Ant 3514c – introduction to biological anthropology lab 6: primate


  

Name: ______________________________________  Section: ___________ 

ANT 3514C – Introduction to Biological Anthropology 

Lab 6: Primate Resolution & Taxonomy 

Lab Objectives: 

• Evaluate the dental formula of an hidden primate and establish it among a superior clade 

• Interpret the disunifomity betwixt gradistic and cladistic courses of assemblageing primates 

• Test the slender synapomorphies that divide the superior primate clades 

• Draw a cladogram to construct-distinct the new-fangled, coarsely-accepted primate phylogeny 

Purpose: To search the skeletal strokes that divide the superior primate clades. 

The consider of non-cosmical primates has been ordinary gone antique seasons as bearing to brains cosmical resolution. This was may-be best ordinary by a expanded auditory of scholars for the original season in 1735 when Carolus Linnaeus, opposing his secure creationist views, interposed cosmicals delay other apes and monkeys in the assemblage Anthropomorpha. By the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 he had despairing this adjust and began encroachment the assemblage by the everyday designate we now use: Adjust Primates. Linnaeus was motivated to assemblage cosmicals delay other primates owing of the abundant slender resemblingities that he discernd uniting them. In new-fangled biological adjusts, we now connect to these edifices as synapomorphies, or ‘shared ascititious strokes.’ For case, all primates entertain a coarse, uniform nail on their big toe, which is a edifice heterogeneous any of the scant claws fix in other mammals. We use synapomorphies enjoy these to reconstruct precedents of distributed ancestry and rest cladograms to rectify interpret the precedent of primate disconnection and where cosmicals befit in it. This course of reconstructing homogeneitys betwixt taxa fixed on distributed ascititious kindistics is unconcealed as cladistics

While morphology and phylogeny entertain distributed a bar homogeneity for centuries, the dependence on synapomorphies to assemblage organisms is relatively modern. In the forthcoming 20th seniority, primatologists such as Wilfrid Le Gros Clark (celebrated for aiding to debunk the Piltdown Man wrong) assemblageed primates fixed on their overall unifomity in air. This course was reminiscent of Aristotle’s “Great Chain of Being,” delay archaic primates at the corrupt and cosmicals at the subject-matter. This way of deeming has been named gradistic, owing it suggests primate disconnection allowance in a absolute, homogeneous superscription for all strokes from archaic to ascititious. Period this adjust has voluntary call-upon, it does not harmonize delay the way we deem disconnection allowance. New-fangled primatologists and anthropologists use cladistic courses fixed on a nested hierarchy of synapomorphies, owing we reflect these over precisely ruminate how disconnection works. 

Although phylogenetic trees are built today using cladistic courses, it is distinct that gradistic deeming quiet subconsciously underlies abundantly of our access to reconstructing disconnection. You may entertain already noticed that phylogenetic trees that embody cosmicals aid to establish them at one remote end of the tree, implying some superscriptionality or end aim to disconnection, uniform though there is no argue they scarcity to be establishd there! Among the primate adjust the displace from gradistic to cladistic deeming has impacted how we discern the homogeneitys of abundant taxa, most notably the tarsier, which we conciliate dare over in Situation 3. You conciliate be defenseless to over examples of gradistic deeming when looking at the cosmical fossil chronicles, where abundant kindistics (such as brain bulk) are consistent, and testing synapomorphies can be especially involved. For this lab we conciliate dare abundant of the relevant skeletal synapomorphies that individualize the largest primate clades. 

Station 1: What individualizes a primate? (0.6 pt.)  

A nursery happened upon a shroud skull period looking through a mammalian skeletal collation. She deems it may be a primate and comes to you for your facile view. She cannot mail you the skull so she emails youaeveral photos. Search the photos beneath. Use the inventory of primate kindistics (fix in the lab lection for this week) to aid you construct the distinctions. 

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Station 2: Dentition (2 pts.) Different primate clades can be verified by their dental formulae. Primates entertain 2 incisors, and 2-3 premolars (ate the aye-aye, which has a very singular dentition). Most other mammals entertain either over or fewer teeth. For the followingcited questions, original individualize the dental formula, then consider the cusp precedent

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1. Write the dental formula for each of the craniums or chargess provided: 

A)   

B)   

C) 

D) 

E)  

2. Answer the followingcited questions using the aloft dental formulae and the written/illustrated materials provided: 

a) Which sample is not a primate? How do you understand? 

b) Which sample is a New World monkey? How do you understand? 

c) Does sample “E” entertain the bilophodont or Y-5 molar cusp precedent? Fixed on this cusp morphology and its dental formula, what primate assemblage does this sample befit to? 

d) Which charges is cosmical? What strokes did you use to construct your identification?  

e) Which samples are apes? How do you understand? (Hint: you are an ape)  

Station 3: Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini (2 pts.) 

Using the handouts, images, and websites, entire the followingcited consultation illustrating some of the relevant morphological dissimilaritys betwixt each primate assemblage. 

Strepsirrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12540/region/skull/bone/cranium  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389-0  Haplorrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12538/region/skull/bone/cranium 

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/gorilla-rwanda-usnm-396937-beringeicranium  

delay archaic primates in a grade named “Prosimia.” They are now assemblageed delay monkeys and apes in a 

Examine the tarsier skull (http://www.eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12544/region/skull/bone/cranium) and consider the consultation. Tarsiers can be establishd in the prosimian grade or in the haplorhine clade. Designate one archaic, prosimian kindistic that tarsiers hold and one ascititious, haplorhine kindistic that they entertain. Add which of these kindistics is a synapomorphy, and which is a symplesiomorphy

Prosimian kindistic:         Haplorhine kindistic: 

      

2) Does the shroud skull at this situation befit to a strepsirrhine or a haplorhine primate? List at lowest one stroke which aided you individualize this. 

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Station 4: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini (1.6 pts.) 

The Haplorhine subadjust is disjoined into two infraorders: Anthropoidea (Monkeys and Apes) and Tarsiiformes (tarsiers). Anthropoidea is exalt disjoined into two parvorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. Platyrrhines are proper to Central and South America (the ‘New World’) and Catarrhines are proper to Africa, Europe, and Asia (the ‘Old World’). 

Platyrrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12546/region/skull/bone/cranium  Catarrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium   http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0 

1) Fixed on what you’ve well-informed so far, test what assemblage the followingcited “shroud primate” skulls befit to. To admit merit, inventory the kind(s) you used to construct your identification. 

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A) Is “A” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you understand? 

B) Is “B” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you understand?  

2) What advantages command there be to having a prehensile continuation for an arboreal primate? 

Station 5: Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea (1.8 pts.) 

Within Catarrhini are the two superfamilies Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes). Use the consultation beneath to draw the kindistics of each in proportion to the other. 

Cercopithecoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0 Hominoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12549/region/skull/bone/cranium 

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/siamang-indonesia-usnm-114497 

1) Which two strokes in the aloft consultation would be the most available for determining if an animal was a cercopithecoid or a hominoid in the fossil chronicles? Hint: deem about discrete (traits which are either exhibit or listless) vs. continuous strokes. 

2) Inventory one cosmical autapomorphy – a stroke that cosmicals entertain to the alienation of all the other primates. Hint: 

deem about what constructs cosmicals rare among the adjust Primates. 

Exercise 2: Systematics and Primate Phylogeny (2 pts.) 

Below is a provided phylogeny for six irrelative taxa (A–F). In the phylogeny, the air of a new kind is represented as a sum in a foe. For case, Kind 3 evolved someseason following the contemptible source of Taxa D, E, and F diverged from the contemptible source these taxa distribute delay Taxon C. Character 3 would accordingly be a distributed, ascititious stroke, or synapomorphy of taxa D, E, and F

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A) Which kind is a synapomorphy of E and F? 

B) Is Kind 1 a synapomorphy or a symplesiomorphy for taxa C and D? 

C) Is Kind 1 available for reconstructing the homogeneity betwixt C and D? Why or why not? 

D) Of the 5 kinds inventoryed, which represents an autapomorphy? 

Study the primate phylogeny in your textbook and rise in the blanks beneath. Be thoughtful of spelling: some designates are very resembling, but entertain irrelative meanings!  If you are having involvedy riseing out the phylogeny, you may sculpture out the latest page, neatly handwrite the answers in the blanks, and paste a draw of the phylogeny tail into the instrument.