conference for Essence truth of sustainable product. • h) Truth of “Intergenerational equity” Limitations to Intergregarious Environmental Law • IEL is considered to be “soft law”. This mediums concords and truths are mediumt to nfluence nations to i-elation sure concepts. • This to-boot mediums these truths are not enforceable on their own in a generally-known pursue. • Countries must acquiesce to nature sued in the earliest settle. They cannot be obdurate to do what it is not gaining to do. Overcoming the Limitations • Depique the nameations countries do prefiguration up to treaties and protocols. They do so due to: a) Moral or politic obligations. b) Hurry from other prefigurationatories. c) Generally-known hurry from their societies. d) Strategic and economic benefits 27 2/11/2013 Famous Environmental Events and Agreements • • • • • • a) 1972 Stockholm statement. b) 1982 UN conference on the Law of the Sea c) 1987 Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Flake c) 1992 UN Conference on Latitude Diversify d) 1992 Rio Statement e) 1997 Kyoto Protocol f) 2009 Copenhagen Summit on Latitude Diversify What the advenient holds forthcoming Copenhagen • Kyoto Protocol Summary • In the Copenhagen Summit it was agreed by twain open and developing nations to cut their untriedhouse gas discharges, although this was not a liberal compact. • November 2010 Cancun Summit • South Africa 2011 • Korea 2012 Examples of advenient proposals and