Marketing Strategies of Colgate Palmolive Ltd

Project Report A STUDY ON MARKETING STRATEGIES OF COLGATE PALMOLIVE LTD. Submitted to: Dr. D. K. Agarwal Submitted by: DINESH CHAUHAN[62014] VIVEK DHAR [62066] FORE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT NEW DELHI Contents ? Introduction1 ? Objective2 ? Methodology3 ? Sodality Profile4 ? Sodality Strategy6 ? Marketing Mix15 ? SWOT Analysis26 ? Inspect Findings28 ? Retailers Survey34 ? Conclusion37 ? Suggestions39 ? Consumer Questionnaire ? Retailer Questionnaire ? Bibliography INTRODUCTION As coming as 3000 B. C. Egyptians used knobbrushes consideobjurgate from twigs. In the 20th period a greater contrivance exercise occurred in 1938 delay the enenlightened of Dr. West’s Miracle Tuft knobbrush, the principal nylon bristle graze. Until the new-fangled 1970’s knobbrushes were distantly viewed by consumer as a article and were primarily escheatments on compensation. The involvement remained low and the companies so treated their knobbrushes as an extension, to get their consumers to use their knobpastes. Typically in the Indian bargain the percentage of knobgraze users has unwillingly inched upwards. As it has frequently been associated by the non-users as a non-essential ace past so consequently of their savage faithfulness to the margosa twigg(Datun) and the index finger. The bargain of new-fangled has been the note of sepaobjurgate exotic players and the bargaining recreation has conjectured a fully new mass. Companies are enigmatical to transfer to “PULL” management of hanker promise inend and the desire of consumers to shell out a few rupees extra to secure a past beneficial foresight of their teeth and gum. This has resulted in flying enlargement in appreciate promises. Added to this is the directorship of the companies to centre on spreading the bargain by bringing the aggravate 65% non-users in their consumer enfold. Delay such extensive immanent to be exploited, the note of sepaobjurgate new players delay their innovative conceptions and knowledge in congruous developing bargains, the zeal is lovely to see a lot of exercise in the introduce advenient. OBJECTIVE The balancehead of the meaning was multifarious. ? Principal of all a generally-known conception of the knobgraze zeal - its competitiveness, book and immanent was to be adjudged. Next was to go on to dissection of the situations of a illustrative consumer and his/her conception/understanding of this low involvement arorder consequence. ? This was to be followed up delay the examine of Colgate Plus knobbrush, as a illustrative consequence of the sodality, Colgate Palmolive and its periodical in the bargain vis-a-vis other players, especially new entrants. ? To fuse all balancehead to argue as to what was to be the advenient/probable round of the knobgraze zeal and Colgate Plus knob graze in object. METHODOLOGY 1. To get an conception of the zeal, I went through all the pertinent scholarship we could lay my hands upon. This included A & M’s, Office Today’s. 2. For consumer situations, I fitted a questionnaire that was circulated unformed 70 odd mass, polite ramify out counter the complete of Delhi. The similar was done delay the retailers to try and see the symmetricality in perceiveings in some feature reputationistics. 3. The questionnaire was to structured that an conception of mark shadow and connectring-to examineing of diverse mark could so be elicited. 4. The perceiveings were synthesized, and maintenance in liking the new entrants, their immanent and the immanent of the bargain, meaningions were made and conclusions were drawn. COMPANY PROFILE A intimate spectry for paste and knob scatter, Colgate Palmolive (India) was periodical on 23rd September 1937 as a secret poor sodality in Bombay, as a entirely owned aidful of Colgate Palmolive Co. Of USA Initially it agoing delay trading zeal and new-fangledr set up manufacturing operations in 1949 at Sewry (Bombay). The sodality became a generally-known poor sodality on 5th October 1978. In 1990-91 the sodality commissioned facilities for fatty cutting and toilet soap at Waluj (Aurangabad). The artfulnessts at Sewri and Waluj mould verbal foresight consequences love dental gists, knob scatter knob grazees and sepaobjurgate foresight consequences love toilet soaps, shampoo, which are bargained lower diverse mark spectrys such as Colgate, Palmolive, Halo, Protex and Charmis. The sodality’s division network covers 1700 stockists and 4,50,000 retailers delay article stock facilities in Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Madras ( and a new attention at Faridabad). The sodality has its own Research and crop facilities and had so been getting the R&D favors of the parent sodality. It has a polite periodical capacity Control Department at Sewri & Waluj. For 40 years, past exercise dress 1978, Colgate was carrying on its office in India delay a compensated up cardinal of Rs. 1. 5 lakh made up of 1500 equity divides of Rs. 100 each, when it was increases to Rs. 1. 96 crore, by a favor offspring in the barkred of 130:1. To succumb delay the FERA regulations, Colgate Palmolive, USA objectless its divide arresting to 40% in the Indian sodality, through an exhibit of sale to the Indian generally-known in October 1978. Following FERA recreation, the exotic divideholding was increased from 40% to 51% in September 1993. Colgate Palmolive (CP) is a global director in intimate and sepaobjurgate foresight consequences. In 1991, it had sales of $ 6. 06 billion and a bloated improvement of $ 2. 76 billion, its cosmos-mass distant R&D outlays were $ 114 pet and instrument advertising outlay aggregateled $ 428 pet. Colgate Palmolive’s five year artfulness for 1991 to 1995 emphasized new consequence enlargees and note into new Geographic bargains, ahanker delay improved efficiencies in manufacturing and division and a continuing centre on kernel consumer consequences. In 1921 $ 243 pet was lavish to upgait 25 of Colgate Palmolive’s 91 manufacturing artfulnessts, 275 new consequences were introduced cosmos-people-wide; sepaobjurgate strategic acquisitions (e. g. of the Mennen men’s toiletries sodality) were completed and manufacturing began in China and Eastern Europe. Past 1985, bloated loopholes had climbed from 39% to 45% occasion annual book enlargement past 1986 had averaged 5% International sales Colgate Palmolive’s powerful separate, representationed for 64% of sales and 6% of improvements in 1991. COMPANY STRATEGY - ORAL CARE AND TOOTHBRUSH INDUSTRY IN PARTICULAR Book is the key” says Richard Usuquen, VP Marketing Colgate Palmolive (India) Ltd. To spread the bargain in all orders, CP has an ongoing RURAL VAN PROGRAMME and SCHOOL PROGRAMME protection 14 pet villages and 80 pet consumers, training mass graze or plain pure their teeth delay the fingers. CP’s exercise centring environing finely balancing the oppidan bargain - (59. 5%) and countrified bargains (68% divide) . So occasion the sodality has introduced such reward packaging as stop up knobpaste tubes delay flip-up caps in the oppidan bargain, it is so selling sachets of Colgate dental gist at low compensations. This centre on books is so clear in the knobgraze bargain, estimated at 400 pet separates per annum. C-P is the knobgraze director in India delay an approximately 60% bargain divide, but past ‘95 it is facing challenges from HLL which has alprepared garnered 8% bargain divide. Usuquen says “The discrimination of grazees in India is very low, so past than bargain divide, it is influential to gain-ground the bargain”. To that end CP has actively introduced thread extensions counter all three sections - dispensation, average and reward past definite year. At the note flatten it has adopted the sleeve packaging, delay no sepaobjurgate circumstances. The centre is on driving books through the compensation-sensitive section. The mid-compensation bargain has been the prelude of the HIGH KLEEN order, occasion the excellent end has seen the zig - zag and Double - Exercise enlargees. For the dispensation section, a compensation centre has been adopted. On exhibit are five knobbrushes each from the CP and Cibacca unwaverings to countrified consumers, at compensations low abundance to beget proof. For the oppidan bargain, the centre is on obeying alteration appreciate by introducing new variants and external features. Whatever is new, mass buy. So the conception is to expedite excellent through a dissimilitude of consequence features”. CP’s understanding of the Indian bargain is of one where mass acceptable transfer but clamour for exalted end consequences at uncostlyly compensations. The confutation to this conundrum as per the sodality’s management is to “..... Optimise require and arrangeulation and the proceses and end up delay efficient manufacturing to confutation this “. CP’s management is to implant in a lot of siege in the Indian bargain in promises of cardinal outlay and constructional influence and each out to the deepest interiors. SEGMENTATION The knobgraze zeal can be cherished as a factor of the Verbal Foresight zeal which broadly comprises knob paste, bung absterge and floss, so knob grazees and a enlightened unorganized naturally adapted pureing mediums viz. Index Finger, Neem twigs etc. But Colgate Plus deficiency not to bothered environing passing as it operates in a incongruous arrange. The knob graze zeal can be sectioned in the plea of political arorder & inend assembly (Demographic Segmentation ), compensation (Product sectionation), favor (behavioural sectionation), the definite substance the most influential. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PRICE |Segment |Category |Brands |Characteristic | |Low inend countrified arorder |Economy |Promise, Cibaca |Looking for low compensation | |Middle inend assembly semi oppidan |Standard |Colgate Classic Pepsodent common | Appreciate for capital | |consumer | | | |Upper average inend oppidan |Premium |Colgate Plus, Classic, Ajay, Royal |High capacity pureing teachableness | |consumers | | | | |Upper arorder oppidan pervert |Super Reward |Oral B, Aquafresh, Jordan, Close Up|Unique, reputationistic, dentists | | | | |admonition | The definite two categories link, past Colgate Plus is intelligently positioned in betwixt the two to obey a exalted capacity in age as polite as advance switches from stopard arorder to up gait PSYCHOGRAPHICS |Variations in Consequence |Jazzy looks, Limpid manage|Simpleton looks, Modest |Mix of the two : limpid | | |Flashy colours Remarkable Packing|packaging, Solid colours |manage but not very glimmer | | | | |packaging. |Urban pervert |Chooses delay foresight, sports it as|Abhors |Abhors | | |a fixation record occasion | | | | |interacting in assembly travels | | | |Semi oppidan Non Chalant User |Aspires for it, but perceives it |Very frequently goes for this as it |Some terms this | | |obscure to impart; tries it |serves is meaning delayout ample | | | |hardly-ever |outlay | | |Rural User |Does not entertain access/can’t | Is the merely discretion Datun |Generally can’t impart this | | |reflect of | |either | |Tooth grazees marks |Oral B, Jordan, Aqua unimpaired etc. |Promise, Forhans etc. |Cibaca, Ajanta, Ajay etc. | The aggravateall exculpation reflects a step-by-step stir in the inclination of the reward to super reward section as it is unintermittently in three months/four months escheatment, thus substance auspicious in luring all customers (bar the countrified user who are a narrow young-person of the Market) to try out the ones that are fixs at a exalteder compensation on representation of their trendy looks and aggravateall acconsume of title and brilliancy. BENEFIT SEGMENTATION |User Characteristic |Invalid verbal heartiness consumer |Involved verbal heartiness Consumer |Uninvolved Verbal Heartiness Consumer| | |Therapeutic Brushers |Cosmetic Brushers |Non-chalant Brushers | |Product Differentiater |Search functionally remarkable |Search for consequence that |Views consequences as similar Lack of | | |consequence delay numerous reputationistics. issueively delivers cosmetic |attention | | | |benefits | | |Advertising acconsume |Put off by hardsell Prefers |Influenced by preferment, |Relatively unaarticle of ads can | | |dentist admonition or |hammering on a USP |at most be influenced by compensation | | |conscious conviction | |offs, parcel deals | |Buying behaviour |Buys for himself, gain go to a |Buys and uses for himself. |Buys for rise. , gain glean up| | |specialised ammunition |Will not go balance a enlightened |any mark adapted. | | | |shop, superbargain | | |Regularity of manner |Brushes behind perfect abstinence |Brushes in-great-measure unintermittently, rarely |At most unintermittently a day | | | |twice | | |Brand faithfulness Exalted |Low |Nil | |Price (Willing to pay) |>20 |15-20 | Rs. 20 |3. 0 |25. 0 |7. 5 | |ASCRIBED TO | | | | |No feature argue |59. 4 |33. 3 |50. 0 | |tidings of bung |15. 6 |16. 7 |19. 1 | |dispassionate delay advt. |9. 3 |20. |11. 9 | |shopkeeper insisted |15. 6 |20. 8 |14. 3 | |dentists information |6. 3 |8. 3 |4. 8 | |REPLACEMENT FREQUENCY | | | | |0-1 MONTHS |23. 5 |12. 5 |17. 4 | |1-2 MONTHS |26. 5 |29. |28. 3 | |2-3 MONTHS |23. 5 |29. 2 |30. 4 | |3-4 MONTHS |23. 5 |16. 7 |19. 6 | |> 4 MONTHS |2. 9 |16. 7 |4. 3 | |FREQ. OF BRUSHING | | | | |Once (per day) |50. 0 |28. |46. 7 | |Twice |44. 2 |68. 0 |46. 8 | |behind perfect abstinence |2. 9 |4. 0 |2. 2 | |Not very object |2. 9 |0. 0 |2. 2 | |pressed delay Notice | | | | |YES |11. 1 |22. 2 |12. | |NO |88. 9 |78. 0 |87. 1 | RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ATTRIBUTES | |MALES |FEMALES |TOTAL |RANK | |PRICE |62. 7 |57. 3 |61. 2 |5 | |PACKAGING |40. 2 |49. 3 |44. 6 |8 | |DURABILITY |74. 5 |74. 7 |75. |2 | |LONG HANDLE |51. 9 |60. 0 |57. 0 |6 | |FLEXIBLE NECK |52. 9 |60. 0 |57. 1 |6 | |COMFY. ANGLE |68. 6 |78. 7 |73. 7 |3 | |SOFT BRISTLES |78. 4 |86. 7 |82. 9 |1 | |LOOKS |46. 1 |40. 0 |44. 9 | |DIAMOND HEAD |36. 3 |41. 3 |38. 9 |10 | |GRIP |58. 8 |68. 0 |63. 4 |4 | |INDICATOR |28. 4 |41. 3 |34. 3 |11 | COLGATE PLUS USERS RESPONSE | |Males |Females |Total | | |v. Good | |COLGATE PLUS |30. 96 | |CIBACA |14. 28 | |ORAL-B |16. 66 | |CLOSE-UP |9. 52 | |PEPSODENT POPULAR |7. 14 | |JORDAN |9. 2 | |OTHERS |11. 90 | BRAND RECALL |BRANDS |PERCENTAGE | |COLGATE PLUS |20. 47 | |PEPSODENT POPULAR |11. 02 | |CIBACA |10. 4 | |ORAL-B |9. 54 | |AQUA-FRESH |7. 59 | |AJANTA |7. 09 | |OTHERS |28. 35 | Merely environing 5% of the counterpartents could not mind which knobgraze they were soon using which were excluded from the balancehead computing. RETAILER’S SURVEY FEATURES |No. f Respondents |: |20 | |Areas expert |: |Defence Colony, South Avenue, Khan Market, North Campus, Sarojini| | | |Nagar | |Nature of inspect |: |Structured Questionnaire | |Objective |: |a) To append the counterpart to new entrants vis-a-vis Colgate Plus | | | |as perceived by retailers. | | | |B) Retailers fondling mark(s) | | | |Margins exhibited | |Limitations |: |Given the areas expert, the exculpation was spring to be asked in | | | |favour of the excellent arorder users. | FINDINGS |A. Availability | | | |Easy |: |Classic, Aqua-Fresh, Oral-B, Pepsodent, Colgate Plus | |Not Easy |: |Royal, Forhans, Cibaca, Jordan, Prudent. | |B. Sales | | | |High |: |Colgate Plus, Cibaca, Classic, Pepsodent, Oral-B | |Satisfactory |: |Close-up, Ajanta, Ajay, Jordan, Aqua-Fresh | |C. Profit Margins | | | |Highest |: |Classic, Royal | |High |: |Jordan | |Medium |: |Oral-B, Aqua-Fresh, Reach, Cibaca | |Low |: |Colgate Plus, Pepsodent, Close-up | * Pre-eminent Loophole : 35-40%Lowest Loophole - 10-15% N. B. Colgate Plus features in the last flatten of loophole and yet commands the exaltedest bargain divide. The low loophole was nevertheless robbed by the Sales Office of Colgate-Palmolive at Delhi, who claimed to exhibit correspondent to that of the zeal stopards. Colgate Plus was not ended up by any appraisal plan whatsoever. Give is kept symmetrical on weekly plea. D. Retailer’s Understanding Of Preferences |BY BRAND NAME |36. % | |CHEAP BRUSH |9. 3% | |SPECIFY PRICE RANGE |15. 9% | |EXPENSIVE |21. 5% | |TRY NEW ONESE |16. 8 | E. Retails insisted on “Pushing” Classic as it was tolerably compensationd and yet exhibited a very amiable-tempered-tempered loophole. * The “D” balancehead was so substantiated by our consumer inspect. CONCLUSION The introduce day grazeing behavior of the Indian fellowship as a complete leaves a lot to be desired - 41 knobbrushes are sold for perfect 100 people per year! Aggregate separates sold add u to a weak aggravate 400 pet, gain-grounding at the objurgate of 10% p. a in book promises and 25% in appreciate promises (dissimilitude explained by the transfer to excellent end of the bargain). This implies not ample dragonnade has been made into the countrified and semi-oppidan bargain. Non-users compose environing 65% of aggregate population. Occasion the global marks try to produce new bargains and add new masss, there is ample greater new-fanglednt require. Out of their unwavering of bargaining strategies, advertising dress now had been low pre-eminence for the players (this was aged in our inspect as 88. % of counterpartents don’t resumption the ads). This indicates companies perceive it appalling to transfer the low involvement flatten psyche of consumers and the course of aggressive sales preferment by way of compensation offs, POP displays, tied sales and open-hearted traffic loopholes sdress arrest the key to increasing off engage of knobbrushes. No one has made a weighty seek in the fresh region of 65% non-users (CP’s Countrified Van Programme is a new-fangled drive). The fancy of doing a Nirma to the knobgraze bargain has escaped perfectone. Despleen packaging constituting a corporeal (upto 40%) of the require of a knobgraze it has fix to entertain influenced the purchasing decisions of the buyers. In our inspect consumers corroborated to this issue (connect to the inspect perceiveings). Companies could rereflect their management of increasing incongruousiability by packaging and instead endue in consequence crop for the similar. SUGGESTIONS Some feasible consequence improvisations Attached unswerving speech pureer circumstanced in the knobgraze manage. Cartoons reputation printed on the manage to invite kids. Padding on the manage end to massage the gums. Casing the knobgraze (for kids) in a toy arrange. Neck delay adjuunwavering manage. Get a certificate by the Indian Dental Association (IDA) for the knobbrush, love the Colgate Calciguard Toothpaste. Segregate the knobgraze types for incongruous age assemblys, e. g. , Children - Thicker manage for ameliorate retain, shining colours and cartoons printed on the manage. Young Mass of Teenager - past trendy colours and contrivances, love stripes or polka mottled, past vibrant colours. Adults - Simple contrivances and dispassionate and graceful colours. For the new entrant Introduce the consequence delay the exhibit of one clear knobgraze delay the escheatment of a graze which gain aid in blocking and prepointing the escheatment of the buyer. As the target section is the reward section hence, reward pricing of the consequence is needful. Compensation the consequence at Rs. 251 -* or at Rs. 301- and not at Rs. 361 or Rs. 221- consequently the treasurykeepers countenance a bearing in unimportant narrow transfers of Rs. 31 or Rs. 31- and Rs. 1 so they rarely eschew the consequence as confessed by the treasurykeeper. Add appreciate to the consequence by giving tips on leading amiable-tempered-tempered verbal foresight, in the end plane of the parcel or a clear paper delay the escheatment of a graze, love grazeing twice a day, flossing, polishing, symmetrical dental check-up by your dentist, this shows a caring and unquiet situation by the sodality. Delay the escheatment of a knobbrush, afford a clear coupons which is to be filled in by the consumer and can be used by him or her for getting a clear dental check-up as when and where exact in the notice in the newspaper. This bark of plan can be implemented by the sodality unintermittently in two three months. However, these suggestions can be used by the big players in the bargain or the new entrant, who has to be a big player consequently a enlightened siege is deficiencyed for such dull sales preferment and so an seek should be made to alter this low involvement consequence into a exalted involvement as it is unquiet delay sepaobjurgate card and hygiene and a consequence of daily use. CONSUMER QUESTIONNAIRE 1. AGE : ( 15-30 Years ( 30-40 Years ( 40-50 years (Above 50 years 2. SEX : ( Male ( Female 3. OCCUPATION : ( Govt. Service( Self-employed ( Corpoobjurgate Executive ( Student ( Others (indicate __________________) 4. MARITAL STATUS :( Single ( Married delay offspring ( Married delayout offspring 5. AVERAGE MONTHLY INCOME/ALLOWANCE ( Rs. 20000 6. Which knobgraze do you generally-knownly use? 7. Spectry any other five knobbrushes that you can resumption 12345 8. Who escheatments your knobbrush? ( Myself( A rise component( A Subordinate 9. Do you ask for a knobgraze by spectry? ( Yes ( No 10. How ample are you prepared to lavish on a knobbrush? ( Rs. 5-10( Rs. 10-15( Rs. 15-20( > Rs. 20 11. What prompted you to escheatment your ordinary knobbrush? ( Dentist’s information ( Dispassionate delay the notice ( Shopkeeper gave it to me ( A polite-wisher recommended it to me ( Just bought it no feature argue. 12. How frequently do you substitute your knobbrush? (0-1 month( 1-2 months( 2-3 months( 3-4 months ( > 4 months 13. How frequently do you graze your teeth a day? ( Unintermittently ( Twice ( Behind perfect abstinence( Not object 14. What according to you are the connectring-to importances of the aftercited? | |V. Imp |Imp. |Not so Imp. Doesn’t stuff | |PRICE | | | | | |PACKAGING | | | | | |DURABILITY | | | | | |FLEXIBLE NECK | | | | | |COMFORTABLE ANGLE | | | | | |SOFTNESS OF BRISTLES | | | | | |LOOKS (TRANSPARENT HANDLE ETC. ) | | | | | |DIAMOND HEAD | | | | | |GRIP | | | | | |INDICATOR | | | | | 15. Has any knobgraze ad (seen on TV/in a berth) made an application on you? |YES |NO |IF YES, THEN WHY | |ORAL-B | | | | |AQUA FRESH | | | | |ROYAL | | | | |COLGATE PLUS | | | | 16. Kindly confutation the aftercited in circumstance you entertain used Colgate Plus/Aqua Unimpaired knobbrushes: | |AQUA FRESH |COLGATE PLUS | |QUALITY |*V. GOOD * GOOD |* V. GOOD * GOOD | | |* MODERATE |* MODERATE | | |* NO GOOD |* NO GOOD | |AVAILABILITY |* EASY * NOT SO EASY * DIFFICULT |* EASY * NOT SO EASY * DIFFICULT | |IF IT WORTH THE PRICE |* YES *NO |* YES * NO | | |* CAN’T SAY |*CAN’T SAY | |IF THE BRAND IS NOT AVAILABLE, THEN I |* WILL WAIT |* WILL WAIT | | |* WILL NOT WAIT |* WILL NOT WAIT | THANK YOU FOR SPARING YOUR VALUABLE TIME!! RETAILER QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Location of the ammunition : 2. Selling knobbrushes past 3. Brands swarming ( Colgate Plus( Cibaca Supreme( Aqua Unimpaired ( Jordan( Oral-B( Royal ( Pepsodent( Promise( Ajay ( Ajanta( Classic 4. Which are the top three knobbrushes in promises of endure sales? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In circumstance not expert balancehead. What is the fixation of: 1. Aquafresh( Good( Picking up Moderate( Poor 2. Colgate Plus( Good( Picking up Moderate( Poor 6. How do consumers ask for a knob graze? (Rank them) (a) Ask by mark spectry(b) Ask for a uncostly graze (c) Indicate a compensation order(d) Go for an valuable graze (e) Keep enigmatical newer ones 7. Which of these two companies mould it a object to: (a) Get a symmetrical feedend Aquafresh( Yes( No Colgate Plus( Yes( No (b) Obey symmetrical give Aquafresh( Yes( No Colgate Plus( Yes( No 8. Rank your improvement loophole for the aftercited marks: 1. Cibaca Supreme2. Colgate Plus 3. Oral-B4. Aqua Unimpaired 5. Classic 6. Ajanta 7. Pepsodent 8. Jordan 9. What is your a) Pre-eminent Loophole b) Last Loophole 10. If the consumer does not ask for a feature knobgraze then which one would you exhibit him? Why? BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Business Today Library 2. A&M Issues of June ‘05, June ‘05, April ‘2006 3. CII Library 4. FORE Library 5. Kotler Philip (Principles of Marketing) 6. Kotler, Philip (Marketing Management). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would love to specific my pastre gift to Prof. N. S. Uppal for entrusting me delay a challenging meaning and ahanker delay it, his aid and advancement has been honorable. I desire to fix my pastre gratefulness to the officials of unquiet construction and libraries who in spleen of their industrious catalogue frequently spared their term whenever deficiencyed. ----------------------- [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic]