The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Sympathy Betwixt Appraise of Bilingualism and Impressible Ability: A Critical Argument and Some New Longitudinal Grounds 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n size such that the prototype of behindcited studies o n bilingualism became class consonances of redressd bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts equaled o n misapply mutables. Second, the products served to culm cornnibarely held timiditys touching the products of bilingual counsel. amely, that it would use retarded. diseased educated, anomie men-folks outside blight to either ethnolinguistic class and incompetent of functioning in either oration (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual inshape would not cause, the inquire immutable, a political or impressible Frankenstein. In this section, we stipulate a illiberal reconsideration of elimination antecedent to Peal a n d Lambert’s inquire and past modern studies o n bilingualism and intellect (for a n precedent reconsideration behind a suitableness a linguistic nucleus, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n expanded and peculiar reconsideration of the principal 6 decades of elimination, see Diaz, 1983).In the manage o f t h e reconsideration. we top out twain granted and modeologica~ weaknesses congenital in the illustrative bilingual-monolingual consonance. In idiosyncraticization, we emphasis the fewness o f hankeritudinal investigations that afford for the tribute of recitements touching the cause-outsucceed permitings betwixt bilingualism and impressible abilities. Then, we noise prelusory products from our own inquire. which attacks to improve for these weaknesses. We finish behind a suitableness some granted speculations regarding the description of the sympathy betwixt bilingualism and reasoning. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a brochure entitled “The Bearing of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The elimination, conducted in Montlegitimate behind a suitableness 10-year-old consequence, assimilated the execution of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-symbolical topics on a abnormity of trutination cupels of intellect. In opposition to precedent elimination on bilingualism and intellect, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that their bilingual exemplification appearanceanceed meliotrounce execution o n appraises of oral intellect and o n nonoral cupels “involving concept-shape o r markic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What divergentiated the inquire from its ancient permitings was the trouble behind a suitableness which Peal and Lambert exercised modetrounce redress exemplification preoption. They grow a heterogeneousness betwixt penny, “balanced bilinguals” who are competent in twain their principal (11) and succor oration (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for sundry reasons, haunt not yet attained agemisapply abilities in their succor oration. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual comprehends one oration plenteous meliotrounce than the other, and does not use his succor oration in message.T h e penny (or redressd) bilingual masters twain at a n forthcoming age and has quickness behind a suitableness twain as instrument of message [p. 61. ” Into their exemplification of bilinguals, barely those deduceed “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s inquire had strong contact on two fronts. First, it violent the sensation of eliminationers on the whole of fineing appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Psychical studies of the permiting betwixt bilingualism and impressible abilities began in the forthcoming 1920s out of sympathy violent by the beautiful of psychometric cupels o f intellect.The sympathy was that bilingual consequence would allow from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in adapt, hinder [air tribute o f their psychical abilities and undeveloped. The uniformt that the size of intellect is heavily contingent on oral abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply sympathyed (and righteasily so! ) environing the vigor o f such cupels for bilingual consequence. As expected, the preponderance of studies antecedent to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) inquire endow that bilinguals were linguistically defective in consonance to their monolingual counterparts. Among other monstrositys, bilinguals were appearanceancen t o haunt defective articulation (Carrow, 1957). inferior trutinations in written building, past unwritten deceptions (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a deduceably abated lexicon (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt answer was that bilinguals allowed from a so-designated “oration artisanicap” (see reconsideration5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, agreeeffectual answers environing bi1inguals’“lanpuagc artisanicap” led too quickly to statcincnts regarding the privative elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a importancey scrutinying of the vigor of psychometric cupelsof intellect for this population. Negative, and rather soul-jarring, recitements condemning bilingualism as a political persecute (Epstein, 1905) or as “a affliction destitute of seeming habit” (Yoshioka, 1929) were vulgar in the forthcoming attaining. In brief, the appaggravated oration artisanicap of bilinguals was underneathstanded as a linguistic laziness that deeply unsuppostalented consequence’s psychical harvest and academic execution up to the plantation years (Saer, 1940). The preponderance of forthcoming studies in the area, besides, allowed from a distant settle of modeological wholes, and as a product, most exoteric investigatorsin the ground esteem the answers of forthcoming studies as easily disputed (see Cummins, 1976). A cheerful calculate of forthcoming studies, for issue, failed to modetrounce for class heterogeneousnesss in socioeconomic standing betwixt bilingual and monolingual exemplifications.As forthcoming as 1930, McCarthy toped out that bilingualism in the US was importanceyly confounded behind a suitableness low socioeconomic standing. She endow that past than half of the bilingual ground consequence could be classified as accompanying t o families from the unskilled work occupational class. Parallel the corresponding verses, Fukuda (1925) alerted eliminationers to the uniformt that noble-scoring English-symbolical topics were chiefly in the occupational and adherent classes; he noiseed a corbearing of 3 3 betwixt the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Flake and the Binet IQ in his exemplification.Nevertheless, antecedent to the forthcoming 1960s. most studies investigating the cheerfuls of bilingualism on consequence’s intellect did not fine into recital class heterogeneousnesss in socioeconomic standing. A succor ocean modeological dishonor of forthcoming studies is that it was frequently-again-and-frequently wholeatical whether the “bilingual” topics were in uniformt abundant in twain orations. Brunner (l929), for issue, productive that consequence’s bilingualism would be estimated by the irrelevantness of their fabricators.Brunner disconnectedd his bilingual exemplification into three categories: (1) twain fabricators born in this country; (2) one fabricator born near and the other aloof; and (3) twain fabricators born aloof. The assemblage was barely productive to resemble sundry appraises of consequence’s bilingualism. In other studies, the exemplification’s bilingualism was assessed through family names or unicontrive settle of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a reconsideration). As bestow investigators haunt frequently customary, it is unustalented to element whether the bilingual topics of sundry studies were legitimately bilingual or managely monolingual of a adolescence oration. Toward the end of the 1950s, elimination o n the cheerfuls of bilingualism appearanceanceed the behindcited agreeeffectual answers. Monolinguals manufactured markically amend than bilinguals on appraises of oral intellect. On appraises of nonoral force, some studies appearanceanceed that monolinguals were too at an habit, but class heterogeneousnesss on this muttalented were not agreeeffectual aggravate studies. However, consequently of the importancey modeological dishonors managely mentioned, none of the products, unicontrive if they were statistically markical in either command, can be easily underneathstanded.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) inquire, de- scribed illiberally in the commencement, took trudges to countenance the preoption O f penny, redressd bilinguals. In idiosyncraticization, it recruited sagacity from precedent studies in moderateling for socioeconomic equalize. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual exemplifications for the Peal and Lambert inquire were clarified from the corresponding ground arrangement in Montreal. All I0-year-old consequence in the arrangement were interjacent in the judicious screening by lewd appraises, the composite of which was used to element whether the slip should be deduceed monolingual or redressd bilingual. The appraises were: ( I ) the apexring-to compute of articulation stipulated in a peculiarion friendship nearon in LI and L2; (2) the apexring-to compute of articulation in LI and L2 descryed in a rotation of letters; (3) the compute of articulation precise in L2 (English) from a subset fiinsufficiency from the Peabody Illustrate Lexicon Test; and (4) moral self-ratings& force in markical, discernment, lection, and letter in L2.Children who plane in the extremes of these flakes were elementd to be monolingual or redressd bilingual. The lacupel exemplification consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all consequence were reposerained a mitigated rendering of the LavoieLarendeau Class Cupel of Unconcealed Intellect (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Newfangled Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French rendering of clarified subtests of the Thurstone Primary Moral Abilities Cupel (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the answers of precedent studies, the products of the Peal and Lamberi inquire appearanceanceed that bilinguals manufactured markically meliotrounce than monolinguals o n most of the impressible cupels and subtests, unicontrive when class heterogeneousnesss in sex, age. and socioeconomic standing were misapplyly moderateled. Bilingual consequence manufactured markically amend than monolinguals on cupels of twain oral and nonoral abilities; the bilinguals’ meliorateity in nonoral cupels was past clforthcoming indisputtalented in those subtests that required moral composition and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than unadulterated perceptual abilities.A uniformtor rekey of cupel chargess complicated that bilinguals were meliotrounce to monolinguals in concept shape and in nearons that required a undenitalented moral or markic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were endow to haunt a past medley specimen of abilities than their monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) answers must be deduceed behind a suitableness a undenitalented appraise of timidity, besides. First, as Macnamara (1966) has toped out, the arrangement of topic preoption capforce haunt introduced a predisposition in boon of the bilingual exemplification.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual exemplification interjacent barely consequence who chargesd aggravate a undenitalented elementd equalize in the English Peabody Illustrate Lexicon Test, a cupel commbarely used to appraise intellect in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is feasible that the intellect of French-Canadian consequence capforce be rcflected in a appraise of English (the succor oration) lexicon.Second, the bilingual exemplification, on the middle, belonged to a amend progression than the monolingual exemplification; may-be the meliorateity observed in bilinguals was the product of their having hankerer snare to precise counsel. And third, the compute classification of the Raven’s cupel chargess was very divergent for the two classs of consequence; it, was privatively skewed for bilinguals, seeing the repugnant was penny for monolinguals. In brief, the impressible habits observed in Peal and Lambert’s redressd bilingual exemplification could haunt been aggravatejoyed by diverse artifacts in their topic preoption progresss. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A peculiar explication of this [the products] may lie in our mode of choosing the bilingual exemplification. Those allowing from a oration artisanicap may unintentionally haunt been eliminated. We attacked to fine bilinguals who were redressd, that is. corresponding abundant in twain orations. However, when the redress appraises did not produce a acquitted token of whether or not a producen slip was bilingual, past importance was fast to his charges on the English lexicon cupels. Thus some bilinguals who capforce be redressd, but whose lexicon in English and French capforce be diminutive, would be omitted from our exemplification.The near intelligent bilinguals, those who haunt not habitual as abundant an English lexicon, would not be deduceed bilingual ample for our inquire [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) tentative heterogeneousness betwixt bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a markical (and plenteous insufficiencyed) modeological gift to the ground. Their heterogeneousness has oppressive modern investigators to fine their bilingual exemplification behind a suitableness elder trouble and appraise the exemplification’s explicit underneathstanding of the two orations. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a abnormity of studies haunt been noiseed in o which monolingual consequence are assimilated t redressd bilingual consequence. In most of these studies, redressd bilinguals haunt appearanceancen habits in diverse impressible abilities, such as concept shape (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic informedness (Cummins, 1978). In idiosyncraticization, sundry studies allude-to that redressd bilinguals appearanceance a elder flexibility than monolinguals in their execution on divergent impressible nearons (Balkan, 1970).Above all, modern elimination not barely has replicated Peal and Lambert’s dogmatical answers regarding redressd bilingualism, but too has producen tentative influence for linguists’ recitements regarding the impressible and linguistic habits of prominence a slip bilingually. In opposition to forthcoming psychical studies of sliphood bilingualism, idiosyncratic well-balancedt studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had finishd that forthcoming bilingualism was habitous to consequence’s impressible and linguistic harvest.In feature, Leopold (l96l), naturalized on observat ions of his bilingually violent daughter, allude-toed that bilingualism exaltd an forthcoming disjunction of the peculiarion gauge from the peculiarion signification: “a numerous slovenliness of the be-mixed betwixt the phonetic peculiarion and its signification (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a kind unarm-an betwixt the semantic and impressible harvest of bilingual consequence, namely that the disjunction of gauge and signification leads to an forthcoming informedness of the conveniionality of articulation and the arbitrariness of oration.This informedness could exalt, in adapt, past conceptional equalizes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the impressible habits of bilingualism parallel the corresponding verses; in his own articulation (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the purpose “from the prison of consolidated oration and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations haunt been cupeled tentativey by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a striking courteous-designed and moderateled inquire of English. Afrikaans bilingual consequence in South Africa. The bilingual exemplification consisted of plantation ground consequence who had been violent in a one special-one oration environment. imilar to the birth of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The exemplification’s appraise of bilingualism was elementd by diverse appraises, including peculiar interviews behind a suitableness fabricators and tutors as courteous as a trodden cupel of the consequence’s lexicon in twain orations. Two approximate monolingual exemplifications, one English and one Afrikaans. were interjacent in the inquire. in a principal examination, consequence were reposerained a semantic-phonetic vills cupel. The cupel consisted of eight sets of three articulation each. A illustrative set contained the articulation cup, con, and har.Children were asked scrutinys such as: “Which peculiarion is past approve cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the peculiarion can or /tal complicated the slip’s phonetic vill or semantic vill, appertainingly, in analyzing peculiarion resemblingities. The force to assimilate articulation on the reason of a semantic configuration is esteemed as past slow harvestally than comparing articulation parallel a phonetic configuration. The products of this examination appearanceanceed not barely that semantic vills growthd behind a suitableness age, but too that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing articulation parallel a semantic rather than a phonetic configuration.As lancoWorrall(l972) noiseed: “of the puerile 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% agreeablely chose to underneathstand consonance $betwixt articulation in provisions of the semantic configuration. Of the unilingual classs of the corresponding age, not one Afrikaans orator and barely one English orator appearanceanceed resembling exquisite demeanor (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall finishd that bilingual consequence violent in a one special-one oration environment aim a mark of senlatitic harvest 2-3 years precedent than monolingual consequence. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a succor examination, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her topics to interpret the names of divergent monstrositys (e. g. , why is a dog intentionated “dog”? ). She too asked consequence whether or not the names of monstrositys could be arbitrarily interchangeable. Children’s apologys to the principal scrutiny were assigned to divergent categories such as pondertalented attributes, negotiative attributes, political assemblage, and so forth. The products of this succor examination appearanceanceed no accepted heterogeneousnesss betwixt bilingual and monolingual consequence in the types of explications offered.For the succor scrutiny, besides, the heterogeneousnesss booned the bilingual consequence; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in tenet be modifiable, seeing the repugnant was penny for monolingual consequence. Lindholm (1980) noises a inquire by Sandoval (1976) in which a rejoinder of lanco-Worrall’s products was attacked behind a suitableness a Spanish/Enlish. exemplification of kindergartners and third progressionrs. Although tnear was a diverge booning the bilinguals, it did not aim statistical reason. However, it is not acquitted whether the bilingual topics were sincerely redressd or barely enrolled in bilingual grounds. More modernly, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the impressible consequences of prominence consequence according to Ronjat’s (1913) one special-one oration tenet. Bain and Yu elabotrounce German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals behind a suitableness monolinguals from the appertaining orations in three divergent geographical subsidences. The contingent impressible mutables sympathyed consequence’s enunciateing informedness of the functions of oration as postulated by Luria and inquired in nearons such as the force to ensue a set of increasingly multifold commands in hide-and-solicit births.In feature, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would exalt the use of oration as a self-directive implement in impressible nearons. Using a mitigated rendering of Luria’s (1961) experimoral progresss, the products appearanceanceed that, at environing age 4, consequence violent bilingually in one special-one oration environment were meliotrounce talented to use twain redresst and cavowed oration as a conduct and modetrounce in their impressible functioning. The grounds too booned puerileer bilingual consequence, but this diverge failed to aim statistical reason. Past principally, the answers were agreeeffectual aggravate divergent oration classs and geographical births.Several investigators haunt explored the cheerfuls of bilingualism on the harvest of metalinguistic informedness. Metalinguistic informedness apexs to the force to stir linguistic output extrinsicly; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to seem of oration rather than lhrough it to the purposed signification [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as consequence enunciate, they behove past captalented of seeming at oration as an extrinsic set of administrations, as an extrinsic implement for message. Consequently bilingualism induces an forthcoming disjunction of peculiarion and apexent, it is feasible that bilingual consequence too enunciate an forthcoming force to nucleus on ‘ , and stir the structural properties of oration. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, consequently bilinguals could peculiar the corresponding reasoning in divergent. orations, a bilingual slip would haunt to“see his oration as one feature arrangement disvulgar sundry, to omission its phenomena undet past unconcealed categories, and this leads to an informedness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Past modernly, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic policy internal oration in manage to contrial interlocution betwixt their t w o orations.Lambert and Tucker (1972) notpuissant that consequence in the St. Lambert bilingual examination betrothed in some description of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing resemblingities and heterogeneousnesss betwixt their two orations. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic harvest of third- and sixth-progression Irish-English bilinguals. Consequence in the exemplification came from abodes wnear twain Irish and English were vocal; all consequence accepted precise ground counsel in Irish. An misapply monolingual consonance class was clarified that was equipollent to the bilingual‘class on appraises of IQ and socioeconomic standing.A principal nearon investigated consequence’s informedness of the arbitrariness of oration. Resembling to the appraise used by lancoWorrall(1972). consequence were asked whether names of objects could be interchangeable; they were then asked to interpret or managelyify their apologys. The products complicated that, at twain third- and sixth-progression equalizes, bilinguals appearanceanceed a elder informedness of the harsh ‘description of linguistic regard. In a succor nearon, consequence were bestowed behind a suitableness diverse insuppospuissant and tautological decisions environing some poker chips that were either observpuissant or obscure. The decisions sundry in two idiosyncraticizational configurations: penny versus counterfeit and tentative versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative recitements apex to decisions that “are penny or counterfeit by cheerfulness of their linguistic contrive rather than deriving their veracity prize from any extralinguistic recite of affairs [p. 129j. ” The nearon was fiinsufficiency as a appraise of metalinguistic informedness consequently precedent eliminationers had appearanceancen that, in manage to evaluate contradictions and tautologies improvely, it is indispenspuissant to inquire oration in,an extrinsic method.Although the execution on this evaluation nearon was not acquitted-cut in boon of the bilinguals, sixth-progression bilingual consequence appearanceanceed a noticepuissant meliorateity in improvely evaluating obscure nontentative decisions. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input near air-tight, disposition past gratified to produce the obvious‘can’t count’ apology to the obscure nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a succor examination behind a suitableness redressd Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated consequence’s metalinguistic informedness usiiig a distant abnormity of appraises, including rekey of doubtful decisions and a class inclusion nearon.Contrary to precedent answers, the bilinguals in this inquire did not appearanceance habits on the Seniantic-Phonetic Vill Cupel or on an arbitrariness of oration rask. However, Cummins (1978) noises that “the products of the Class Inclusion and Ambiguities nearons are agreeeffectual behind a suitableness previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous answers in that they allude-to that bilingualism exalts an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that haunt been descriptive, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a distant settle of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals appearanceanceed a elder force to stir the consonance of articulation parallel semantic rather than acoustic configurations, a elder use of oration as a self-directing implement in impressible nearons, and a elder redressall informedness of the assemblageal description of articulation and oration. Also, in a divergent inquire (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were meliotrounce than their monolingual peers at relabeling objects and peculiaring permitings betwixt objects in mere decisions.This informedness or flexibility behind a suitableness regard to the use of oration seems to play an ocean role in the impressible functioning of bilingual consequence. In uniformt, diverse investigators haunt vindicationed that bilinguals are past “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain oral and nonoral nearons. Although the idea of impressible flexibility has never been adequately interpreted (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is feasible that bilinguals’ stordain use and informedness of oration subscribes to a elder flexibility in the composition of twain oral and nonoral marks.One of the most frequently-again-and-frequently cited studies of bilinguals’ impressible flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan reposerained diverse cupels of nonoral abilities that purportedly appaggravated impressible flexibility. The bilingual class, as expected, manufactured markically amend than the modetrounce monolingual class in two of these appraises. One nearon, Figures Cachees, complicated the force to rearordain a perceptual birth, resembling to the free Embedded Figures Test. The other nearon, Histoires, complicated sensitivity to the divergent significations of a peculiarion.Interestingly ample, the dogmatical cheerfuls of bilingualsm on these appraises were plenteous stronger for consequence who had behove bilingual anteriorly the age of 4. The heterogeneousnesss betwixt monolinguals and consequence who had behove bilingual at a behind age were in boon of the death but did not aim statistical reason. ’ Balkan’s inquire implies, as precedent idiosyncratic well-balancedt studies by linguists had allude-toed, that bilingualism capforce haunt the most wholesome impressible cheerfuls for those consequence who attain their two orations simultaneously. Consequently redressd bilinguals haunt two divergent articulation for most apexents, it s not portentous that they appearanceance a elder sensitivity than monolinguals to the feasible divergent significations of a sole peculiarion, as appearanceancen in the Histoires nearon. On the other artisan, Balkan’s inquire offers no enucleation as to how or why bilingualism should subscribe to a elder force to rearordain and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as appearanceancen in the Figures Cachees nearon. As modern elimination allude-tos, the enucleation capforce be in bilinguals’elder informedness and flexibility behind a suitableness regard to the use of oration, as courteous as in their elder use of twain redresst and cavowed oration in the instructoring of their impressible functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Excite appearanceance of bilinguals’ so-designated impressible flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) inquire behind a suitableness Hebrew-English bilingual consequence. When assimilated to monolinguals, the bilingual consequence in the inquire appearanceanceed a noticepuissant meliorateity in mark supply and oral transshape nearons. The mark supply nearon complicated consequence’s force to rebestow articulation in a decision according to the examinationer’s counsels. In a illustrative solicitation, consequence were asked to resettle the peculiarion I behind a suitableness the peculiarion spughetli.Children were producen improve chargess when they were talented to say decisions approve“Spaghetti om unimpassioned,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a resembling decision that, although unwrittenly improve, violated the administrations of the amusement. The bilinguals’ amend execution on the oral transshape nearon complicated meliotrounce competition of shifts in a vocal spur that is revulgar uniformly by instrument of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) haunt noiseed that when a vocal stiinulus is bestowed in such a way, topics older than 6 years noise hearing repeated shifts in what the taped say says.The authors attributed this hallucination to the harvest of a reorganization mechanism that aids in the discernment of ongoing oration. The bilingual consequence in Ben-Zeev’s inquire too outmanufactured the monolingual class on undenitalented aspects of a matrix transposition nearon. Bilinguals were meliotrounce at isolating and enumerateing the underneathlying configurations of the matrix, but no class heterogeneousnesss were endow on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two consonance classs too manufactured resemblingly on Raven’s newfangled matrices.I t should be notpuissant that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s inquire appearanceanceed impressible habits barely on appraises that were troddenly akin to linguistic force and on the oral aspects of the matrix transshape nearon. Ben-Zeev( 1977) notpuissant that throughout the inquire bilingual consequence seemed to approximation the impressible nearons in a sincerely analytic way. They too seemed past cool to twain the building and elements of the nearons reposerained, as courteous as past impressible to feedback from the nearons and the expcrimenter.BenZeev interpreted these improved abilities in provisions of bilinguals’ confrontation behind a suitableness their t w o orations. She controvertd that, in manage to shirk linguistic interlocution, bilinguals must enunciate a penetrating informedness of the structural resemblingities and heterogeneousnesss betwixt their two orations as courteous as a peculiar sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this past enunciateed analytic policy internal linguistic buildings is catching to other buildings and specimens associated behind a suitableness divergent impressible nearons.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her products as ensues: Two strategies characterized the thinking specimens of the bilinguals in permiting to oral esthetic: knack to ascribe building and knack to rearrange. I j i I I The specimens they solicit are chiefly linguistic, but this arrangement too operates behind a suitableness visual specimens, as in their liking at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Behind a suitableness visual esthetic the spatial reorganizational expertness did not appearance, besides [p. 1017). In misrecord, the description o r signification of impressible flexibility is far from disposition easily underneathstood; besides, the studies managely reconsiderationed allude-to that the flexibility notpuissant in bilinguals could creator from oration-akin abilities, such as the use of oration in instructoring impressible functioning or an forthcoming informedness of the assemblageality and structural properties of oration. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The modern studies allude-to that if one assimilates bilinguals who are closely equipollent in their abilities in L l and L2 behind a suitableness a monolingual class equaled for age, socioeconomic equalize, and other pertinent mutables and reposerains a appraise of impressible flexibility to twain classs, the bilinguals conquer do meliorate. Now, deduce an conceptional (from the omissiontop of cheerful experimoral comprehendledge) elimination intention. You would prepare by bestowation a vague exemplification of men-folks and assigning them vaguely to either an experimoral class or modetrounce class, thereby moderateling for any elucidation deception in sampling.The experimoral class is settled in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, seeing the modetrounce class offscourings in a monolingual environment. Uniformly the tenor has had opportunity to fine outsucceed (Le. , uniformly the topics in the stipulation haunt behove redressd bilinguals), you reposerain your contingent appraise, making fast that the special who reposerains the contingent appraise is uninformed to whether the topic disposition cupeled is in the tenor or modetrounce stipulation. And, lo and look, you perceive a heterogeneousness in boon of bilinguals. Under this conceptional birth, one can reasonably finish that bilingualism causes impressible flexibility, o r whatever impressible habit this flexibility stands for. You could too go on to theorize environing why this product came environing and conspenny sundry other experimoral stipulations to cupel your hypotheses. In what ways is the conceptional elimination intention unapprove the requisite underneathneath which exoteric studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would top out at lowest two. First, in the legitimate universe, tnear is n o such monstrosity as vague assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual class.Most frequently-again-and-again, bilingualism or monolingualism is elementd by sociolinguistic uniformts that are, as would be penny of most sociolinguistic uniformts, akin to a distant settle of political mutables. What this legitimately instrument is that tnear conquer be a abundant calculate of mutables that divergentiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than barely that the bilingual speaks two orations and the monolingual one. It is feasible. of manage, to equal the two classs behind a suitableness regard to some mutables (e. g. , ethnicity) or to modetrounce them statistically (e. g. , by peculiaring out the cheerfuls’of socioeconomic equalize).But at what top can we be mannerly that all the rele- ’ vant mutables haunt been moderateled for, such that the heterogeneousness betwixt the two classs can be attributed to the calculate of orations that the special comprehends? SO, the cynic could controvert, “While you haunt moderateled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you hauntn’t moderateled for g. ” The succor way in which the conceptional birth is unapprove the legitimateity of the studies is past modeological and has to d o behind a suitableness the preoption of a uninformed progress (a double-uninformed is unusable, consequently presumably the topics would comprehend whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies reconsiderationed haunt we seen appearanceance of attacks by the eliminationers to haunt the personality of the topic uninformed to the examinationer. If the examinationer is penetrating on the hypothesis of the inquire and in idiosyncraticization comprehends whether the topic is a bilingual or a monolingual slip, one cannot administration out unpurposed experilnenter predisposition cheerfuls(Rosentha1, 1976). In manner, it may be completely trying to attack t o preserve a uninformed progress. Bilingual and monolingual consequence are most frequently-again-and-frequently endow in divergent grounds, divergent neighborhoods, and would probably appearanceance some demeanoral manifestations of their linguality.It is, besides, an outsucceed that one must permit in purpose when underneathstanding the products of studies using the prototype intention. The modeological wholes creatorming from the legitimateity of explicit bilingual births haunt tryingy to influenceing tentatively the vindication that bilingualism is associated behind a suitableness elder impressible flexibility. One peculiar key to twain of these wholes can be achieved in a rarely used intention of seeming at cheerfuls behind a suitablenessin a bilingual exemplification (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If appraise of bilingualism can be reliably appaggravated behind a suitablenessin a exemplification of consequence suiteffectual bilingual and if this appraise of appraise can be appearanceancen to be akin to impressible flexibility, then one would haunt succeed one trudge closer to answer a mere sympathy betwixt bilingualism and impressible flexibility. Using a behind a suitablenessinbilingual exemplification, it is too feasible to modetrounce for examinationer predisposition. Inasplenteous as the topics could succeed from the corresponding grounds, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept uninformed to the examinationer, it would minimize predisposition cheerfuls.In idiosyncraticization to the aacme wholes, tnear is the complicated but untested recitement environing command of potentiality. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the past intelligent consequence, as appaggravated by nonoral intellect cupels, are the ones who behove bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a boontalented outsucceed on nonoral intellect [p. 131. ” One artisanle on this whole would be through a hankeritudinal inquire in which twain mutables are appaggravated frequently redress opportunity. We are informed of managely one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which hankeritudinal grounds were helpful.Barik and Swain assimilated 32 low L2 achievers behind a suitableness 32 noble achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa redress a 3-year conclusion (Grades K-3). They noise that the noble achievers manufactured meliotrounce on subtests of analogies and behindcited oral commands unicontrive when judicious IQ chargess at Opportunity I were moderateled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The inquire we noise in the adrighteous of the section yarnes the aacme sympathys behind a suitableness precedent studies of the sympathy betwixt bilingualism and impressible flexibility.We are spirited in assessing the apexring-to abilities in twain LI and L2 of consequence‘in the arrangement of suiteffectual bilingual and in behindcited them on a hankeritudinal reason to element whether appraise of bilingualism is akin to impressible flexibility and to assess the command of potentiality betwixt linguistic and impressible mutables. Description of the Project The topics in our inquire are exotericly enrolled in classes from the Bilingual Inshape Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, notorious grounds.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Importation in the bilingual program for the topics is elementd chiefly on the reason of inshape stipulated by the fabricators and by the tutors of the classrooms to which they are judiciously assigned. Consequence who are noiseed as disposition detestedly Spanish-symbolical or principally Spanish-symbolical are channeled into the bilingual classes, suitableness those noiseed as predominantly or detestedly English-symbolical are settled in monolingual, oceanstream classrooms.Those consequence who noiseedly use twain orations are excite assessed for preponderance through the Oration Tribute Battery, and Spanish-dominant consequence are settled in the bilingual classrooms. . The troddenor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, tnear are 18,000 Hipics, chiefly Puerto Ricans. Tnear are at bestow roughly 2700 Hipic students in the ground arrangement betwixt Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual classes; All bilingual classes are conducted on a 5050 alludeence of Spanish and English as orations of counsel.Based on tutor warning, when the consequence approximation equivalence betwixt their English and Spanish force, they are settled into the oceanstream, English monolingual classes. Thus, approve most bilingual inshape programs in the United States, the New Haven program is progressive in description, as unanalogous to the livelihood or immersion programs endow in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional immeasurableness caused by apexring-to abilities in Ll and L2 is illustrated in Fig. 0. 1 (a), noticepuissant by a verse behind a suitableness a swell of 1 parallel which conceptionally redressd bilinguals conquer assemblage. This two-immeasurableness is, of manage, an’conceptional birth that is liberal, and we bestowly haunt no way of locating any producen exemplification of bilingual men-folks in irresponsible provisions. Thus, depending on exemplification characteristics, the two-immeasurableness defined by a set of LI and L2 appraises can alter. Figure IO. I (b) appearanceances two granted exemplifications, A and B, wnear B resembles a class of men-folks that is past “balanced” than A.The top is that although we cannot element the two-immeasurableness subsidence of a class of bilinguals in any feature inquire using a feature appraise, the cheerfuls of appraise of bilingualism can be elabotrounce by seeming at the disdisconnection in the L2 appraise suitableness moderateling for disdisconnection in the L1 appraise. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), idiosyncratic A2 is past bilingual than idiosyncratic AI, and B2 is past bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the disdisconnection in L2 moderateling for disdisconnection in L1 is attributtalented t o the appraise of bilingualism, and this disdisconnection should be akin in a dogmatical way to impressible force. (Cl . SubjectsAt Opportunity I (the preparening of the Decline Semester), we began by screening all consequence in the kindergarten and principal-progression classes in three grounds in the New Haven notorious ground arrangement. We wanted to except from the inquire consequence who appearanceanceed appearanceance of unconcealed oration want. All 180 consequence were reposerained a Spanish congruity of the Peabody Illustrate Lexicon Cupel (SPVT), which is descriptive in past element behind. On the reason of the classification of the SPVTscores, topics whosecharges was past than I trutination disdisconnection beneath the medium were eliminated. Our cupel-naturalized evaluations were agreeeffectual behind a suitableness the noises of classroom tutors. In sum, out of the judicious 180, we were left behind a suitableness 154 topics, who were excite cupeled behind a suitableness the adrighteous of the Opportunity I appraises. By Opportunity 2, closely 6 months behind, 30 of the I54 topics had moved afar from the ground arrangement, leaving US behind a suitableness 124 topics. In idiosyncraticization (or, past correspondently, in incorporation), a retaining topic at Opportunity 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain opportunitys that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of redressd bilingualism, how divergent bilingual exemplifications are embedded behind a suitablenessin it, and how men-folks are cmbcdded behind a suitablenessin exemplifications.Panel a appearanceances . conceptional redress tine betwixt LI and LZ abilities. Panel b appearanceances settlement of two divergent exemplifications (A and B) behind a suitablenessin conceptionalircd immeasurableness. Panel c appearanceances men-folks behind a suitablenessin the exemplification spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the inquire as disposition completely divergent from the repose of our exemplification. Thus, our lacupel exemplification for the principal year of the inquire consisted of 123 topics, and we liberty out of excite argument the adrighteous of the topics. The exemplification of 123 topics contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) principal progressionrs, behind a suitableness 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these consequence were of Puerto Rican depression. The medium age was 6 years 0 months, behind a suitableness a settle from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this unconcealed counsel, which was availtalented for all topics, we obtained past peculiar demographic infomation through a scrutinynaire sent to the fabricators. The scrutinynaires were ordainly at Opportunity 1, and of our exemplification, 88 (72%) responded, some behind a succor supplicate. We haunt commoditiesed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the scrutinynaire apologys would be reasontalented estimates for the sum exemplification.We assimilated all availtalented mutables in the inquire betwixt responders and nodresponders and did not perceive any markical heterogeneousnesss in the instrument. Thus, we presume the 88 apologys to be a reasonably unprejudiced resembleation of the population exemplificationd. The scrutinynaire grounds appearance that 42% of the topics were born in the United States, the adrighteous in Puerto Rico. The fabricators haunt lived in the continental United States for a medium of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They haunt lived at their noiseed yarn for an middle of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), behind a suitableness the settle extending from I month to 8 years.Tnear is a medium of . 91 rooms per tenant in the free (SD = . 60). Of the acmes of free, 37To are occupied and 63% are useless. Encroachment is troddenly akin to the calculate of adults in the free. Of all scrutinynaire respondents, 55% were sole-fabricator acmes of free, and 32% had two adults in the free. Of the two-adult frees, 64% (18/28) had the acme occupied, seeing barely 14% (6142) of sole-adult free acmes noiseedly were occupied. The markical friendship betwixt calculate of adults and encroachment, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is agreeeffectual behind a suitableness the discernment that sole fabricators in unconcealed haunt low trounces of encroachment, presumably due in multiply t o the uniformt that a troubletaker would be required at abode. Barely a diminutive adolescence of the topics are outside siblings (790). The median calculate of siblings is 2. In the scrutinynaire, we too asked the fabricators to trounce the size to which Spanish and English are used betwixt sundry men-folks at abode. We stipulated a 5-top flake, behind a suitableness 1 corresponding to “barely Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “barely English. In all three feasible dismanage combinations (adult-child, slip-sibling, adult-adult), the apologys were heavily skewed internal Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for slip-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the size of use of Spanish and English at abode are noblely correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when entirely, akin privatively behind a suitableness the years of dwelling the United States oceanland mentioned precedent, r = + . 34.It appearances that the hankerer the cling (and the precedent the year of approveness) in the United States, the past the dominant oration permeates the abode. + Measures The force in Spanish (LI) was assessed by reposeraining an adaption o f the Peabody Illustrate Lexicon Cupel noiseed and ordainly by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Approve the English rendering of the Peabody Illustrate Lexicon Cupel (Dunn, 1965). the cupel is idiosyncraticly reposerained and consists of the slip choosing a rotation of lexicon items (ordered by increasing agenormed tryingy) out of lewd illustrated choices. Wiener et al. trutinationized heir Spanish rendering on Puerto Rican consequence in New York City. English (L2) force was assessed through Contrive A of the lexicon cupel. We apex to the Spanish cupel as SPVTand the English cupel as EPVT; when they are ensueed by a calculate (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), thecalculate apexs to the Opportunity (1 = decline o r 2 = issue) mutable. We should produce it acquitted at this top that we did not inhaunt to use these lexicon cupels as a appraise of intellect, as is commbarely used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were mediumt to be a appraise of the apexring-to abilities behind a suitablenessin each of the two orations for our bilingual exemplification.It should be notpuissant near that the numerical raw chargess for the two cupels are not approximate. That is to say, a slip who receives a charges of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be deduceed equipollent in his or her apexring-to abilities in English and Spanish. On the other artisan, the SPVT and EPVT haunt appearanceanced the force to collocate consequence reliably parallel the appertaining Spanish and English oration forwardness configurations. In manage to validate the SPVT and EPVT as appraises of oration, a class of 40 consequence behind a suitablenessin our exemplification was producen a fable-retelling nearon in the two orations.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 decisions, paired behind a suitableness cartooh illustrates. The examinationer principal told the feffectual suitableness flipping through a illustrate compass and, straightway upon total, asked theslip to count the feffectual cued by the illustrates. Thechild’s utterances were tape recitative and behindcitedly transcribed. The protocols were trounced in a 5-top flake, behind a suitableness 1 disposition minimal use of the oration and 5 disposition unmeasured fluency, by two incontingent trouncers. Barely fluency was magistrated; ratification of the retelling was ignored for this inquire. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The medium ratings for twain English and Spanish were markically corakin behind a suitableness the EPVTI and SPVTI chargess, r = . 82 for English rating behind a suitableness EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish corbearing most approvely ruminates the uniformt that the settle of SPVTl chargess was past reposericted than the EPVTI chargess for this feature subsaniplr and too the possibility that the consequence are past Spanish-dominant and a mere fable-retellihg nearon may not ruminate heterogeneousnesss at amend equalizes of linguistic force. We are exotericly pursuing excite validation of the vocabularly appraises, but for the trice regard that the cupels do ruminate completely correspondently our topics’ disdisconnection in force in twain orations. As a appraise of nonoral impressible force, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Newfangled MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a appraise on which the most hale heterogeneousnesss were endow betwixt bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert inquire. R a w chargess rather than percentiles were used consequently the cupel has not been trutinationized on populations conipartalented to ours.The Raven chargess at Opportunity I and Opportunity 2 are nearbehind apexred to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In idiosyncraticization to t hcse nieasures, we reposerained a cupel of metalinguistic abili t y (to magistrate the unwrittenity of Spanish decisions and to descry English articulation embedded in Spanish decisions) and a appraise of political perpectiveoffer (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these grounds are tranquil in the arrangement of disposition stird and are not noiseed in this section. Procedures All nieasures were reposerained idiosyncraticly at the grounds ‘in immeasurableness rooms or hush hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual examinationers.Except for bestowation of the EPVT items, all cupeling was conducted in Spanish. Each appraise was reposerained twice, uniformly during the decline semester (Time I ) atid frequently in the issue (Time 2). The middle opportunity lag betwixt the two opportunitys was 6 months. Except for the business that SPVTl was reposerained principal at thc very preparening of the inquire for judicious screening, as mentioned precedent behind a suitableness regard to exemplification preoption, manage of cupels was counterbalanced. At each opportunity, each slip was cupeled in three sessions, one behind a suitableness the SPVT. econd behind a suitableness the EPVT, and third behind a suitableness the impressible cupels. In manage that the examinationer accrue uninformed to the slip’s force in twain orations, the corresponding examinationer never tes‘ied any multiplyichar slip in twain EPVT and SPVT; shortafter. the topic’s appraise of bilingualism was noi comprehendn t o ! he examinationers until behind total of the grounds gathering. bilingualisin at Opportunity 1 prophesy impressible force at l i m e 2 , or choicely, does impressible force at Opportunity I prophesy appraise of bilingualisrn at Opportunity 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The instrument and trutination dissolutions for Opportunity I and Opportunity 2 appraises can be endow in Ttalented 10. 1. The principal atlalysis di- vided topics into classson the bases of their abilities i n each latiguage. We classed topics into three equalizes of EPVT chargess unproductive three levcls of S I W chargess, the crossing of which uses nine classs. EPVTI raw chargess settled from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw chargess settled from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon omission of the grounds. we felt that. 0-top intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw chargess would resemble reasontalented flakeing of topics behind a suitableness regard to their abilities, recognizing of manage that the removal is harsh and conducted singly for purposes of inspecting heterogeneousnesss descriptive in instrument. The behindcited were removals, imposed twain on the Opportunity 1 and Opportunity 2 grounds: Spanish Flake 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Flake 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Flake 3: SPVT elder than 60; Engfish Flake I: EPVT 1-20; English Flake 2: EPVT 21-40; English Flake 3: EPVT elder than 40.Means and trutination dissolutions for Raven I chargess for each of the nine classs secure of the crossing of the Spanish and English flakes can be endow in Ttalented 10. 2 (a). Omission of the instrument allude-tos strongly that Ravenl instrument growth behind a suitableness increasing equalizes of English flakeing. However, this is confounded behind a suitableness the ages of the topics in the classs, as can be observed in Ttalented 10. 2 (b). The direct trudge was to assess the power of the sympathy betwixt appraise of bilingualism and impressible force through peculiar correspondence, wnear EPVTI is corakin behind a suitableness Ravenl, moderateling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a markical permitingtial corbearing coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship betwixt appraise of bilingualism and nonoral impressible force. TABLE 10. 1 Instrument and Trutination Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Exemplification 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Tnear are t w o sepatrounce scrutinys we ask of the grounds. First, is appraise of bilingualism akin to impressible force at any one opportunity? This can be answered by seeming behind a suitablenessin Opportunity I and behind a suitablenessin Opportunity 2 disjoinedly.Second, does appraise of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . flake 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Opportunity 2. The redressall instrument for the appraises at Opportunity 2 can be endow in Ttalented 10. 1. The peculiar instrument appearanceancen in Ttalented 10. 3 enumerate Raven’s equalizes and age equalizes when the topics were disconnectedd into classs by Spanish and English flakeings using the corresponding criteria as hi Opportunity 1. The peculiar corbearing of EPVTZ and Raven2, moderateling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Potent for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the sympathy does not shift strongly, peculiar corbearing = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Opportunity I and Opportunity 2 grounds appearance Illat appraise of bilingualism is akin IO execution on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We customary precedent that appraise of bilingualism is dogmatically akin to Ravens at twain opportunitys. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Opportunity 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 flake 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Flake I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Medium Age lor Bilingual Groups at Opportunity 2 -~ Froni the fabricator scrutinynaires, we interjacent two appraises of the socioecononiic equalizes of the topics. One was barely whether the acme of houser hinder was occupied (coded 1) o unoccupied (coded 0). The other was the calculate of rooiiis in their dwelling, disconnectedd by the calculate of tenants.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not akin. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorakin behind a suitableness EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for abode immeasurableness, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corakin behind a suitableness Raven1 moderateling for these socioeconomic mutables i n idiosyncraticization to age and SPVTl, the sympathy is tranquil signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, peculiar corbearing = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Corbearing Matrix lor Oration and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . grounds helpful.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, encroachment, and dwelling in Trudge I; then EPVTI in Trudge 2. EPVTl tranquil preserveed a markical Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , behind a suitableness EPVT adding 4% internal prophesying strife in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our inquire behind a suitableness a sympathy that studies noiseed in the attaining did not unambiguously appearanceance that bilingualism fosters impressible harvest. A principal tryingy was that most studies complicated class consonances of bilinguals and monolinguals. and for-this-reason, the products could be attributed to class heterogeneousnesss other than oration force.Second, most studies complicated cross-sectional consonances wnear cause-outsucceed sympathys could not be misapplyly evaluated. The inquire managely noiseed produces past pretentious the vindication environing the dogmatical cheerfuls of bilingualism. First, we were talented to appearanceance an outsucceed wifhin a exemplification of bilinguals. And succor, when two choice specimens for the command of potentiality were cupeled on the hankeritudinaldata, the specimen vindicationing appraise of bilingualism to be the causal be-mixed was past agreeeffectual behind a suitableness our obtained grounds than the specimen vindicationing impressible force to be the f causal mutable.By the end o the unmeasured expression of this hankeritudinal inquire. in which we conquer ensue up the topics for an idiosyncraticizational 2 years, behind a suitableness the idiosyncraticization o other impressible appraises, we hankering to produce an unicontrive stronger vindication ref garding the dogmatical cheerfuls of bilingualism on impressible abilities. The uniformt that our grounds influence the vindication that bilingualism fosters impressible harvest is managely a principal trudge in discernment the issues at artisan. The scrutiny offscourings as to how bilingualism affects impressible force, specially when impressible force is appaggravated by execution in nonoral nearons.A hanker opportunity ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual consequence were oppressive to amend equalizes of conceptional reasoning by the forthcoming insufficiency to sepatrounce the peculiarion from its apexent. In a resembling state, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) haunt allude-toed that the impressible habits of bilingualism could be interpreted by bilinguals' insufficiency l objectify and treat linguistic buildings. Ben-Zeev. for o issue, controverts that in manage to shirk linguistic interlocution bilingual consequence must enunciate a elder informedness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' elder sensitivity to linguistic building and element is then catching and unconcealedized to divergent oral and nonoral nearons. The arrangement by which bilinguals' metalinguistic informedness affects execution in nonoral tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately interpreted or underneathstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) inquire allude-tos that bilinguals are meliotrounce talented to use oration as a implement to instructor impressible functioning, increasing their force to memorize inshape and modetrounce past outcomeively the divergent trudges in solving a whole. Cognitive-developmoral re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal uniformtor? Specifically, we insufficiency to comprehend whether Raven2,can be prophesyed by appraise of bilingualism at Opportunity 1 suitableness moderateling for the misapply mutables (including Ravenl), or whether we can interpret past strife by prophesying appraise of bilingualism at Opportunity 2 by Ravenl suitableness moderateling for misapply mutables (including appraise of bilingualism at Opportunity I). These choices are not mutually detested, of manage, but statistical postponement of one specimen produces the choice specimen past pretentious.The zero-manage corbearing matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be endow in Ttalented 10. 4. From the basic inshape descriptive, we cupeled two choice specimens using multiple return. The principal rekey cupeled the inoperative hypothesis that appraise of bilingualism is not prophesyed by Ravens. In a trudgewise multiple return, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Trudge I; then Ravenl was entered in Trudge 2. The ocean statistic near is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The products of the rekey appearanceance that Ravenl does not add markically to the strife recitaled for when moderateling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the lacupel equation was . 832. Ravenl subscribed barely . 3% idiosyncraticizational strife internal prophesying EPVT2. We finish, then, that the inoperative hypothesis cannot be uncommon. In the succor resolution, we cupeled the inoperative hypothesis that appraise of bilingualism does not prophesy Raven chargess. In this trudgewise multiple return, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Trudge 1; then EPVTI entered in Trudge 2.The products appearanceance a markical Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the lacupel equation was . 643. EPVTI subscribed 4. 1% idiosyncraticizational strife internal prophesying RavenZ, unicontrive when the other mutables were entered principal, Thus, we refuse the inoperative hypothesis in boon of the underneathstandation that appraise of bilingualism affects nonoral impressible force. To modetrounce for socioeconomic equalize. we resolute to cupel the products moderateling for eniployment and abode immeasurableness for the 77 topics for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I pursuit appearanceances an increasing use of oral arbitration in the execution of nonoral nearons behind a suitableness increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) elimination allude-tos that execution on the Raven cupel would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the key of the matrices. It is feasible, as Diaz (1983) allude-toed, that sliphood bilingualism fosters a rather preplain use of oral arbitration in the arrangementing of inshape and this, in adapt, interprets bilinguals’ improved execution on nonoral nearons.One of the ocean tryingies in obedient such ocean scrutinys lies in the uniformt that most studies in the area haunt relied on grounds from psychometric cupels. To the best of our underneathstanding, tnear are no counsel-processing studies of puerile bilingual consequence, and it is not acquitted what impressible arrangementes or impressible strategies, if any, sincerely divergentiate bilingual from monolingual consequence. It is almost unusable, behind a suitableness our bestow underneathstanding, to enunciate a arrangement specimen of how bilingualism affects consequence’s impressible abilities or accelerates impressible harvest. The harvest (and tentative influence) of a peculiar specimen touching bilingualism and impressible harvest is tranquil a few years afore. Finally, hypothesis enunciateed at the idiosyncratic equalize of the slip must however be akin to the abundantr illustrate of bilingualism as it occurs in sundry contrives about the universe. An ocean heterogeneousness that must be interjacent in any inquire of the cheerfuls of bilingualism is betwixt embracing versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is akin to the heterogeneousness betwixt aristocracy versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an embracing birth. consequence attain their succor oration in idiosyncraticization to their principal, thus creating redressd bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) modernly put it: “an embracing contrive of bilingualism limplies] that these consequence, behind a suitableness no timidity of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or past irrelevant orations to their accumulating expertnesss, and use immensely from the proof, impressiblely, politically, and unicontrive economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive birth, the succor oration fragmentarily re-establishs the principal. To name Lambert and Taylor (1981) uniformly frequently: “the hyphenated American slip, approve the French-Canadian slip, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual direction as early as he/she enters a ground wnear a noble prestige, politically puissant, dominant oration approve English is introduced as the detested oration of counsel [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) toped out, studies that haunt appearanceancen dogmatical cheerfuls of bilingualism often are conducted in births of embracing bilingualism.