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Exam 3 Biology 1307

1.      True or False. All protists are eukaryotic.

A.     true

B.     false

 

2.      Chloroplasts arose via _____.

A.     endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates

B.     endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria

C.     endosymbiosis of fungi

D.     endosymbiosis of euglenids

 

3.      According to the endosymbiosis scheme, how numerous membranes should a mitochondrion feel?

A.     One

B.     Three

C.     Two

D.     Zero

 

4.      You are fond an obscure organism to test. It is unicellular and heterotrophic. It is motile, using numerous incomprehensive extensions of the cytoplasm. It has well-developed organelles and two nuclei, one vast and one narrow. This organism is most sunencumbered to be a ________.

A.     foraminiferan

B.     diatom

C.     ciliate

D.     dinoflagellate

E.      slime mold

 

5.      Which of the subjoined statements is accordant delay the assumption that protists are paraphyletic?

A.     There is no sordid set of synapomorphies that explain a protist

B.     Protists all portion-out a sordid set of synapomorphies.

C.     Protists are all balance pristine than fix settles and carnals.

D.     Protists do not portion-out a unmarried sordid source.

 

6.      Encouraging the augmentation (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may aid subject global enthusiasticing consequently _____.

A.     the acceptiond oxygen decline by vast populations of photosynthetic protists achieve acception photostructure in fix settles

B.     photosynthetic protists are original consumers in numerous marine assistance chains

C.     photosynthetic protists fix eternal carbon dioxide, decreasing eternal carbon dioxide levels

7.       Encouraging the augmentation (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may aid subject global enthusiasticing consequently ________.

A) photosynthetic protists are original consumers in numerous marine assistance chains

B) photosynthetic protists fix eternal carbon dioxide, decreasing eternal carbon

dioxide levels

C) the acceptiond oxygen decline by vast populations of photosynthetic protists achieve acception photostructure in fix settles

D) photosynthetic protists would libeblame a lot of oxygen, and fertilizing them would acception levels of oxygen in the atmosphere

 

8.      Which of these taxa comprehends type that conorder erratic toxins that can fruitr vast fish kills, defile shellfish, and taint civilizeds?

A.     red algae

B.     dinoflagellates

C.     diplomonads

D.     euglenids

9.      Which of the subjoined might be a outcome of adding a resultant consumer to the aquatic ecoregularity in the connected exemplification?

A.     a decline in the sum of original consumers

B.     a decline in the population of decomposers

C.     an acception in eternal carbon dioxide

D.     an acception in the population of scavengers

E.      a decline in the carbon sink

 

10.  The Irish potato famine was fruitrd by an organism that belongs to which type?

A.      Phytophtorainfestans

B.      Trichomonas vaginalis

C.     Giardia spp.

D.     Trypanozomacruzi

11.  Which of the subjoined eukaryotic lineages comprehends type that all noncommunication administrationing mitochondria?

A.     Excavata

B.     Rhizaria

C.     Amoebozoa

D.     Stramenopila

 

12.  Pseudopods that can effect phagocytosis and feel the power to substitute their mould are generally diagnosis of which assemblage?

A.     radiolarians

B.     amoebas

C.     slime molds

D.     oomycetes

 

13.  Which of the subjoined is a synapomorphy that explains all uncooked algae and fix settles?

A.     Seeds                     B. Vascular web        C.  Cell embankments   D,  Photosynthetic chloroplasts

14.  One of the fish in your aquarium dies. Adding which protist to the instil would confess you to forsake flushing the lifeless fish by speeding its consumption?

A.     an apicomplexan

B.     a dinoflagellata

C.     a instil mold

D.     a ciliate

E.      a euglenid

 

15.  According to the endosymbiotic scheme, why was it adaptive for the vastr (host) cell to sustain the engulfed cell lively, rather than classifying it as assistance?

A.     The engulfed cell supposing the assemblage cell delay adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

B.     The engulfed cell supposing the assemblage cell delay carbon dioxide.

C.     The engulfed cell confessed the assemblage cell to metabolize glucose.

D.     The assemblage cell was conducive to outdefinite anaerobic stipulations delay the engulfed cell lively.

E.      The assemblage cell would feel been tainted if it had classifyed the engulfed cell.

 

16.  Alternation of generations occurs in some protists. Which of the subjoined represents the amend order of plaints for this principle of repetition?

A.     gametophyte → gamete → difcommingle → sporophyte → spore → gametophyte

B.     sporophyte → spore difcommingle → gametophyte → gamete → sporophyte

C.     gametophyte → difcommingle → sporophyte → spore → gamete → gametophyte

D.     gamete → difcommingle → gametophyte →spore → sporophyte → gamete

 

17.  In examining a protist, you mark that it noncommunications a cell embankment, and has change-of-place delay cytoplasmic streaming. These facts confess you to deduce that the type belongs to which of the subjoined protist assemblages?

A.     Excavata

B.     Stramenopila

C.     Rhizaria

D.     Alveolata

E.      Amoebozoa

 

18.  Chagas complaint is circulate by the “kissing bug”.  This complaint favor 16-18 darling nation environing the cosmos-people and fruitrs environing 50,000 deaths year-by-year and is fruitrd by which protist?

A.      Giardia

B.      Trichomonas vaginalis

C.     Trypanosoma cruzi

D.     Plasmodioum

 

19.  Dysentery is fruitrd by _______________ and fruitrs afflictive diarrhea.  It is abstrusely usual in countries delay a enthusiastic atmosphere and bald innocuous stipulations.  In some places it is known as “Montezuma’s revenge”.  Which of the subjoined protists fruitrs dysentery

A.      Entamoeba histolytica

B.      Phytophthora infestans

C.     Plasmodioum

D.     Dinoflagellates

 

20.  What contact achieve the dropping of fix settles feel on the begrime?

A.     Increase begrime stability

B.     Increase begrime erosion

C.     Increase nutrient levels     

D.      Decrease exterior temperature

 

21.  The superior administration of the medicinal compounds in settles is to _____.

A.     as vindication despite herbivores

B.     attract pollinators for origin dispersal

C.     attract insects and birds to circulate origins and fruits

D.     defend the settle despite microbes

 

22.  The most straightforward sources of fix settles were probably _____.

A.     liverworts and mosses        B. uncooked algae  C. kelp (brown alga)    D. cyanobacteria

 

23.  What token indicates the change-of-place of settles from instil to fix?

A.     sporopollenin to forefend evaporation from concessions

B.     dropping of edifices that conorder spores

C.     remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells

D.     waxy cuticle to decline evaporation from concessions

 

24.  Which of these era intervals, naturalized on settle fossils, came definite (most newly)?

A.     carboniferous swamps delay monster horsetails and ferns

B.     flow and be-unlikeence of angiosperms

C.     residuum of fix by coming liverworts and mosses

D.     vast augmentation of gymnosperm forests

 

25.  Angiosperms are the most auspicious sublunary settles. Which of the subjoined features is sole to them and aids totality for their good-fortune?

A.     embryos enclosed delayin origin coats

B.     sperm cells delayout flagella

C.     fruits embracing origins which comprehend the settle origin

D.     bend pollination

 

26.  Protists and bacteria are assemblageed into irrelative domains consequently _____.

A.     bacteria are not made of cells

B.     protists feel a membrane-bounded convenient-part, which bacterial cells noncommunication

C.     protists eat bacteria

D.     protists are photosynthetic

 

27.  The engagement gymnosperm refers to settles _____.

A.     delay "naked origins" that do not conorder gems

B.     that are non-vascular

C.     that gem

D.     delay origins protectored delayin a fruit

 

28.  What feature gives origins an practice balance spores?

A.     Protected from the environment

B.     Small in size

C.     Contain nutrients

D.     Long-lived

 

29.  Which of the subjoined was a canvass to the exercise of the loftyest fix settles?

A.     desiccation

B.     too greatly sunlight

C.     a incomprehensiveage of carbon dioxide

D.     carnal predation

 

30.  _____ are angiosperms.

A.     Roses

B.     Fiddlehead ferns

C.     Sphagnum mosses

D.     Pine trees

 

31.  Primary consequencers such as settles and uncooked algae ____________.

A.     Convert capricious activity (light) to chemical activity (sugars)

B.     Decompose consumptioning representative in begrime to conorder activity

C.     Consume other organisms to conorder chemical activity (sugars) and capricious activity (light)

D.     Produce CO2 by effecting photosynthesis

 

32.  Plants afford numerous ecoregularity services including origination of oxygen and tenure the begrime.  What is an ecosystem?

A.     All the organisms or biotic elements in a point area

B.     All the foundation and nonfoundation components in a point area

C.     The nonfoundation or abiotic components in a point area

D.     All settles and carnals in a fond region

 

33.  Stoma (plural: stomata) are____________.

A.     Small unconcealedings denominated pores wrapt by specialized protector cells

B.     Watertight sealants consequenced by settles to forsake desiccation

C.     Specialized organelles in settle cells to effect photosynthesis

D.     Modified concessions in a settle to forsake predation by herbivores

 

34.  Flowers, the reproductive organ of a young settle, has two key reproductive edifices denominated:

A.     Seed and pistil

B.     Stamen and fruit

C.     Stamen and pistil

D.     Seed and anther

 

35.  The three abstruse ways in which pollen is delighted from settle to settle or gem to gem are:

A.     Animals, bend, instil

B.     Wind, fungi, instil

C.     Animals, bees, bend

D.     Fungi, instil, insects

 

36.  _____________ is a course by which pollen is transferred in settles.

A.     Pollen grains

B.     Style

C.     Pollination

D.     Translocation

 

37.  True or False.  The womanly sever of the gem is the stamen.

A.     True           B.   False

 

38.  True or False.  The abstruse administration of the endosperm is to afford nutrients for the origin settle.

A.     True           B.  False

 

39.  True or False.  Plants and not algae are the abstruse original consequencers in Earth’s oceans.

A.     True           B.   False

 

40.  True or False.  Bryophytes such as mosses noncommunication vascular web (xylem and phloem).

A.     True           B.  False

41.  Root hairs are most significant to a settle consequently they ________.

A.     anchor a settle in the begrime

B.     store starches

C.     acception the exterior area for absorption

D.     afford a habitat for nitrogen-fixing bacteria

E.      comprehend xylem web

 

42. As fuels, grove and coal ________.

A) are the abstruse fuel sources in industrialized countries today.

B) are twain fashioned from foundation or fossil settles.

C) are twain fashioned below hurry abstruse in the Earth.

D) are sustainconducive as they are plain now life made at lofty blames.

 

43.  Molecular phylogenies pomp all fix settles are a monophyletic assemblage. This suggests ________.

A) there were numerous irrelative transitions from aquatic to sublunary habitats

B) bend-pollinated settles arose loftyest

C) fix settles feel belowgone a be-unlikeence gone they loftyest colonized sublunary habitats

D) there was a unmarried transition from aquatic to sublunary habitats

 

44. Which of these era intervals, naturalized on settle fossils, came definite (most newly)?

A) vast augmentation of gymnosperm forests

B) Silurian-Devonian exumation delay fossils of settle lineages comprehending most of the superior morphological innovations

C) residuum of fix by coming liverworts and mosses

D) flow and be-unlikeence of angiosperms

E) carboniferous swamps delay monster horsetails and lycophytes

 

45. Why are originless vascular settles considered paraphyletic rather than monophyletic?

A) Some of the assemblages delayin the originless vascular settles are balance air-tight allied to each other than to other assemblages (such as Lycophyta).

B) They portion-out a balance new sordid source delay origined settles than they do delay the non-vascular settles.

C) All of the assemblages comprehended delayin the originless vascular settles do not feel the selfselfselfsame source.

D) The assemblage includes their sordid source but too the origined descent of that selfselfselfsame source.

 

46. Which set comprehends the most air-tight allied engagements?

A) megasporangium, megaspore, pollen, ovule

B) microsporangium, microspore, egg, ovary

C) megasporangium, megaspore, egg, ovule

D) microsporangium, microspore, carpel, ovary

 

47. In the course of time of generations, the ________.

A) sporophyte is haploid and consequences gametes

B) sporophyte is diploid and consequences spores

C) gametophyte is haploid and consequences spores

D) gametophyte is diploid and consequences gametes

E) spores amalgamate to fashion a zygote

 

48.  Where are you LEAST sunencumbered to see uncooked algae?

A) as pink snow in the mountains in summer

B) growing symbiotically delay fungi in lichens or delay some invertebblame carnals

C) growing inconsequently on dry cast in meadows

D) growing inconsequently on wet cast in ponds and lakes

E) incomplete in seas and oceans

 

49. When a mosquito tainted delay Plasmodium loftyest festivity a civilized, the Plasmodium ________.

A) gametes commingle, fashioning an oocyst

B) cells corrupt the civilized liver cells

C) cells fruitr lysing of the civilized red blood cells

D) oocyst belowgoes meiosis

 

50. Carbon dioxide enters the vital illimitablenesss of the leaf through the ________.

A) cuticle

B) epidermal trichomes

C) stoma

D) phloem

E) embankments of protector cells

 

51. Which sever of a settle absorbs most of the instil and azoics captured up from the begrime?

A) rise cap

B) rise hairs

C) the crowded severs of the rises nigh the infamous of the stem

D) storage rises

E) sections of the rise that feel resultant xylem

 

52. When an carnal cell is placed in a hypotonic answer and instil enters the cell via osmosis, the quantity of the cell acceptions until it bursts. This does NOT betide to settle cells, consequently ________.

A) they feel vast convenient vacuoles, which afford vast illimitableness for storage of incoming instil

B) the mixture of their plasma membranes be-unlikes from that of carnal-cell plasma membranes in a way that affords greatly elder strength

C) they feel cell embankments, which forefend the memorandum of instil by osmosis

D) they feel cell embankments, which afford hurry to counterinfluence the hurry of the incoming instil

E) infallible gated channel proteins embedded in their plasma membranes unconcealed as osmotic hurry declines, confessing redundancy instil to concession the cell

 

53. Compared to a cell delay few aquaporins in its membrane, a cell comprehending numerous aquaporins achieve ________.

A) feel a faster blame of osmosis

B) feel a inferior instil erraticial

C) feel a loftyer instil erraticial

D) feel a faster blame of erratic transport

E) be flaccid

 

54. Which cells in a rise fashion a protective distribution to the vascular regularity where all representatives must actuate through the symplast?

A) pericycle

B) cortex

C) epidermis

D) endodermis

E) exodermis

 

55. You are conducting an test on settle augmentation. You capture a settle cool from the begrime that weighs 5 kilograms (kg). Then you dry the settle balancenight and determine the dry burden to be 1 kg. Of this dry burden, how greatly would you await to be made up of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen?

A) 1 gram

B) 4 grams

C) 40 grams

D) 960 grams

E) 1 kg

 

56. Which of the subjoined statements environing regulative nutrients are TRUE? Regulative nutrients ________.

I.    are inevitable for settle augmentation and repetition

II.   are required for a favoring edifice or metabolic administration

III.cannot be synthesized by a settle

IV.are consequenced by symbiotic bacteria

A) I and IV

B) II, III, and IV

C) I, II, and III

D) I, II, III, and IV

 

57. Which criteria confess biologists to divorce chemicals into macronutrients and micronutrients?

A) molecular burden of the atom or compound

B) the quantities of each required by settles

C) how they are used in metabolism

D) whether or not they are regulative for settle augmentation

 

58. A azoic want is sunencumbered to favor older concessions balance than younger concessions if the ________.

A) azoic is a micronutrient

B) azoic is very ductile delayin the settle

C) azoic is required for chlorophyll structure

D) azoic is a macronutrient

E) older concessions are in straightforward sunlight

 

59.Which of the subjoined atoms amendly pairs an regulative atom in settles delay its administration?

A) nitrogen–component of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, coenzymes

B) magnesium–component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, ATP

C) phosphorus–coelement administrationing in protein structure

D) sulfur–component of DNA; activates some enzymes

 

60.Why is nitrogen fixation an regulative course?

A) Fixed nitrogen is frequently the limiting element in settle augmentation.

B) Nitrogen fixation is very dear in engagements of metabolic activity.

C) Nitrogen-fixing cleverness can be genetically engineered.

D) None of the above

 

61.Nitrogen fixation is a course that ________.

A) recycles nitrogen compounds from lifeless and consumptioning representatives

B) converts ammonia to ammonium

C) liberates nitblame from the cast substrate

D) converts nitrogen gas into ammonia

E) recycles nitrogen compounds from lifeless and consumptioning representatives and converts ammonia to ammonium

 

62.Which of the subjoined, if used as a fertilizer, would be most presently availconducive for settle uptake?

A) NH3

B) N2

C) CN2H2

D) NO3-

 

63. In what way do nitrogen compounds be-unlike from other azoics needed by settles? Only nitrogen ________.

A) can be lost from the begrime

B) can be supposing by symbiotic bacteria

C) is needed for protein structure

D) is held by cation exsubstitute cleverness in the begrime

E) can be attentive by rise hairs

 

64. What is the amend order of steps during corruption of settles by nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

A) Rhizobia libeblame Nod elements; rises libeblame flavonoids; rhizobia prolifeblame among of rise hair; corruption line grows into the rise cortex; nodule fashions.

B) Rhizobia libeblame flavonoids; rises libeblame Nod elements; rhizobia prolifeblame among of rise hair; corruption line grows into the rise cortex; nodule fashions.

C) Roots libeblame flavonoids; rhizobia libeblame Nod elements; rhizobia prolifeblame among of rise hair; nodule fashions; corruption line grows into the rise cortex.

D) Roots libeblame flavonoids; rhizobia libeblame Nod elements; rhizobia prolifeblame among of rise hair; corruption line grows into the rise cortex; nodule fashions.

E) Nodule fashions; corruption line grows into the rise cortex; rhizobia prolifeblame among of rise hair; rhizobia libeblame flavonoids and Nod elements.

 

65. Carnivorous settles feel evolved mechanisms that ambush and classify narrow carnals. The products of this classifyion are used to appendix the settle's provide of ________.

A) instil

B) carbohydrates

C) lipids and steroids

D) nitrogen, nutrient, and other azoics

 

66. Which of the subjoined statements environing nitrogen fixation in rise nodules is amend?

A) The settle contributes the nitrogenase enzyme.

B) The course is relatively indear in engagements of ATP costs.

C) Leghemoglobin aids abstrusetain a low oxygen energy delayin the nodule.

D) The course tends to deplete nitrogen compounds in the begrime.

E) The bacteria of the nodule are autotrophic.

 

67. Most of the dry heap of a settle is extraneous from ________.

A) NO3- and CO2

B) K+ and CO2

C) PO4 and K+

D) H2O and K+

E) H2O and CO2