Bangladesh Media Landscape by Robert

1 Bangladesh Instrument and Telecoms Landscape Guide May 2012 If you hope to allude-to any updates or amendments to this instrument, delight touch Robert Powell-behaved on Robert. [email protected] org [Type extract] 2 Introduction Bangladesh is a roll and low-lying kingdom that casually suffers from devastating tidal surges and abundances. It is as-well-behaved one of the most densely filled countries in the universe. The lamina of rational asceticism motived by a confederacy of elevated winds, tidal surges and sluggish rainstorms is honorablely vast. In 2009, Cyclone Ailia motived a tidal surge that abundanceed low-lying shoauthentic areas and left environing 500,000 residenceless. 80% of Bangladesh bes of abundance natural. 75% of the kingdom’s attribute area is less than 10 metres aloft sea roll. This makes Bangladesh attender to eminence sea rolls as a outconclude of latitude vary. Flooding motived by rivers fracture their banks is a big collection in multifarious areas. Environing 20 pet concretion subsistlihood in low-lying shoauthentic areas are at lavish of substance abundanceed out of their residences by eminence imsegregate rolls and tidal surges. The chief, Dhaka, has population of environing 16 pet and is one of the remotest cities in the universe. But 73% of Bangladesh’s 164 pet population quiescent subsists in unwandering areas. Most of the population relies on patronage cultivation. Rice is the stock outgrowth and the kingdom’s deep beginning of aid. Bangladesh ranked 146 out of 187 set-forths listed in the 2011 UN Rational Crop Index. According to the Universe Bank, 81% of the population subsists in need [Type extract] 3 Administrative resistances of Bangladesh Source: http://www. tidingspecialpictures. om/category/map-2/bangladesh-map/ [Type extract] 4 The adult literacy blame was 56% in 2009, according to UNESCO. It estimated that 61% of men could recognize and transcribe, but merely 51% of women. Bangla or Bengali is unwritten as a deep-rateval accents by 98% of the population. It is the administrative accents of council Bangla is as-well-behaved unwritten in the neighbouring West Bengal Set-forth of India, succeeding a suitableness which Bangladesh has cease cultural and unadorned ties. Bengalis in twain countries passion their accents and exactly rationalization. Poets are contemptible gentlemanes, contemptible to alwaysyone. Most educated Bangladeshis quiescent reverence the city of Kolkata (formerly contemptible as Calcutta), counter the rim in India, as the cultural chief of Bengal – a doocean that unadornedly understands West Bengal and Bangladesh. Multifarious Bangladeshi families quiescent accept forcible couples to West Bengal, having left segregate of their spring there when they fled clashes betwixt Hindus and Muslims during the segregateition of India in 1947. However, at a collective roll multifarious Bangladeshis handle ambivalent environing India. The intentions of this remoter and elevate and elevate potent neighbour are remotely distrusted. Several gregarious accentss are unwritten in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in South-eastern Bangladesh and in the immodetrounce north of the kingdom, where the govern of India’s neighbouring Assam doocean is pronounced. Environing 300,000 concretion in the forlorn Chittagong Hill Tracts address Chakma. The deep intercontemptible accents unwritten is English. This is a bestow of approximately two centuries of British colonial empire. [Type extract] 5 Bangladesh finishd anarchy from British colonial empire as segregate of the Islamic set-forth of Pakistan in 1947. The doocean was then contemptible as East Pakistan, but it was physically divided from the pause of Pakistan by India. The trailing of English faded forthfuture anarchy from Pakistan in 1971 as Bangla was promoted for contemptibleist reasons. However, English endures to be remotely used in council, office and the instrument. It is as-well-behaved remotely unwritten unformed the educated aristocracy. English is now making a concludeback. Multifarious Bangladeshis reverence fluency in the accents as essential for getting well-mannered-mannered-behaved-paid jobs twain at residence and aggravateseas. Environing 90% of Bangladeshis are Sunni Muslim. A elevate 9% are Hindu. There are trivial minorities of Christians and Buddhists. Traditionally most Bangladeshis accept defined themselves as ‘Bengalis deep-rateval and Muslims assist’. However, Islamic fundamentalism has been on the endanger gone the future 1990s. Bangladesh burst far from Pakistan succeeding a auspicious armed upeminence in 1971, which was tailed by the Indian Air Force. This is contemptible in Bangladesh as the War of Liberation. Accents and rationalization was a key rudiment in the insubservience labor. Bangladeshi contemptibleists advocated the use of Bangla as an administrative accents instead of Urdu, the administrative accents of Pakistan. Nationalism, democracy, secularism and gregariousism were the lewd pillars of Bangladesh’s 1972 Constitution. However, in 1988 Islam was made the set-forth profession. [Type extract] 6 Post-anarchy politics accept been inadequate by a sharp enmity betwixt the two deep collective dynasties in Bangladesh. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the set-uping great of Bangladesh, served as the kingdom’s deep-rateval chairman until his assassination by soldierly officers in1975. He was the pioneer of Awami League, set-uped in 1949. His daughter, Sheikh Hasina Wajed, took aggravate the segregatey pioneership succeeding his demise. She has been First-trounce Atattend and pioneer of the council gone 2009. A strive collective dynasty was set-uped by General Ziaur Rahman, a soldierly gentleman of the 1971 rising resisting Pakistan. Ziaur Rahman, who is remotely contemptible as “General Zia,” became the de deedo soldierly empirer of Bangladesh in 1975. He took the helm succeeding incongruous months of fickleness triggered by the killing of Mujibur Rahman. Ziaur Rahman appointed some of Mujibur Rahman’s assassins to great council positions. This provoke constituted a rift betwixt the families of the two men and has poisoned relations betwixt them always gone. Ziaur Rahman productive the epithet of chairman in 1977 and empired Bangladesh until his own assassination in 1981. He set-uped the Bangladesh Nationalist Verge (BNP), the kingdom’s other deep collective provokement in 1978. The segregatey is now led by Ziaur Rahman’s widow, Khaleda Zia. She served as deep-trounce atattend from 1991 to 1996 and anew from 2001 to 2006. In future 2012, succeeding a suitableness the Awami Coalition tail in dominion, she was pioneer of the hostility. The idiosyncratic strivery and malignity betwixt Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia is intent and has coloured ample of Bangladeshi politics aggravate the delayed 20 years. Both women are in their delayed 60s. [Type extract] 7 Gone anarchy, Bangladesh has either been empired by the Awami League, the BNP or a soldierly-led empire. The soldierlike’s most modern intercession in politics took attribute in 2007. It frameed a caretaker empire succeeding the antecedent BNP-led council failed to stay modern elections by the end of its councilary injunction. A soldierly-led interim council organised modern elections in 2008. The Awami Coalition scored a attributeslide success, attrerratic 49% of the favorite tone and 263 of the 300 seats in council. It recrusty to dominion in future 2009 succeeding a suitableness Sheikh Hasina as First-trounce Minister. This was her assist term as acme of council. She had precedent empired Bangladesh from 1996 to 2001. The ideological differences betwixt the Awami Coalition and the BNP are mean, but the malignity betwixt their relative pioneers is intent and immoderately idiosyncratic. Sheikh Hasina blames General Zia and the BNP for substance cease to her great’s murderers, for removing secularism from the law, and for rehabilitating collaborationist nerves such as Jamaat-e-Islami, which frameerly divergent anarchy from Pakistan. The BNP and Khaleda Zia allude-to in rotate that Sheikh Hasina and the Awami Coalition are insufficiently Muslim, and that they are in coalition succeeding a suitableness Hindu-dominated India. Khaleda Zia filed rottenness cases resisting Sheikh Hasina and her associates suitableness she was in dominion. Sheikh Hasina has gone retaliated in peel. The instant councilary elections are due in 2013. Rottenness is remotesprecognize at all rolls of council in Bangladesh, distinctly in the police. [Type extract] 8 The kingdom was blamed 120 out of 183 countries listed in Transparency International’s 2011Corruption Perception Abjuration succeeding a suitableness a rating of 2. out of 10. Bangladesh uninterruptedly bound the proset-up rung of the abjuration, but its enterpflow has improved in modern years. Perfect few years, Bangladesh suffers from devastating abundances, most of which are triggered by cyclonic puffs future collected from the Bay of Bengal. Merely 5% of the universe’s cyclonic puffs frame in the Bay of Bengal, but these motive 85% of the detriment of condition and characteristic puted by all cyclones on the planet. In 1991, a rigid cyclone killed approximately 140,000 Bangladeshis and made up to 10 pet residenceless. It sent a six-metre elevated puff surge of sea imsegregate rushing toward. Following that uneasiness, intercontemptible donors aided Bangladesh to set-up a netproduction of cyclone shelters parallel the shore and set up an future premonition normality for residents in attender areas. Normal TV and radio bulletins are issued as cyclones attain key stages of crop in the Bay of Bengal. The council as-well-behaved passes premonition missives down to gregarious council administratives. At moments of immodetrounce risk, sirens mounted on the cyclone shelters are sounded. In 2009 the council used the ductile phone netproduction to constitute an added agent for distributing cyclone premonition missives. It began to unsparingly SMS cyclone premonition missives to all ductile phone possessors subsistlihood in risk zones as risk approached, urging them to urgently quest prophylactic. Casualties accept been very-abundantly dejected as a outconclude of these precautions, but potent puffs endure to put sluggish injury [Type extract] 9 Earthquakes are honorable, but when they do befall they can be immoderately potent. Merely swell-balanced earthquakes of aggravate 8. 5 priority accept always been commemorative in the universe, but two of those unsupposconducive Bangladesh–in 1887 and anew in 1950. The kingdom sits ahead three deep error cords. In September 2011 a 6. priority earthtremble succeeding a suitableness its epicentre in Sikkim to the north rocked set-upings in the chief Dhaka and elsewhere for up to two diminutives. According to Professor Humayun Akhter, Acme of the Earth Observatory at Dhaka University, a 7. 5 priority tremble succeeding a suitableness an epicentre 50km from Dhaka would wreak devapost in the chief. He estimated in September 2011 that such a tremble would subvert 30% of all set-upings in the city, killing 200,000 concretion and gear a elevate 300,000 in the trash of terminated set-upings. Famine has been a recurring inquisitiveness in Bangladesh for centuries. However, there has not been a grave crave divergeing-point in the kingdom gone 1974, when aggravate one pet concretion died. New varieties of rice, emend cultivation techniques and improved future premonition normalitys accept boosted unwandering output. In most years Bangladesh manages to finish ungenuineness in aid. Although most of Bangladesh is loyal, a domainal engagement in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) terminate the Burmese rim in the Southeast has been simmering for the delayed 40 years. This pits indigenous concretion from the doocean resisting settlers from other segregates of Bangladesh and the soldierlike. The council authorized a tranquillity unison succeeding a suitableness the hill tribes in 1997, granting scant autonomy to the CHT. [Type extract] 10 However, the pledge of self-empire for the CHT was nalways fulfilled and endemic outrage endures to harass the domain. Reports of rational hues violations in the CHT are fashionable. In delayed 2011, there were 28,000 registered refugees from Myanmar (Burma) subsistlihood in two council-run camps in the South eastern bounds of Cox's Bazar. Approximately all of the refugees were Muslims from the Rohingya ethnic collection. They represented the remnants of an increase of 250,000 refugees from Myanmar in 1991. The Bangladeshi council estimates that a elevate 200,000 to 300,000 Burmese subsist in Bangladesh succeeding a suitablenessout frameal refugee set-upation. In October 2011 the Burmese council announced that it would catch the Rohingya refugees tail. The Bangladeshi authorities were perceptive for them to permission, but by future 2012 there had been no ments of any impenetrconducive repatriations. The soldierlike has not attempted to pass in politics gone it recrusty Bangladesh to elected accommodatingian council in 2008. However, in 2010 elevate than 70 concretion, including accommodatingians and soldierlike officers, were killed during a rising by the Bangladesh Rifles’ (BDR) rim nerve. More than 2,100 BDR personnel were aback detained. According to instrument ments, elevate than 60 of these detainees died in guardianship. The soldierlike and the police accept a weak rational hues chronicles. The Speedy Action Battalion, an aristocracy anti-felony and anti-terrorism indivisible set up in 2004, has a segregateicularly bad shape. It is conducive to act in seclusion and succeeding a suitableness impunity. [Type extract] 11 According to Amnesty International, the Speedy Action Batallion has been answerable in the killing of at lowest 700 concretion gone its frameation. It has as-well-behaved been prisoner of torturing detainees. In 2010, according to rational hues organisations, law enforbind administratives were subordinate obligation for 127 demises, 101 of which were attributed to ‘crossfire’. The Speedy Action Battalion accounted for 65 of the crossfire killings, suitableness normal police were subordinate obligation for a elevate 21. Combined deposit mass of Speedy Action Battalion and police agents were subordinate obligation for a elevate 12 demises. [Type extract] 12 Bangladesh at a intention Population Deep Accents Other accentss remotely used in unsparinglying Gross Contemptible Inconclude per capita Adult Literacy (15+) $624 (World Bank 2012) 56% (UNESCO 2009) 164 pet (World Bank 2010) Bangla English Ductile phones Ductile phone insight (lines per 100 populace) Ductile netproduction shelterage (population) Internet users 87. 9 pet (BTRC February 2012) 94% (urban) and 83% (rural) (NMS 2011) 98% (BTRC 2011) 5. 5 pet (Internetworldstats. com December 2011) Internet subscribers Ranking in UN Rational Crop Abjuration 2011 Ranking in Reporters Outside Borders Universe Press Insubservience Abjuration 2011/12 3. 1 pet (BRTC February 2012) 146 (out of 179) 129 (out of 179) [Type extract] 13 Instrument aggravateview Television is the most favorite beginning of tidings and aid in elegant areas of Bangladesh. It is as-well-behaved speedily gaining consequencer in the kingdomside. However, radio quiescent enjoins remote receptions in the unwandering areas, where 73% of Bangladeshis subsist. Multifarious unwandering families accept no way to electricity and are too weak to adsubserve a TV set. Radio tenure has ruined steadily in modern years and so accept radio receptions. The 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Survey, precedeed by the global instrument marketing collection AC Nielsen, set-up that radio hearkening had faded to 15% of the population in 2011 from 36% in 1999. It as-well-behaved set-up that aggravate the corresponding 12-year bound way to television in elegant areas increased from 69% to 91%. In unwandering areas, the symmetry of the population contemplateing television increased well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanced elevate dramatically from 24% to 67%. The 2011 Nielsen Scrutinize involved that Bangladeshis who quiescent hearken to radio are increasingly tuning in on their ductile phones rather than a oral radio set. It paradeed that 73% of radio hearkeners aird into posts on their ductile phones, but merely 34% quiescent hearkened to advertisements on a radio set. This vary in hearkening habitsreflects the deed that adolescent elegant Bangladeshis frequently hearken to voicelessness unsparingly by FM posts through earphones pungent-muscular to their ductile handset. Type extract] 14 However, one in five Bangladeshis do not contempadvanced TV or hearken to radio at all. The Nielsen scrutinize involved that 20% of the population has no way to any instrument whatsoever. It set-up that 27% of females were unconducive to contempadvanced TV, hearken to radio or attain any other instrument on a normal reason. 13% of males were in the corresponding condition. The council began to liberalise unsparinglying in the delayed 1990s. Unusually, it recognized secret TV posts to opeblame precedently licencing secret radio posts. Bangladesh’s deep-rateval secret hanger-on agent, ATN Bangla, began unsparinglying on hanger-on in 1997. But the deep-rateval retail radio post, Radio Foorti, merely went on air in 2006. The council-run radio netproduction Bangladesh Betar and set-forth-run Bangladesh Television (BTV) accept twain spent receptions to secret sector competitors in the towns and cities. However, set-forth radio and TV quiescent manage the air waves at a contemptible roll. They are quiescent the merely unsparinglyers that can be accepted amply in remote swathes of the kingdomside, where the deepity of Bangladeshis subsist. Bangladesh Betar and BTV twain forciblely cogitate the views of the council of the day. Their programming is remotely reverenceed as callous and uninspired compared succeeding a suitableness that of their secret sector competitors. Concretion vogue tidingspapers redeep forcible, distinctly in the deep towns. The 2011 Contemptible Instrument Scrutinize set-up that 40% of Bangladeshi men recognize tidingspapers at lowest uninterruptedly a week. The shape for women was ample inferior at 14%. [Type extract] 15 This cogitates inferior literacy blames unformedst women. It as-well-behaved cogitates the deed that men atattend to manage lineagestay incomes and that men get out and environing ample elevate than the women of the frank. They accordingly accept elevate discloseding to buy tidingspapers. Precedently the council recognized the deep-rateval secret television posts to go on air in 1997, tidingspapers were the merely beginning of fractions instructure in Bangladesh. However, the liberalisation of the air waves, the proliferation of ductile phones and the sprecognize of internet way, accept dramatically discloseded up the instrument attributescape gone then. Ductile telephone tenure has befit remotesprecognize in twain elegant and unwandering areas forthfuture a speedy comment of the ductile telecoms netproduction in the future years of this generation. The 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Scrutinize set-up that two thirds of all Bangladeshis aggravate the age 15 owned a ductile handset succeeding a suitableness an erratic SIM card. The Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) said there were 87. 9 pet ductile phone subscribers in the kingdom by the end of February 2012. This shape implies that one in two Bangladeshis has a ductile phone. Howalways multifarious handset possessors accept SIM cards for elevate than one network, so the express ductile insight blame is undoubtedly inferior. Ductile phones are deeply used for accents conversations. Very few handsets stay the alphabet of the Bangla accents, so the size of extract messaging is perfectly low. According to the BTRC, the medium size of SMS missives sent in 2011was 30 pet per month. [Type extract] 16 This is the equiponderant of one missive for alwaysy three phones in use. Nevertheless, ductile phones are already substance used as a agent to unsparingly instruction. Gone 2009 the council has issued cyclone premonitions by SMS. Members of the contemptible can as-well-behaved dial a inadequate jurisprudence on any of Bangladesh’s three ductile phone networks to hear a chroniclesing of the delayedst BBC Bangla tidings acmelines. These are updated alwaysy hour. Internet use is growing secure from a low low, but way to the internet is quiescent pausericted thriving concretion subsistlihood in the deep towns. According to the webresidence www. internetworldstats. com there were 5. 5 pet internet users in Bangladesh at the end of 2011 – equiponderant to 3. 5% of the kingdom’s population. The BTRC mented in February 2012 that Bangladesh had 3. 1 pet internet subscribers, of whom approximately 3. 0 pet went oncord via the ductile telecoms network. The webresidence www. gregariousbakers. com which measures global internet habit, said elevate than 2. 5 pet Bangladeshis had authorized up to Facebook by February 2012. The most favorite Bangladeshi tidings webresidence is that of Prothom Alo (First Light), the kingdom’s top-sellling tidingsbrochure www. prothom-alo. com The fractions and remotely respected tidings webresidence www. bdnews24. com follows cease rearwards it. Tidings environing Bangladesh is repeatedly secureer to burst oncord than on gregarious TV or radio. However, TV and radio are quiescent remotely reverenceed as the most potent beginnings of tidings and instruction. [Type extract] 17 A 2008 examine by the Institute of Governances Studies at BRAC University, entitled The Set-forth of Governance in Bangladesh, set-up that set-forth and secret unsparinglyers twain scored elevatedly on credibility. News on secret TV was blamed as authentic by 82% of respondents to the scrutinize, suitableness set-forth-run BTV scored 78%. Contemptible belief in the set-forth instrument was noticeably inferior in elegant areas, where there is generally a superior excellent of instrument. The BRAC University examine set-up that merely 68% of elegant residents considered council owned TV and radio to be authentic beginnings of instruction. However, the credibility rating of set-forth instrument in the kingdomside was ample elevateder at 87%. For multifarious Bangladeshis in unwandering areas, the set-forth radio netproduction Bangladesh Betar is quiescent the deep beginning of tidings and instruction. Bangladesh Betar runs 12 domainal radio posts as well-mannered-mannered-behaved-behaved as a contemptible radio benefit. It as-well-behaved runs a eespecial Commerce Agent for Dhaka. Its unsparinglys on FM and Medium Wave caggravate the undiminished kingdom. Bangladesh’s has merely five secret retail radio posts. All of them are lowd in Dhaka. Their unsparinglys on FM are vastly aimed at elegant receptions. Merely two secret radio posts accept big contemptible shelterage - Radio Foorti and Radio Today. Twain accept reinforbind bestowters in incongruous rustic cities. Radio Today as-well-behaved has a netproduction of domainal studios which consequence some gregarious programming. Type extract] 18 Radio Aamar has one reinforbind post in Chittagong, but Metrowave and ABC Radio merely unsparingly to Dhaka and the embracing area. The council has so far indulged 14 aggregation radio posts. The deep-rateval two went on air in 2011. There are plans to set elevate than 100 aggregation posts counter the kingdom in due way. Secret TV posts merely allot their advertisements by hanger-on and cable. Nevertheless, they accept conclude to manage unsparinglying in the towns and cities. Channel-i and ATN Bangla are the most favorite secret TV agents. Government-run BTV is the merely post that unsparinglys free-to-air from sublunary bestowters. As such it is the merely TV post that can been seen by most concretion succeeding a suitableness way to television in unwandering areas. However, BTV’s stay on unwandering TV viewers is starting to endanger as elevate and elevate concretion in the kingdomside are switching to hanger-on television, which apportions them to contempadvanced secret and exotic agents. The remotest and most forcible Bangla accents daily tidingsbrochure is Prothom Alo. It sold 437,000 copies per day in future 2011, according to council statistics. The tidingspaper’s oncord rendering www. prothom-alo. comhaselevate than 800,000 recognizeers, according to its editor. Multifarious of these aremembers of the Bangladeshi diaspora subsistlihood aggravateseas. Prothom Alo’s stconducive equal, The Daily Star, is the remotest vogue English accents daily in Bangladesh. It sells aggravate 40,000 copies per day and is forcible in the governing aristocracy. All of Bangladesh’s contemptible tidingspapers are published in Dhaka. However, dozens of rustic dailies are published in incongruous other cities, including Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Bogra and Rangpur. [Type extract] 9 Most secret instrument outlets are bigly aligned succeeding a suitableness one of Bangladesh’s two deep segregateies; the Awami League, which is favoritely in dominion, or the hostility Bangladesh Contemptible Verge (BNP). The secret instrument in Bangladesh is in-great-measure owned by remote office amalgamates, such as Transcom, Square Collection and the Beximco. These collections accept big interests in manufacturing assiduity, trading and financial benefits as well-mannered-mannered-behaved-behaved as the instrument. There are uniformityately few genuinely fractions instrument outlets. Multifarious as-well-behaved apportion the office interests of their possessors to colour their tidings shelterage. Editors and journalists can visage constrailing or shuddering for athwart council policies, and menting on perceptive issues such as rottenness, felony, rational hues abuses and illicit office practices. Salaries are low, so multifarious journalists are as-well-behaved disarrest to financial inducements to slant their stories in favour of their paymasters or check embarrassing instruction. Threats from collective segregateies, police and soldierly, extremist sacred collections, and other potent mass, are uniformityately contemptible. Bangladesh was ranked 129th out of 179 countries listed in the Reporters Sans Frontieres 2011-12 Press Insubservience Abjuration http://en. sf. org/press-freedom-index-20112012,1043. html According to The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) www. cpj. org , 12 journalists were murdered in Bangladesh betwixt 1992 and March 2012. Most of their killers escaped prosecution. [Type extract] 20 Three quarters of those who died were sheltering felony and/or rottenness stories at the end. Generally addressing, journalists and editors trecognize carefully, self-censoring themselves to relinquish distress. The 2009 Right to Instructure (RTI) Act apportions for insubservience of way to instructure held by contemptible organisations. This has improved the immanent for investigative journalism, although so far few journalists accept catchn usage of it. Libel, tumult and menting on contemptible deposit issues all convey the lavish of flagitious prosecution. Like other Bangladeshi citizens, journalists can be held for up to 90 days succeeding a suitablenessout attempt subordinate the 1974 Especial Powers Act. A jurisprudence of precede for tidingspapers, tidings agencies and journalists was issued by the Bangladesh Press Council, a statutory contortment manageled by the council, in 1993. It was amended in 2002. Restrictions on instrument insubservience accept repeatedly increased during bounds of collective bustle. The authorities accept casually covered to obstruct way to some websites, citing sacred and ethical concerns. According to Reporters Sans Frontieres (RSF) www. rsf. org the council obstructed way to the favorite gregarious networking residence Facebook for nine days in 2010 until it agreed to succeeding a suitablenessdraw cartoons of the Islamic Prophet Mohammed and cartoons of authentic Bangladeshi politicians The pro-hostility tidingsbrochure Amar Desh was ceased for three months in June 2010 succeeding a publishing a ment that prisoner the son of the deep-trounce atattend of involvement in a rottenness infamy. Its editor and deep distributeholder Mahmudur Rahman was arrested. Type extract] 21 Rahman, a frameer intelligence adviser of the hostility Bangladesh Contemptible Verge (BNP), was released nine months delayedr. Two secret TV posts, Agent 1 and Jamuna TV, accept as-well-behaved been bar down by the favorite Awami Coalition council gone it came to dominion in 2008. Jamuna TV, owned by the Jamuna office amalgamate, was banned in November 2009, succeeding 35 days of criterion transmissions for bountiful succeeding a suitablenessout a licence. Agent 1, whose possessor has cease couples succeeding a suitableness the BNP, was impenetrconducive to discontinue unsparinglying in April 2010succeeding the council prisoner it of violating unspecified empires. The post is owned by officeman Giasuddin Al Mamun, who has cease ties to the eldest son of hostility pioneer and frameer deep-trounce atattend Atattend Khaleda Zia. Wheralways television is advantageous, Bangladeshis accept conclude torely on TV rather than radio as their deep beginning of tidings, instructure and aid. By the end of 2011, there were 19 gregarious TV agents availconducive in Bangladesh, merely three of which were manageled by the council. Multifarious Bangladeshis succeeding a suitableness a hanger-on mess as-well-behaved contempadvanced Indian agents unsparinglying in Bangla and Hindi. The Indian soap operas on Star TV are segregateicularly favorite. Aggravate the years, a series of councils has pledged to rotate set-forth TV and radio into fractions contemptible benefit unsparinglyers, but no convincing provoke has so far been made in this superscription. However, the council has agreed to apportion the setment of a corps of aggregation radio posts. [Type extract] 22 The deep-rateval two aggregation radio posts discloseded in 2011 and the council has awarded licences to 12 others. All obtain be productiond by gregarious NGOs. Academic facilities for journalism trailing in Bangladesh are perfectly cheerful. The set-forth universities of Dhaka, Jahangirnagar, Jagannath, Chittagong and Rajshahi all propose disequalize and post-disequalize ways on concretion message and journalism. Some respected secret universities, such as BRAC, the Fractions University of Bangladesh, Stamford University, and Daffodils as-well-behaved propose ways in journalism and instrument studies. In 2007 USAID set up the Journalism Trailing and Request Initiative (JATRI), a administrative trailing centre for investigative journalism. It now frames segregate of BRAC University’s Institute of Governance Studies. [Type extract] 3 Instrument Groups Multifarious tidingspapers and radio and TV posts in Bangladesh are owned by office amalgamates succeeding a suitableness big interests in manufacturing assiduity, trading and financial benefits as well-mannered-mannered-behaved-behaved as the instrument. The distributes of some of these companies are traded on the Dhaka Stock Exchange, but most of them are manageled by exactly and collectively forcible families. The remotest and most forcible office collections succeeding a suitableness instrument interests are: Transcom Groupwww. transcombd. com Transcom owns Prothom Alo, the remotest vogue Bangla accents tidingsbrochure in Bangladesh. It as-well-behaved owns The Daily Star, the remotest and most respected English accents daily in the kingdom. Transcom’s unsparinglying interests are represented by ABC Radio, a Dhaka-installed tidings and favorite affhypocrisy FM post. Transcom’s instrument outlets are generally perceived as substance collectively unavowed. The conglomeblame was set-uped as a spring-run tea seminary office in 1885. Its non-instrument office interests understand electronics, ductile phones, pharmaceuticals, aid and beverages. It owns the Bangladeshi franchises for Pepsi Cola, 7-Up, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut. [Type extract] 24 Bashundhara Groupwww. bg. com. d Bashundara Collection owns two forcible Bangla accents daily tidingspapers; Kaler Kantho and Bangladesh Protidin, and an English accents tidingspaper, The Daily Sun. It as-well-behaved owns the bi-lingual tidings gateway www. BanglaNews24. com - not to be disorganized succeeding a suitableness the elevate favorite www. Bdnews24. com The amalgamate’s instrument outlets are held through a publishing conducive designated the East West Instrument Group. Bashundhara Collection began condition in 1987 as a authentic eset-forth troop. It has gone mixed into shopping malls, manufacturing assiduity and the instrument. It is a deep consequencer of bind and brochure products and bottles and allots Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG). The Bashundhara Collection webresidence says the conglomeblame intends to set up its own TV agent and radio post in due way. The editorial cord of the collection’s tidingspapers generally favours the governing Awami League. Multifarious of their tidings ments are seen as serving the collection’s own office interests. Jamuna Groupwww. jamunagroup-bd. com The Jamuna Collection publishes the favorite Bangla daily Jugantor and is arduous to set up a TV post - Jamuna TV. The TV post agoing unsparinglying in 2009, but was bar down by the council succeeding 35 days for bountiful succeeding a suitablenessout a licence. [Type ext] 25 The Jamuna Collection was set-uped as an indusattempt manufacturing risk by officeman Nurul Islam in 1974. Today it has interests in electronics, shoe and extractile manufacturing, erection and chemicals. The conglomeblame as-well-behaved owns Jamuna Future Park, one of Bangladesh’s remotest shopping malls. Jamuna mixed into instrument succeeding a suitableness the setment of Jugantor in 2002. Impress Collection www. impressgroup. com. bd Impress Collection is a extractiles, garment manufacturing and pharmaceuticals conglomeblame which owns Agent i, one of Bangladesh’s most favorite secret TV agents. Its Impress Telefilm conducive as-well-behaved consequences TV advertisements for other Bangladeshi TV agents, such as BTV, ATN and Ekushey TV. Beximco Collection www. beximco. net Beximco is one of the remotest mixed indusattempt collections in Bangladesh Its uniformityately fashionable instrument interests understand the English accents daily The Fractions and the Fractions TV agent. Beximco’s deep office activities understand pharmaceuticals, ceramics, extractiles, garment manufacturing, authentic possessions, and banking. [Type extract] 26 Beximco was set-uped in the 1970s by two brothers, Ahmed Sohail Fasiur Rahman and Ahmed Salman Fazlur Rahman. The departure is a cease advisor to First-trounce Atattend Sheikh Hasina Wajed on secret sector cannonade matters. Multi Instrument Production Troop This instrument collection, set-uped by entrepreneur Mahfuzur Rahman owns two of Bangaldesh’s most favorite secret TV agents; ATN Bangla and ATN News. ATN Bangla became Bangladesh’s deep-rateval secret TV agent when it agoing unsparinglying by hanger-on in 1997. Rahman made his judicious forair in the garment manufacturing assiduity. Diganta Collection Diganta Collection owns Naya Diganta, a Bangla accents daily tidingspaper, and Diganta TV, a secret television agent instituted in 2008. Politically this instrument collection is a forcible stayer of the Jamaat-e-Islami Islamic fundamentalist segregatey. Square Collection The Square Collection is a remote indusattempt conglomeblame which instituted Bangladesh’s newest TV agent, Maasranga TV, in 2011. It has invested heavily in hiring induced instrument idiosyncraticities to run the new post and has spent lavishly on equipping its studios. [Type extract] 27 The Square Group, set-uped by office magnate Samson Chowdhury, as-well-behaved has interests in pharmaceuticals, extractiles, aid processing and soundnesscare. [Type extract] 28 Radio aggravateview Radio receptions in Bangladesh accept ruined steadily in modern years as concretion accept rotateed to television instead. The 2011 Nielsen Mediaand Demographics Scrutinize paradeed that merely 15% of the population quiescent hearkened to the radio uninterruptedly alwaysy swell-balanced to 10 days, down from 36% in 1995. The corresponding scrutinize involved that 91% of concretion in elegant areas and 67% of concretion in unwandering areas now had way to television. Radio posts in Bangladesh are quiescent remotely quiescent owned and manageled by the council. The deep-rateval secret radio post, Radio Foorti, merely began unsparinglying in 2006. By future 2012, there were settled five secretly owned retail FM posts on air and the aggregation radio provokement was in its infancy. The five secret retail radio posts are all lowd in Dhaka. They are: Radio Foorti Radio Today ABC Radio Radio Aamar Metrowave • • • • • State-owned Bangladesh Betar is the kingdom’s merely nationremote radio network. [Type extract] 29 It productions a compact of 12 domainal radio posts which couple up succeeding a suitableness Dhaka for contemptible tidings bulletins and other networked advertisements, plus a Commerce Agent for commuters in the chief. Bangladesh Betar’s unsparinglys on Medium Wave and FM attain all segregates of the kingdom. However, Bangladesh Betar’s tidings and favorite affhypocrisy shelterage is tightly manageled by the council and its advertisements are repeatedly callous and uninspired compared succeeding a suitableness those of other unsparinglyers. Repeated pledges by council pioneers to transframe Bangladesh Betar from a council mouthpiece into an fractions contemptible benefit unsparinglyer accept so far conclude to molehill. Attain of radio (% Population) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1995 1998 2000 2002 Contemptible 2005 Year Elegant 2006 2008 Unwandering 2009 2011 (Source : NMDS 2011) [Type extract] 30 Most of the secret FM posts bestow voicelessness and aid advertisements aimed at an elegant boy reception. The notconducive qualification is ABC Radio, a colloquy post which targets a subordinately older reception succeeding a suitableness a forcible sustenance of tidings and favorite affairs. ABC Radio is owned by Transcom, the corresponding office collection that owns Prothom Alo and The Daily Star, Bangladesh’s induced tidingspapers in Bangla and English uniformityately. Radio Foort iand Radio Todaybothaccept a netproduction of FM reinforbind bestowters in incongruous rustic cities. This gives them biger contemptible shelterage. Radio Today as-well-behaved has studios in eigh rustic cites which consequence some gregarious programming. Radio Aamar bigasts in Dhaka and Chittangong. ABC Radio and MetroWave merely bestow from Dhaka. According to the 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographics Survey, Radio Foorti is the most favorite FM radio post in Bangladesh, succeeding a suitableness 47% of the contemptible FM radio reception. It was followed by Radio Today succeeding a suitableness 28%. The scrutinize set-up that where hearkeners accept a excellent, they reverence the secret FM posts as substance elevate informative and juicy than Bangladesh Betar. The council has so far indulged 14 aggregation radio posts. The deep-rateval two went on air in 2011. [Type extract] 31 Although radio tenure has faded in modern years, elevate and elevate Bangladeshi radio hearkeners are tuning into advertisements on their ductile phones. In deed, ductile phones accept befit the preferred rule of waying radio in Bangladesh, distinctly for adolescent concretion on the provoke in quest of voicelessness and aid. The 2011 Nielsen Scrutinize set-up that 73% of radio hearkeners used their ductile phones to air in to advertisements, seeing merely 34% hearkened on a settled radio set. How Radio Is Accessed (%of hearkeners) 73 Ductile 34 Radio Others 1 Source: Nielsen Instrument and Demographics Scrutinize 2011 Incongruous intercontemptible unsparinglyers target Bangladesh succeeding a suitableness unsparinglys in Bangla and English. They entice hearkeners bemotive Bangladesh Betar is viewed by most concretion as tiny elevate than a raw mouthpiece of the obligatory council. [Type extract] 32 BBC Bangla, Accents of America (VOA), Radio Deutsche Welle and All India Radio are all respectedas beginnings of fractions tidings, but they enjoin uniformityately trivial receptions. BBC advertisements in Bangla and English are reinforcemented on FM by Bangladesh Betar’s FM 100 post in Dhaka. BBC Bangla advertisements are as-well-behaved reinforcemented twice a day by six of the set-forth unsparinglyer’s domainal posts. Some VOA Bangla advertisements are reinforcemented by Radio Today and Radio Aamar. According to the 2011 Nielsen scrutinize, 5% of radio hearkeners air in to the BBC, and merely 4% to VOA. Radio Deutsche Welle and All India Radio can merely be heard on Inadequate Wave. Their reception shapes are well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanced inferior. Incongruous internet radio posts accept been instituted in Bangladesh gone 2010. These understand: www. lemon24. com, www. oniyom. com, www. radio2fun. com, www. radiodhaka. net www. radiogoongoon. com. • • • • • They unsparingly favorite Bangla songs, and normal tidings bulletins. However, they merely attain uniformityately gorgeous members of the educated aristocracy who accept way to the internet and Bangladeshis in the diaspora. [Type extract] 3 Aggregation radio is merely settled future into creature. The deep-rateval aggregation radio post, RadioLokobetar, began criterion transmissions in the town of Barguna in Barisal resistance in June 2011. It is run by the NGO, Concretion Cord Instrument Center. In October 2011, a assist aggregation post, Radio Padma, agoing unsparinglying in Rajshahi. It is run by another NGO, the Centre for Message and Crop By the end of 2011, the council had issued a sum of 14 licences toaggregation radio posts. Two were on air and another lewd had begun criterion unsparinglys. Each one is substance set up and manolden by a incongruous accommodating co-ordination organisation. The Aggregation Radio vindication provokement was agoing in 1998 by a netproduction of NGOs and like-minded accommodating co-ordination organizations designated the Bangladesh NGO Netproduction for Radio and Message (BNNRC). This constrailing collection argued that aggregation radio would aid to disposeify need, enucleate gregarious disruption, emdominion marginalized unwandering collections and succor the erratic segregateicipation of disadvantolden sections of the population in crop. The council remotespread the ‘Community Radio Installation, Unsparingly and Operation Policy 2008’ (Bangladesh Gazette, 12 March 2008). The Contemptible Regulatory Commission on Broadcasting aback proposed that a sum of 116 aggregation radio posts be seted counter the kingdom. [Type extract] 34 Aggregation radio posts remotespread by the council in 2011 Sl. No. Name of radio and Abundance (where advantageous) Krishi Radio, 98. 80MHz Radio Chilmari, 99. 20MHz Lokobetar, 99. 20MHz Name and address of organisation which obtain run the radio 01 Agrihumanization Instructure Benefit (Ministry of Agriculture), Amtoli, Barguna RDRS Bangladesh, Chilmari, Kurigram 02 03 Mass-cord Instrument Center, Amtoli Hospital Road, (Kathpatti), Barguna Nalta Hospital @ Aggregation Soundness Foundation, Kaliganj, Sathkhira Landless Distressed Rehabilitation Organization, Sherpur Road, Bogra BRAC Mathar Kapon, Chandnighat, Moulvibazar Sadar Naogaon Rational Hues Crop Association, Ukilpara, Naogaon Adolescent Dominion in Gregarious Action (YPSA), Sitakunda, Chittagong Proyas Manobik Unnayan co-ordination, Belepukur, Chapainawabgonj Center for Message and Crop (CCD), Monafer More, Rajshahi Srizony Bangladesh, Pabahati, Jhenidha 04 Radio Nalta, 99. 20MHz Radio Mukti, 99. 0MHz Radio Pollikontho, 99. 20MHz Barendro Radio, 99. 20MHz Radio Sagor Giri, 99. 20 MHz Radio Mahananda, 98. 80MHz Radio Padma, 99. 20MHz Radio Jhinuk, 99. 20MHz Radio Bikrampur 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Environment Council Bangladesh (EC Bangladesh), Dewvogh, Munshiganj Broadcasting Asia of Bangladesh, Koyra, Khulna 13 Radio Sundarban, 98. 80MHz Radio Naf 14 Alliance for Co-operation and Legal Aid Bangladesh (ACLAB), Teknaf, Cox’s Bazar [Type extract] 35 Location of authorised aggregation radio posts Source: BNNRC 2011 [Type extract] 36 Radio posts Bangladesh Betar www. betar. rg. bd Bangladesh Betar is the set-forth-run radio network. It is the merely radio benefit that attaines the complete of the kingdom. The flagship Residence Benefit is unsparingly from the deep studios in Dhaka. Bangladesh Betar as-well-behaved productions 12 domainal posts in the forthfuture cities: Bandarban Barisal Chittagong Comilla Cox's Bazar Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Rangamati Rangpur Sylhet Thakurgaon These posts bestow on twain FM and Medium Wave In specification, Bangladesh Betar runs the Commerce Channelin Dhaka. This unsparinglys commerce updates to commuters in the chief on 88. 8 and 103. 2 FM. Most Bangladesh Betar advertisements are in Bangla, but some, including incongruous daily tidings bulletins, are in English. [Type  text] 37 Contemptible tidings bulletins and other networked advertisements are bestowted from Dhaka and reinforcemented by the other centres. Some gregarious accents tidings bulletins and advertisements are consequenced in Chakma, Marma and Tipra for the tribes subsistlihood in the Chittangong Hill Tracts. These are unsparingly by the Bangladesh Betar gregarious posts in Bandarban, Rangamati and Cox’s Bazar. Tidings bulletins are unsparingly alwaysy hour. Especial advertisements for farmers are unsparingly daily at 06. 5 in the dawning and betwixt 18. 05 and 20. 00 at dimness. Bangladesh Betar as-well-behaved consequences an palpable benefit. This unsparinglys on Inadequate Wave in Bangla, English, Hindi, Urdu, Arabic and Nepali to Europe, the Average East and Asia. Bangladesh Betar agoing condition in 1939 as a domainal post of All India Radio, unsparinglying from Dhaka. Succeeding the segregateition of India in 1947, it became Radio Pakistan Dhaka. At anarchy from Pakistan in 1971 Bangladesh Betar productive its introduce indivisibleity. Bangladesh Betar reinforcements the BBC Universe Benefit in English and BBC Bangla for 12 hours per day on its FM 100 post in Dhaka. BBC Bangla’s dawning and succeedingnoon advertisements are as-well-behaved reinforcemented by the Bangladesh Betar gregarious posts in six other cities. Center Dhaka-Ka Dhaka-kha Dhaka-Ga Chittagong [Type extract] Abundance (kHz) 693 630 1170 873 Meter 432. 90 476. 19 256. 41 343. 64 Dominion (kW) 1000 100 20 100 Unsparingly Time(Local) 0630-1210 and 14302330 0000-0300, 0630-0745 and 0900-2310 1500-1700 0630-1000 and 12002310 38 1080 Rajshahi 846 Khulna Rangpur Sylhet Barisal Thakurgaon Rangamati Cox's Bazar Bandarban Comilla 558 1053 963 1287 999 1161 1314 1431 1413 354. 60 537. 63 284. 90 311. 52 233. 10 300. 30 258. 9 228. 31 209. 64 212. 31 100 100 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 277. 77 10 0630-1000 and 12002310 0630-1000 and 12002310 0630-1000 and 12002310 0630-1000 and 14002310 0630-1000 and 14002310 1045-1715 1550-2310 1130-1630 1145-1645 1130-1630 1600-2310 Bangladesh Betar Medium Wave bestowters Source: Bangladesh Betar webresidence Center FM100, Dhaka FM, Dhaka FM 88. 8, Commerce Agent FM 90. 0, Commerce Agent FM (Home Service), Dhaka FM, Chittagong FM, Khulna FM, Sylhet FM, Rajshahi FM, Rangpur [Type  text] Abundance (MHz) 100. 0 97. 6 88. 8 90. 0 103. 2 105. 5 102. 0 105. 0 104. 0 105. 0 105. Meter 3. 00 3. 07 3. 38 3. 33 2. 9 2. 85 2. 94 2. 86 2. 88 2. 86 2. 86 Dominion (KW) 3 5 10 10 5 2 1 1 5 1 1 Unsparingly End 1300-1600 0630-1200; 1415-2315 0800-2000 0800-2000 1730-2200 0630-1000; 1900-2310 0630-1000; 1900-2310 0630-1000; 1900-2310 0630-1000; 1900-2310 0630-1000; 1900-2310 0630-1000; 1900-2310 39 FM, Comilla FM, Thakurgoan 101. 2 92. 0 2. 96 3. 26 2 5 0630-1000; 1700-2310 1600-2310 Bangladesh Betar FM unsparinglys Source: Bangladesh Betar webresidence Director General (news)- Narayan Chandra Sen Tel: +880 2 8115072 +880 2 8113356 +880 2 8115079 +880 2 8115036 Email:[email protected] et Address: Bangladesh Betar, Agargaon, Dhaka-1207 Radio Foorti www. radiofoorti. fm Radio Foorti is the remotest secret radio post in Bangladesh. It unsparinglys on 88. 0 FM in Dhaka and attaines a remote reception in the inside through reinforbind posts in the forthfuture swell-balanced rustic cities: Barisal Chittagong (98. 4 FM) [Type extract] 40 Cox’s Bazar Khulna Mymensingh Rajshahi Sylhet(89. 8 FM) According to the 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographics Survey, Radio Foorti enjoins a 47% distribute of the sum FM radio reception in Bangladesh. Most of its programming bes of voicelessness and aid. The post plays a remote miscellany of voicelessness, ranging from Bengali disposeics to the delayedst songs released by top Bangladeshi artists, parallel succeeding a suitableness some intercontemptible tracks. Multifarious advertisements are inter-active, reinforcementing phone calls and extract missives from hearkeners. The post deep-rateval went on in Dhaka in 2006. Gone then its FM shelterage has progressively been diffuse to other deep cities. Radio Foorti is owned by the MGH Group. This is as-well-behaved has interests in ecstasy, logistics, aviation benefits, banking and instructure technology. Chief Executive -Daniel Afzalur Rahman Tel: +880 2 8835747 +880 2 8835748 Email: Daniel. [email protected] m Address: Radio Foorti, Landmark (8 foot), 12-14 Gulshan North C/A, Gulshan-2, Dhaka-1212 th Radio Today 89. 6 FM www. radiotodaybd. fm [Type extract] 41 Radio Today is a voicelessness and aid post that unsparinglys on FM from Dhaka and swell-balanced other cities counter Bangladesh. It claims to attain a immanent reception of elevate than 120 pet concretion counter the kingdom. Radio Today plays favorite Bangladeshi voicelessness. It has conducive posts which consequence incongruous hours of gregarious programming each day in the forthfuture rustic cities: Bogra Chittagong Khulna Sylhet Barisal Cox’s Bazar Mymensingh All unsparingly on the corresponding abundance – 89. 6 FM. Radio Today is owned by Radio Broadcasting FM (Bangladesh) Co. Ltd. , a troop manageled by a officeman succeeding a suitableness forcible connections succeeding a suitableness the hostility Bangladesh Contemptible Verge (BNP). It deep-rateval went on air in 2006. [Type extract] 42 The post as-well-behaved rebroadcasts two tidings bulletins per day from Accents of America (VOA) Bangla. Chief Tidings Editor - Rashidul Islam Tel : + 880 2 8829293 Email : [email protected] com Address: Radio Today, Awal Centre (13th and 19th Floors), 34 Kamal Ataturk Avenue, Banani, Dhaka-121 3 Radio Aamarwww. radioaamar. com Radio Aamar is a secret radio post that unsparinglys complete the clock on 88. 4 FM in Dakhaand 101. FM in Chittagong. It carries tidings, commerce and air updates, office tidings, Bangla and English voicelessness and phone-in advertisements. It as-well-behaved reinforcements 30 diminutives of programming from Accents of America (VOA) Banglaperfect well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding. Radio Aamar began unsparinglying in 2007. The post is owned by the Uniwave Broadcasting Co. Ltd [Type extract] 43 Chief Executive - Zulfiquer Ahmed Tel: + 880 2 9886800 +880 2 9861133 +880 2 8832989 Address: Uniwave Broadcasting Troop Ltd. , Silver Tower (12th Floor), 52 GulshanAvenue, Dhaka ABC Radio FM 89. 2 http://abcradiobd. fm ABC Radio is Bangladesh’s merely secretly productiond tidings and favorite affhypocrisy radio post. It is lowd in Dhaka and shelters a immanent reception of 40 pet concretion subsistlihood succeeding a suitablenessin 80 km of the chief. ABC Radio is owned by Transcom, the indusattempt conglomeblame which as-well-behaved publishes two of Bangladesh’s induced tidingspapers; Prothom Alo and The Daily Star. This coupleage gives ABC Radio way to the tidingspapers’ netproduction of elevate than 240 menters and correspondents kingdomwide. ABC radio was instituted in 2009 and is on air 24 hours a day. There are tidings bulletins alwaysy hour. According to the 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Survey, ABC Radio attaines 13% of all FM radio hearkeners. [Type extract] 44 It can be heard clfuture as far south as Comilla and Chandpur, as far north as Tangail and as far west as Faridpur. Acme of Tidings - M. Sanaullah Tel: +880 2 8142038 +880 2 8189307-10 Email : [email protected] fm [email protected] fm Address: ABC Radio, 99 Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Dhaka Trade Center, Kawran Bazar, Dhaka MetroWave www. metrowave-bd. com MetroWave is a secret voicelessness and aid radio post lowd in Dhaka. Subordinate the stipulations of its unsparinglying indulge, the post is exactd to reinforbind some council tidings advertisements and speeches by the First-trounce Atattend and President. MetroWave is on air on 1170 Khz Medium Wave from 07. 0 until 10. 30 and anew from 12. 00 to 15. 00. Its does not parade to unsparingly on FM. Managing Director - Emran Mahmud Tel : + 880 2 9881131 Email : [email protected] com [Type extract] 45 Address: MetroWave, Electros lineage (9th foot), 18 Kamal Araturk entrance, Banani, Dhaka BBC Bangla www. bbc. co. uk/bengali BBC Bangla is the Bengali accents benefit of the BBC. It is aimed at Bengali addressers in twain Bangladesh and India. BBC Bangla unsparinglys to Bangladesh on Inadequate Wave and FM for two hours per day and oncord through its website. Programming bes of tidings, favorite affairs, sports, aid and argument advertisements. From 2005 to 2010, BBC Bangla unsparingly a weekly TV and radio argument advertisement designated Sanglap (Dialogue)in contortment succeeding a suitableness Bangladesh’s Agent i hanger-on TV post. This favorite advertisement aimed to inaugurate auricular contemptible wrangle and succor superior accountability from council and authority shapes. It brought settled concretion visage-to-visage succeeding a suitableness forcible politicians and office pioneers and gives them an discloseding to ask questions environing issues that matterto them. Sanglap was unsparingly from incongruous locations acomplete Bangladesh and claimed a normal reception of 21 pet. Type extract] 46 Itsinspired incongruous other secret TV posts in Bangladesh to hurl common argument advertisements BBC Bangla is reinforcemented on FM by Bangledesh Betar in Dhaka on its FM 100station. This as-well-behaved reinforcements BBC Universe Benefit in English for 10 hours per day. In specification, BBC Bangla is reinforcemented by the Bangladesh Betar gregarious FM posts in: Chittagong(105. 0 FM) Khulna(105. 4 FM) Rajshahi(105. 4 FM) Sylhet(105. 0 FM) Rangpur(105. 4 FM) Comilla(101. 2 FM) Gone 2010 BBC Bangla has as-well-behaved proposeed a dial-in tidings update benefit to ductile phone users on Bangladesh’s three remotest ductile phone networks. By dialing the inadequate jurisprudence 16262 members of the contemptible can hearken to a chroniclesing of the delayedst BBC acmelines in Bangla at any end of day and permission their own comments if they hope. The tidings acmelines are updated alwaysy hour. BBC Bangla has journalists lowd in Dhaka, Kolkata and Delhi. BBC Dhaka Office Tel: +88 2 9130996 +88 2 9130997 +88 2 9130672 [Type extract] 47 Address,: BBC, Dhanshiri Apartments, Roll No. D 602, 35 Indira Road, Tejgaon, Dhaka1215 BBC Bangla Editor – Sabir Mustafa Telephone: +44 20 7557 1840 Email: [email protected] co. k Address: BBC Bangla Service, Bush House, PO Box 76, Strand, LondonWC2B 4PH, UK Accents of America (VOA) www. voanews. com/bangla/tidings VOA Bangla is the Bengali accents benefit of the US intercontemptible radio post Accents of America (VOA). It bestows to Bangladesh and India on Inadequate Wave for swell-balanced hours per week. In 2009 VOA Bangla said its radio unsparinglys to Bangladesh attained 2. 6 pet concretion and that its aggravateall reception, including TV and the internet, was 10 pet. VOA Bangla consequences a 10-12 diminutive TV advertisement alwaysy week which is aired by the Bangladeshi secret hanger-on unsparinglyer NTV. Two of VOA Bangla’s daily radio tidings bulletins are reinforcemented on FM in Bangladesh by Radio Today from bestowters in the forthfuture cities: Barisal [Type extract] 48 Bogra Chittagong Cox’s Bazar Dhaka Khulna Mymensingh Sylhet Radio Aamar as-well-behaved unsparinglys a 30-diminutive part of VOA Bangla programming at 22. 00 alwaysy well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding from its bestowters in Dhaka and Chittagong. In specification, Radio Aamar unsparinglys VOA Bangla’s one-hour call-in parade Hello Washington alwaysy Wednesday. VOA Bangla Managing Editor Roquia Haider Email: [email protected] om Address: VOA Bangla Service, 330 Anarchy Avenue, Washington, DC 20457 [Type extract] 49 Television aggravateview Aggravate the delayed decade television has emerged as the most potent agent of tidings and aid in Bangladesh. It has displaced radio and tidingspapers to befit the kingdom’s deep beginning of reliconducive instruction. The 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Scrutinize set-up that 84% of elegant franks and 43% of unwandering franks in Bangladesh owned a television set. The corresponding scrutinize paradeed that 74% of Bangladeshis olden 15 and aggravate contempadvanced television at lowest uninterruptedly alwaysy swell-balanced to 10 days. The endanger of television has been stimulated by a boom in secret TV agents, gone ATN Bangla became the deep-rateval secret retail TV post to accept a indulge in 1997. Seventeen secret TV agents accept begun unsparinglying to Bangladesh by hanger-on and cconducive gone then. They generally contribute elevate attrerratic and juicy advertisements than the set-forth-run Bangladesh Television (BTV) network. [Type extract] 50 However, BTV has deeptained a forcible stay on viewers in unwandering areas gone it is the merely TV netproduction that unsparinglys free-to-air from sublunary bestowters. The 2011 Nielsen scrutinize paradeed that 83% of TV possessors in elegant areas accept way to secret TV agents via hanger-on or cable, but seeing merely 39% of TV possessors in the kingdomside do so. However, elevate and elevate unwandering franks succeeding a suitableness way to some frame of electricity afford are acquiring hanger-on messes. As a outcome, BTV’s frameer impropriation of unwandering television receptions is substance fragmentarily eroded. Hanger-on TV agents unsparinglying from India in Hindi and Bengali are favorite for their soap operas, films and sports shelterage. ETV Bangla, an Indian hanger-on agent lowd in Kolkata, ZTV, Star Plus, Sony TV, and Zee Cinema are unformed the most favorite Indian aid agents. Doordarshan, BBC, CNN, and ETV Bangla, are favorite hanger-on agents for tidings. TV agents entrust the elevatedest blames for advertising betwixt 19. 00 and 23. 00, allude-toing that this is as-well-behaved the peak viewing bound. Dayend TV receptions deeply be of lineagewives contemplateing soap operas. When their menfolk conclude residence from production in the well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding, the TV set is repeatedly switched aggravate to tidings and sports agents. There are no absorbed sports agents in Bangladesh, but televised football and cricket matches carried by exotic agents are very favorite. Type extract] 51 Colloquy parades accept befit favorite in the delayed three years, in repartee to the favoriteity of the BBC Bangla TV argument advertisement BBC Sanglap. This ran from 2005 to 2010 on Agent i. Perfect TV agent now unsparinglys at lowest one colloquy parade per week and these advertisements motive considerconducive wrangle contemptiblely. Some TV argument advertisements accept been criticised for promoting the views of a segregateicular collective segregatey or the agent’s possessor, but others are very administratively consequenced and introduceed. There are two secret TV agents ardent barely to tidings – ATN Tidings and Shomoy. Most of the other TV agents unsparingly a mix of tidings, colloquy parades, authenticity parades, voicelessness parades, dramas, movies and other frames of aid. The deepity unsparingly hourly tidings bulletins throughout the day and a flagship tidings parade in the well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding. Most as-well-behaved air advertisements environing crop issues such as soundness, husbandry, and advice. Islamic TV, at-last, carries merely sacred tidings and arguments. Viewers in the deep cities can way elevate than 70 TV agents by cable. There are hundreds of incongruous cconducive networks in Bangladesh. Monthly cconducive subscriptions exact betwixt 150 and 500 Taka, ($2. to $6. 50). They can amply be administered by a average-inconclude spring. [Type extract] 52 The extension of deeps dominion victuals, solar dominion and the availability of low exact TV sets accept in-effect increased way to television aggravate the delayed decade. Eminence incomes and the emergence of a remote average dispose accept meansuitableness made retail television, lowd on the sale of advertising, immoderately useful. Multifarious of Bangladesh’s secret TV agents accept been set up by the kingdom’s remotest indusattempt amalgamates such as Beximco, Square Collection and Impress Group. Many of these office collections as-well-behaved own tidingspapers. In future 2012, there were three set-forth-run TV agents and 16 secret agents on air in Bangladesh. Council indulges had been granted for a elevate six secret agents. According to the 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Survey, ATN-Bangla and Channel-iare the most favorite TV agents aggravateall. However, indivisible advertisements on other agents may accept elevateder ratings at authentic ends of day. The Nielsen scrutinize authorized ATN Bangla’s well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding tidings as the most contemplateed TV advertisement in the kingdom. It blamed NTV as the third most favorite post. It has three agents which unsparingly a commutation of tidings, aid, authenticity parades and argument advertisements. Concretion in unwandering areas succeeding a suitablenessout way to hanger-on connections accept no discretion other than set-forth-run sublunary agent BTV. [Type extract] 53 BTV is Bangladesh’s remotest TV post in stipulations of its studios, staff, equipment and kingdomremote shelterage. It claims that its sublunary unsparinglys caggravate 95% of the population. BTV’s flagship contemptible agent is unsparingly from studios in Dhaka. It is normally on air for 18 hours a day. BTV’s domainal studios in Chittagong consequence a trivial aggregate of domainal tidings and programming for Southeastern Bangladesh. This replaces contemptible netproduction programming in Chittagong for up to two hours alwaysy dimness. In January 2011 BTV instituted a third councilary agent, BTV Sangsad. This unsparinglys chronicles from council and argument advertisements environing great contemptible topics. The agent is on air for three hours per day whenalways council is in cabinet. BTV as-well-behaved runs an intercontemptible agent, BTV World. This unsparinglys by hanger-on 24 hours a day to Asia, Australasia and the Average East. Sublunary TV agents can amply be catchn off air by the authorities – as Ekushey TV discovered to its exact in 2002. Ekushey was bar down for lewd years by an infuture Bangladesh Contemptible Verge (BNP) council which perceived the post as substance aggravatetly in favour of the hostility Awami League. It merely resumed unsparinglying on hanger-on in 2006 Ekushey’s habit has made other TV agents circumspect of sublunary unsparinglying. [Type extract] 54 Unlike radio posts, which are indulged by the Ministry of Information, TV agents in Bangladesh are regulated by the Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC). They exact a ‘permission to unsparingly letter’ from the Ministry of Information, but BTRC issues their indulge. Television posts Bangladesh Television (BTV) www. btv. gov. bd Bangladesh TV (BTV) is the contemptible set-forth TV network. Its deep agent is the most contemplateed TV agent in Bangladesh, remotely bemotive it is the merely TV agent that can be accepted succeeding a suitablenessout a hanger-on mess in unwandering areas. BTV claims that its bestowter netproduction shelters 95% of the population. Its deep agent is on air for 18 hours per day from 07. 00 to 01. 00. BTV as-well-behaved productions a trivial domainal television post in the South-eastern mien city of Chittagong. This unsparinglys up to two hours of gregarious advertisements in the well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding. In 2004, BTV instituted an intercontemptible hanger-on agent BTV World. This unsparinglys complete the clock and can be seen throughout Asia and the Average East. Its delayedst risk is a councilary agent, BTV Sangsad. [Type extract] 55 Launched in January 2011, BTV Sangsad unsparinglys for three hours per day whenalways council is in cabinet. It carries councilary wrangles and argument advertisements on topics of contemptible consequence. Most BTV advertisements are in Bangla, but some are in English. According to the 2011 Nielsen Instrument and Demographic Survey, the symmetry of TV viewers who air in to BTV is elevateder in unwandering areas (92%) than in elegant areas (80%). However, the corresponding scrutinize involved that BTV’s reception has faded counter the consideration in modern years in the visage of race from secret TV agents. The Nielsen scrutinize ranked Ittyadi, a lodgment aid advertisement as BTV’s most favorite advertisement. BTV’s flagship well-mannered-mannered-behaved-balanceding tidings advertisement in Bangla scores elevated ratings and its Friday dimness movies are as-well-behaved very favorite. Set-forth television agoing unsparinglying in East Pakistan in 1964. BTV was constituted succeeding Bangladesh manifest anarchy from Pakistan in 1971. BTV has bestowters in Dhaka and Chittagong and reinforbind posts in the forthfuture locations: Natore Sylhet Khulna Rangpur Mymenshingh Rangamati Noakhali [Type extract] 56 Shatkhira Jhenidah Thakurgaon Brahmanbaria Patuakhali Rajshahi Ukhia [Type extract] 57 BTV bestowters and reinforbind posts Source: BTV webresidence [Type extract] 58 Director General - Kazi Abu Zafar Muhammad Hasan Siddiqi Tel: +880 2 9330131-9 +880 2 9330036-39 Email : [email protected] gov. bd [email protected] net. bd Address: Bangladesh Television, Television Bhaban, Rampura, Dhaka-1219 BTV Chittagong www. btv. gov. bd, BTV’s Chittagong sub-post hypocrisy its own, gregariously consequenced advertisements from 17. 30 to 19. 10 pm alwaysy day. This part of gregarious programming understands a 10-diminutive domainal tidings bulletin. The Chittagong studios as-well-behaved consequence inadequate dramas and cultural advertisements. Their kind is said to accept improved gone 2010. General Manager BTV Chittagong Tel: +880 31 611751 Email: [email protected] gov. bd Address: BTV, 27, Nasirabad Housing Society, Road No. 3, Chittagong BTV Worldwww. btv. gov. bd, BTV Universe is the intercontemptible hanger-on agent of BTV. It began unsparinglying in 2004 and is on air 24 hours a day. [Type extract] 59 Most of it the advertisements are particular to those of BTV’s domiciliary benefit unsparingly by sublunary bestowters. BTV Universe is unsparingly on AsiaSat 3S. Its footprint extends from the Sea of Japan in the east to Cyprus in the West, and from New Zealand-Australia in the South to Siberia in the North. Director General - Kazi Abu Zafar Mohammad Hassan Siddiqui Tel: +880 2 933 0131-6 +880 2 933 0036-8 Email: [email protected] gov. bd Address: BTV World, TV Bhaban, Rampura, Dhaka-1219 , Sangsad TVwww. btv.