J.S. Bach Flute Sonata in B Minor: the Development of the Baroque Flute
J. S. Bach Flute Sonata in B junior (BWV 1030): the product of the Baroque Flute, the flautists and the silence Johann Sebastian Bach (J. S. Bach) is no vacillate one of the principal parents of all promises. He lashed multifarious products for flute including products for solo flute, flute delay harpsichord and/or continuo and, two flutes and harpsichord. However, there has been a disputation, aggravate the flute products, whether they were lashed singly by the parent, assisted by someone or beneathneathneath the control of J.
S. Bach. In importation, some scholars vacillateed that some of products are not written for flute and they are in-effect transcribed for flute by the parent. Especially, the Sonata in B junior (BWV 1030) raises most enumerate of controversies. The J. S. Bach flute structures are measure repertoire for the flute equal today. As a professional flute player, it is very significant to own wide scholarship on the elucidation of these products accordingly they quickly assume the way of interpreting them.
By reviewing the product of Baroque flute and analyzing the promise date of the structures would very-considerable succor flutists to own a deeper beneathneathstanding on these significant repertoire in flute in-detail the B junior sonata (BWV 1030). The product of the machine, Baroque flute, plays no vacillate very significant role on influencing the product written for it. The dissimilitude in concatenate, tonality, mechanisms very-considerable assume the structures written for it. Unaffect other turn machines, the Baroque flute was exposed posterior than others.
Since it is made apart, it is definitely unusable to engage the modes of other machines on the Baroque flute. Some inquiry proposeed that J. S. Bach has petty contempt of the flute and flute players accordingly, although the mode of the structures are correspondent to the other ingredients of the parent, the flute products do not semblance that he beneathneathstands the peculiarity and the condition of the machine. 1 And, the noncommunication of scholarship of the flute would probably be accordingly the parent did not incrow considerable products for flute and unite flutists in where he producted.
As mentioned aggravatehead, the product of Baroque Flutes has numerous collision on how the ingredients were written for it. Consequently, it is unusable to aggravatelook this component when doing this inquiry. “Flute” is a open promise for a liberal and divers woodturn machineal rowage of which players calamity air despite the deportment of any indentation inspection to whole investigate. The presence of the machine, not merely in western silence, is fix all aggravate the globe affect di-zi in China. 2 In Western silence, flute plays an significant role from oldfashioned Greek silence to coeval silence nowadays. The contemplation, uses and unimpeded modes sustain changing equal today.
As one of the oldest machines in Western silence, “flutes” ancient show in a paint of a shepherd unimpeded the flute from the sermons of St Gregory of Nazianzus in a manuscript of existing eleventh senility. 3 It is mainly associated delay character and scythian duration. In Renaissance, flute was one of the machines in qualified ensemble. Elapsed significantly, it played a illustrious role in hallowed onioni or hallowed symphonies. Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630), one of J. S. Bach’s predecessors, lashed sequal ensemble products that characteristicd a crosswise flute which is immutablely assigned to the avoid utterance.
This romance went on to the Baroque era and solo flute products became elapsed vulgar from 1670. There were liberal changes in its mechanisms. The new machine is now built in three or filthy sections instead of one ingredient; it is qualified from a liberal cylindrical weary to a conical weary in which the transection of the headingredient was numerouser than the floor ingredient which improves the tuning of the upper silences; most significantly, one key was added in the floor ingredient so there is an extra silence which the petty finger of the proper agency cannot stretch anciently and it wholes the new silence d#’. These inventions are very significant. However, there is a vulgar misconceive, so-far, in-reference-to “the flute” as a unmarried machine. In certainty, it refers to an machineal rowage in the Baroque Period. There are, openly forcible, prospect contrariant barks of flutes including onion flute, enextensive flute and flute d’amour. Contrariant barks of flutes showed in contrariant buffetes. 5 In the silence that Bach wrote for flute, he did not, affect all the parents at that date of promise, enumerate the expression of flute they despatches for.
In importation, there is a possibility that contrariant flutes were used in contrariant performances. All flutes were written as if they were in the key of D in-detail in the ancient forbearance of the 18th senility. As a outcome, it is trying to authority which flute the parent had in recollection from the silence. 6 In the journal “J. S. Bach's Compositions for Solo Flute: A Reconsideration of Their Authenticity and Chronology” by Robert L. Marshall, he proposes: “It is stationary widely believed that Bach wrote prospect products for the solo flute.
But the inspection that has prevailed floating Bach specialists for the elapsed fifteen years is that the rather correspondent Sonatas for flute and harpsichord obbligato in G Junior (BWV I020) and E Flat Elder (BWV io31) were probably lashed by someone else-most affectly Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach--and that the Sonata in C Elder for flute and continuo (BWV 1033) was written by one-or two-of Bach's students (one of them, anew, energy own been Emanuel Bach), presumably in segregate beneathneathneath the parent's locomotive supervision and agency. ” 7 This prompting probably comes from the noncommunication of usual silenceal mode in his despatches.
Moreover, his despatches semblances no beneathneathstanding of the qualities of the machine. However, this deduceing appears sick when regarding the expression of flute Bach was written for. The ancient flute solo product by Bach, Partita in a junior (BWV 1013), was written betwixt environing 1720 and 1730. He was one of the ancient German parents who established palliative silence for solo flute. This may be stimulated by the new filthy-ingredient contemplation of the Baroque flute. The machine has an advanced characteristic to own an extensive floorelbow giving the silence c’ so-far, Bach did not use this new characteristic in his B junior flute sonata (BWV 1030).
Also, its intermediate elbow has contrariant tediousness and can be replaced so that the buffet of the machine can be altered to decide contrariant buffetes in contrariant areas. Moreover, it now has a clearer and servile mood. Fast passages and big leaps can now be played delay relief. 8 This is probably one of the deduces why there are elapsed structures for solo flute. In importation to the product of the machine, flautists’ involvement plays another critical role in flute silence structure. Bach ancient product delay flute players in Cothen. The Prince of Cothen happened to be a aware silenceian ho was not in permission of forge meeting-house silence, so Bach tight on machineal silence. Interestingly, the flautists were considered property to the flatter accordingly the salaries of the flautists in the flatters were encircling three promises preferable than other silenceian. And, in this Cothen date (1717-1723), flute showed as a solo machine in his Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (1719) and the B junior Suite for flute (BWV 1067). 9 Later, the “violinlization” of silence in Paris was smitten fix of which a mode characterized by immutable semiquaver and arpeggiated passageproduct in Dresden. This mode was achieved by the new Baroque flute.
Bach moved to Leipzig in 1723 and he met new flautists there and established palliative a liberal whole of flute berth silence. They start delay the Flute sonata in E junior (BWV 1034) dated c. 1724. Then, the posterior products are the C elder (c. 1731), Eb elder (1730-34), B junior and A elder sonatas (c. 1736). These ingredients appear pair courteous delay the liberalr-bored filthy-elbow flutes delay the most telling concatenate. 10 However, two of Bach’s flute berth products do elated some questions delay the certainty that if they were written for flute accordingly there is elapsed than one account written by the parent and they appear not written for flute.
They are the sonata in B junior (BWV 1030) and sonata in G junior (BWV 1020). The sonata BWV 1030 is the most significant one. There are two accounts written for the keyboard segregate, one in B junior and the other one in G junior. Some Oboists claimed that the G junior is the ancient statement of the sonata for oboe and it is transposed for flute posterior in B junior. However, there is token that flute was a transposing machine and there is no deduce for Bach to transcribe two contrariant statement of silence for contrariant machine. But, as mentioned anteriorly, Baroque flute is a rowage of machines.
There is a possibility that the ingredient is written for flute but that is not the onion flute. Every machine’s chimerical investigate is to aspire the “singing condition” of the cosmical utterance - the silence was written in a concatenate that elapsed homogeneous in inferior concatenate flutes. The sonata in B junior (BWV 1030) segregateicularly has a stanch vocal condition which may proposes that the flute segregate is in-effect written for the flute d’amour. Affect his Meeting-house Cantatas, the flute obbligatos segregate is contrived for the d’amour. 11 Flute d’amour is an alto machine tuned to D at French Berth buffet.
It investigates a elder or junior 3rd under the usual buffet of harpsichords, and played at transpositions. But, this is a French romance of transposing the ingredients in the “Clef francoise” delay the G on the foot row. As a outcome, Bach wrote two contrariant accounts for the flute and keyboard segregates in his flute sonata in G junior domiciled on the “Clef italienne”. It is beneathneathstood by the flautists who producted delay Bach and they should concede it at a glance. 12 To decide, the B junior flute sonata (BWV 1030) by Bach is written for flute, Flute d’amour indisputably.
It elated considerable vacillate environing this accordingly the parents of the promise did not specified what bark of flute they wrote for. And, nowadays, delay misconstruction that “Baroque flute” is a promise for a unmarried machine, race may propose that this flute ingredient is not homogeneous for a segregateicular Baroque flute. However, delay a clearer paint of the product of the Baroque flute rowage, the sketch of Bach to transcribe two contrariant accounts and the vulgar performance of the flautists those days, the Sonata in B junior should probably be contrived for the Baroque flute, the flute d’amour.