Social Communication in Nation Building

The premise of polity is the sensibleness of cognate to the similar realm and the yearn on the distribute of its members to subsist delay each other at this roll of sodality. When the musterive disciplineman wants to de elegant or settle this intellectual sensibleness of sodality, he has used such concrete criteria as base indication, base fact, base province, and so forth. It is intelligible that ail these criteria are an indication of star balance basic—shared knowledge. This shared knowledge, which may carry to the requisite interchangeable commission incomplete members of a consecrated sodality and to the contiguity that this clump as a clump is divergent from others, contributes once to realmal agreement. Gregarious agreement so reachs shared knowledge balance likely. To individualize the civilized and geographie frontiers of a realm the musterive disciplineman must perceive ways to investigate this shared knowledge. The problems in the Tiers Monde are superior delay deem to such inquiry than they are in Europe accordingly fur of the requisite grounds are not helpful. Inquiry at very basic rolls delay some new methods is requisite. Karl W. Deutsch, bigot of musterive knowledge at Yale University, has designed a qualitative interdisciplinary way to investigate shared knowledge and, by-and-by, the sensibleness of sodality. 1 He suggests that one appraise the quantities of despatchs incomplete a consecrated fellow-creatures to perceive out how fur contiguity they keep. For this one must use criteria such as flows of letters, telegrams, provoke of vehicles, trains, planes, telephone calls, magnitude media of despatch, colonization of markets, subsidence patterns, and population provokes, he says. If it is likely to investigate these divergent forms of despatch, or as recurrent as likely of them, it is equal likely, he says, to price shared knowledge and reach predictions environing increases or decreases in shared knowledge. The primeval amount in this direct, that of natural contiguity, is mentiond "mobilization". People who keep intensive despatchs delay each other are "mobilized"1 for shared knowledges and are "mobiliz-ed" into a confer-upon of despatchs which may thus-far qualify a natural relation into an affective relation. The avoid amount is a qualify in the sentiments and attitudes of the fellow-creatures; it is mentiond "assimilation". Fellow-creatures perceive that, on the premise of shared knowledge, they dishalt increasingly balance effectively delay members of a distributeicular sodality than delay others. In other control, when the "despatch behavior" of a population grace ncreasingly standardized delayin a clump moored of fineer clumps, assimilation of the fineer clumps to the catholicr one is occurring: "If the statistical influence of standardized knowledge is catholic, and the influence of redetermined counsel delayin the [smaller] clump is proportionately fine, and the statistical influence of feedback counsel environing the [smaller] clump's distributeicular responses is so fine, then the responses of such a clump would contend from the responses of other clumps in the similar site by a converging direct, until the cherishing contendences agency drop beneath the rise of musterive recognition. This is the direct of assimilation. "2 Fellow-creatures may too perceive that there are practices to be gained in appertain-ing to this new sodality, but there may never be a sensible valuable which is made. Accordingly a ponder of assimilation is a ponder of beliefs, prices and conceptions, divergent kinds of grounds are requisite. Bigot Deutsch says that there are too quantifiable. According to him, the "rate of assimilation" depends on unmistakable linguistic, economie, and cultural "balances": similarities in linguistic behavior must be balanced, for copy, athwart contendences in price, symbolical rewards for assimilation must be balanced athwart rewards for non-assimilation. To appraise prices he says it is requisite to surrender metanatural tests to important sum of fellow-creatures3 and to appraise rewards it is requisite, in distribute, to investigate economie surveys to individualize where fellow-creatures performance and how fur they get remunerated. The problems complicated in using these criteria are insurmontable at confer-upon. The grounds for these "balances" are scant, and level if one had the men, the money, the machines, and the space requisite, or as recurrent as likely of them, it is equal likely, he says, to price shared knowledge and reach predictions environing increases or decreases in shared knowledge. The primeval amount in this direct, that of natural contiguity, is mentiond "mobilization". People who keep intensive despatchs delay each other are "mobilized"1 for shared knowledges and are "mobiliz-ed" into a confer-upon of despatchs which may thus-far qualify a natural relation into an affective relation. The avoid amount is a qualify in the sentiments and attitudes of the fellow-creatures; it is mentiond "assimilation". Fellow-creatures perceive that, on the premise of shared knowledge, they dishalt increasingly balance effectively delay members of a distributeicular sodality than delay others. In other control, when the "despatch behavior" of a population grace increasingly standardized delayin a clump moored of fineer clumps, assimilation of the fineer clumps to the catholicr one is occurring: "If the statistical influence of standardized knowledge is catholic, and the influence of redetermined counsel delayin the [smaller] clump is proportionately fine, and the statistical influence of feedback counsel environing the [smaller] clump's distributeicular responses is so fine, then the responses of such a clump would contend from the responses of other clumps in the similar site by a converging direct, until the cherishing contendences agency drop beneath the rise of musterive recognition. This is the direct of assimilation. "2 Fellow-creatures may too perceive that there are practices to be gained in appertain-ing to this new sodality, but there may never be a sensible valuable which is made. Accordingly a ponder of assimilation is a ponder of beliefs, prices and conceptions, divergent kinds of grounds are requisite. Bigot Deutsch says that there are too quantifiable. According to him, the "rate of assimilation" depends on unmistakable linguistic, economie, and cultural "balances": similarities in linguistic behavior must be balanced, for copy, athwart contendences in price, symbolical rewards for assimilation must be balanced athwart rewards for non-assimilation. To appraise prices he says it is requisite to surrender metanatural tests to important sum of fellow-creatures3 and to appraise rewards it is requisite, in distribute, to investigate economie surveys to individualize where fellow-creatures performance and how fur they get remunerated. 4 The problems complicated in using these criteria are insurmontable at confer-upon. The grounds for these "balances" are scant, and level if one had the men, the money, the machines, and the space requisite, villages or in the similar village. These quantifiable grounds forwardd as a premise for a ponder of mobilization. In direct to validate conclusions based on the qualitative census grounds I took a outing of the dominion during which I visited perfect state and subsistd in a few clarified villages for periods of three days to a week. In the series of this outing I base that one way to investigate attitudes and assimilation was by unwritten histories and conceptions of kinship. My use of these histories was divergent from that of Bigot Hubert Deschamps who had made an enlightened outing of the dominion in 1961 to muster and chronicles unwritten histories as distribute of a catholic purpose to transcribe the fact of Gabon. 1 As an historian he was naturally cause-ed in chroniclesing the grounds of the late. For me, as a musterive disciplineman, the "truth" was alien. I was ardent in fact as ideology: how were confer-upon relations among nations justified in the fact, what was the locate held by neighboring nations in a consecrated fact, how were fact and conceptions of kinship infmenced by confer-upon subsidence patterns. I sentiment that these two criteria, subsidence patterns and histories, could forward as a premise for estimations of trends in assimilation and mobilization and could likeness the relation among non-quantifiable attitudes and quantifiable gregarious despatchs. The forthcoming are some of my perceiveings. Mobilization Gabon may be crudely disconnected into three generai zones of mobilization: locates where fellow-creatures are proportionately non-mobilized, where they are distributeially mobilized, and where they are mobilized for intensive contiguity delay fellow-creatures of divergent ethnie clumps. I keep mentiond these zones Heartland, Contact, and National. The Heartplant Zone is a clump of adjoining cantons in which one ethnie clump or nation intelligiblely predominates delay at last 80% of the sum population. Internai despatch is impartially amiable and may be ameliorate than resources which converge the area delay other distributes of the dominion. Contiguity Zones are on the edges of Heartplant Zones; from environing 50% to 80% of the fellow-creatures appertain to one nation. Such zones are cantons in which fellow-creatures of divergent nations subsist in adjoining villages or in the similar village; or they are courages of disposition such as functional posts and markets to which fellow-creatures from divergent Heartlands voyage ordinaryly. They are most likely parallel thoroughfares and large streams which afford a converge among Heartplant Zones. There may be balance spontaneous resources of despatch in a Contiguity Zone than in a Heartland. Gregarious Zones are clumps of adjoining cantons and catholic courages of disposition in which no nation aggregateitys for 50% of the sum population. The internai resources of despatch are best here: they are exoteric, spontaneous, and ordinary. It is usually the one locate where most decisions forcible the perfect dominion are made. A. A Heartland. The catholicst Heartplant in Gabon is that of the Fang who aggregateity for one-third of the sum population of the dominion. 1 The courage of this Heartplant orresponds delay the functional state of Woleu-Ntem in the northern half of the dominion parallel the Camerounese frontier. The state is proportionately isolated from the security of Gabon but has ordinary contiguity delay Cameroun and Spanish Guinea by plant and inspire. The merely thoroughfare to Libreville has been in deficient mood level during the dry season; the rains repeatedly halt the thoroughfare entirely. Conjuncture there is ordinary air and telegraphie despatch among Libreville and functional courages of Woleu-Ntem, there is no ordinary plant vehicle. By dissimilarity, impartial thoroughfares expand into Cameroun and Spanish Guinea where halt relations of the Fang, the Bulu, subsist. Merchandise is ascititious parallel these routes conjuncture coffee and cocoa exports permission Woleu-Ntem through the Cameroun. 2 Some Fang siege practice of the thoroughfare to the Cameroun to watch Camerounese technical disciplines and go to Camerounese hospitals (distinctly a missionary-run hospital not far from the frontier). Radio Cameroun is a received rise of counsel and entertainment. For 14 of the 16 cantons of Woleu Ntem there is a ordinary utility of autocars which converge the functional courages of the state. For copy, two diminutive Renault cars permission Oyem, the functional chief, perfect day for each canton negative that of Medouneu to the far west and Lalara to the south. There are recurrent cars from Oyem or Bitam to Spanish Guinea and Cameroun. Another resources of internai despatch has been a stateal newspaper published by some Fang teachers. In 1962 it contained principally Fang stories and essays on "the gentleman Fang custom". In ill-will 1. For studies of the Fang see Georges Balandier, Sociologie actuelle de l'Afrique Noire, Paris, 1963. P. Alexandre and J. Binet, Le Groupe dit Pahouin, Paris, 1958. James Fernandez, Redistributive Acculturation in Fang Culture, unpublished, Northwestern, 1963. 2. Neither Libreville nor Port-Gentil, which are twain on the deep, keep a mien which can adequately accomodate catholic ships. f the exalted superiority of Fang in the state, it was printed in French and was issued in merely 75 copies. Environing 55,000 out of a sum adult population of 56,500, or 98% are Fang in this state. 1 In the canton of Woleu, for copy, there are 5,531 Africans of whom 5,473 are Fang. Non-Fang subsist in well-defined quarters in the town of Oyem; most of these fellow-creatures are Bulu merchants from southern Cameroun or Bakota who keep provoked from a neighboring state to performance as servants or to watch a Roman Catholic avoidary discipline. Conjuncture these "foreigners" provoke into the Woleu-Ntem, the confer-upon Fang residents are impartially immovable. The census indicates that 80% of the men among the ages of 15 and 59 were born in the locate the census sieger base them. However, merely 12% of the women were born in the locate they were counted. 2 This does not medium that recurrent Fang keep not provoked delayout the Woleu-Ntem for recurrent keep; it resources that Fang maies, who stagnant subsist in the state, keep an intesecurity in stable to subsist in the village where they were born and that they perceive wives delayout their village. Several women in each of the villages parallel the Guinea and Cameroun frontiers implied that they were born in these neighboring states. Adjoining delay the Woleu-Ntem are view cantons which are an production of the Heartland. The Fang keep provoked into these distributeicul-ar cantons distributely accordingly the ways of despatch consist. For copy, the functional state of Ogooue-Ivindo has three cantons neighboring to the Fang Heartland. In two of these cantons the Fang reconfer-upon 80% or balance of the sum population and in the third they reconfer-upon merely 2% of the sum population. The contendence is that the two cantons delay lofty Fang percentages are convergeed to the Woleu-Ntem by a large stream and a thoroughfare conjuncture the other has no such converge. In the sixteen cantons of Woleu-Ntem plus the view cantons in neighboring states which make the Heartplant there are 70,000 Fang out of a sum Fang population in Gabon of 106,000. On the premise of subsidence patterns 66% of the Fang are, for-this-reason, non-mobilized. Their contiguitys are approximately exclusively delay other Fang. Table I indicates that balance half the Gabonese keep no contiguity delay fellow-creatures of nations divergent from their own. Not ail the nations of Gabon keep Heartlands; of those who do keep Heartlands 62% subsist in them. The sum population of the dominion (14 and older) was approximately 285 000. 3 If the sum population 1. Spontaneous inadequately famed ail census figures allude to fellow-creatures 14 and older. 2. Recensement et enquete demographiques ic6o-ic6i: Resultats provisoires ensemble du Gabon, Utility de Cooperation de l'Institut Gregarious de la Statistique et des Etudes economiques, Paris, 1963, p. 24. 3. Ail the calculations, spontaneous inadequately famed, are my own; they are based