Perfect solution: umuc biology 102 103 lab 5: meiosis


INSTRUCTIONS:

 

·         On your own and extraneously coadjutorship, entire this Lab 5Answer Sheet electronically and offer it via the Assignments Folder by the conclusion rolled intheCourse Schedule (underSyllabus).

·         To pass your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located underneathneath Course Content. Read the initiative and the directions for each exercise/test carefully antecedently completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions.

·         Save your Lab 5Answer Sheet in the forthcoming format:  LastName_Lab5 (e.g., Smith_Lab5).

·         You should offer your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

 

Pre-Lab Questions

 

  1. Compare and dissimilarity mitosis and meiosis.

 

 

  1.  What important episode supervenes during interphase?

 

 

Experiment 1: Forthcoming Chromosomal DNA Motion through Meiosis

In this test, you gain type the motion of the chromosomes through meiosis I and II to educe gametes.

concept_tab_l

Materials

2 Sets of Opposed Colored Pop-it® Beads (32 of each - these may be any complexion)

8 5-Holed Pop-it® Beads (used as centromeres)

 

 

 

 

 

Procedure:

Part 1: Modeling Meiosis extraneously Biminority Over

As proappearance I begins, the replicated chromosomes involution and condense…

  1. Build a span of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 elaborates should be used to educe each unmarried sister chromatid (20 elaborates per chromosome span). Two five-holed elaborates embody each centromere. To do this...

Figure 3: Elaborate uplift. The bluish elaborates embody one span of sister chromatids and the ebon elaborates embody a relieve span of sister chromatids. The ebon and bluish span are homologous.

Figure 3: Bead uplift. The bluish elaborates embody one span of sister chromatids and the ebon elaborates embody a relieve span of sister chromatids. The ebon and bluish span are homologous.

    1. Start delay 20 elaborates of the similar complexion to educe your ancient sister chromatid span. Five elaborates must be snapped coincidently for each of the filthy opposed strands. Two strands educe the ancient chromatid, and two strands educe the relieve chromatid delay a 5-holed elaborate at the core of each chromatid.  This educes an “I” mould.
    2. Connect the “I” mouldd sister chromatids by the 5-holed elaborates to educe  an “X” mould.
    3. Repeat this regularity using 20 new elaborates (of a opposed complexion) to educe the relieve sister chromatid span.
  1. Assemble a relieve span of replicated sister chromatids; this opportunity using 12 elaborates, instead of 20, per span (six elaborates per each entire sister chromatid strand).
  2. Pair up the homologous chromosome spans educed in Step 1 and 2. DO NOT SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You gain assume biminority balance in Part 2.
  3. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the steps of meiotic dissolution (proappearance I and II, metaappearance I and II, anaappearance I and II, teloappearance I and II, and cytokinesis).
  4. Diagram the selfidentical conceptions for each step in the minoritys titled “Trial 1 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram”. Be abiding to show the enumerate of chromosomes offer in each answerance.

Figure 4: Relieve set of replicated chromosomes.

Figure 4: Second set of replicated chromosomes.

  1. Disassemble the elaborates used in Part 1. You gain need to recycle these elaborates for a relieve meiosis verification in Steps 8 - 13.

Part 1 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram

Proappearance I

 

Metaappearance I

 

Anaappearance I

 

Teloappearance I

 

Proappearance II

 

Metaappearance II

Anaappearance II

 

Teloappearance II

 

Cytokinesis

Part 2: Modeling Meiosis delay Biminority Over

  1. Build a span of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 elaborates should be used to educe each unmarried sister chromatid (20 elaborates per chromosome span). Two five-holed elaborates embody each centromere. To do this...
    1. a. Start delay 20 elaborates of the similar complexion to educe your ancient sister chromatid span. Five elaborates must be snapped coincidently for each of the filthy opposed strands. Two strands educe the ancient chromatid, and two strands educe the relieve chromatid delay a 5-holed elaborate at the core of each chromatid.  This educes an “I” mould.
    2. Connect the “I” mouldd sister chromatids by the 5-holed elaborates to educe  an “X” mould.
    3. Repeat this regularity using 20 new elaborates (of a opposed complexion) to educe the relieve sister chromatid span.
  2. Assemble a relieve span of replicated sister chromatids; this opportunity using 12 elaborates, instead of 20, per span (six elaborates per each entire sister chromatid strand). Snap each of the filthy pieces into a new five-holed elaborate to entire the set up.
  3. Pair up the homologous chromosomes educed in Step 8 and 9.
  4. SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, acestimate the two homologous spans of sister chromatids coincidently (creating the chiasma) and diversify an correspondent enumerate of elaborates betwixt the two. This gain termination in chromatids of the similar ancient prolixity, tless gain now be new combinations of chromatid complexions.
  5. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the steps of meiotic dissolution (proappearance I and II, metaappearance I and II, anaappearance I and II, teloappearance I and II, and cytokinesis).
  6. Diagram the selfidentical conceptions for each step in the minority titled “Trial 2 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram”. Be abiding to show the enumerate of chromosomes offer in each cell for each answerance. Also, show how the biminority balance uncosmical the genetic resigned in the gametes from Part1 versus Part 2.

Part 2 -  Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram:

Proappearance I

 

Metaappearance I

 

Anaappearance I

 

Teloappearance I

 

Proappearance II

 

Metaappearance II

 

Anaappearance II

 

Teloappearance II

 

Cytokinesis

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.      What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What environing at the end of meiosis II?

 

2.      How are meiosis I and meiosis II opposed?

 

3.      Why do you use non-sister chromatids to manifest biminority balance?

 

4.      What combinations of alleles could termination from a crossbalance betwixt BD and bd chromosomes?

 

 

 

5.      How divers chromosomes were offer when meiosis I agoing?

 

6.      How divers nuclei are offer at the end of meiosis II? How divers chromosomes are in each?

 

7.      Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

 

8.      Why is it expedient to subdue the enumerate of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other cells?

 

9.      Blue whales bear 44 chromosomes in full cell. Determine how divers chromosomes you would foresee to discover in the forthcoming:

 

Sperm Cell:

Egg Cell:

Daughter Cell from Mitosis:

Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:

 

10.  Repursuit and discover a complaint that is accountd by chromosomal backs. When does the back supervene? What chromosomes are unnatural? What are the consequences?

 

11.  Diagram what would happen if sexual reiter-ation took locate for filthy generations using diploid (2n) cells.

 

 

Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control

Some environmental factors can acestimate genetic backs which termination in a after a whiledrawal of alienate cell cycle repress (mitosis). When this happens, the possibility for tempestuous cell augmentation supervenes. In some instances, tempestuous augmentation can guide to tumors, which are repeatedly associated delay cancer, or other biological complaints.

In this test, you gain revisal some of the karyotypic differences which can be heedd when comparing recognized, repressled cell augmentation and monstrous, tempestuous cell augmentation. A karyotype is an conception of the entire set of diploid chromosomes in a unmarried cell.

 

 

 

 

concept_tab_lProcedure

Materials

*Computer Access

*Internet Access

 

*You Must Provide

 

 

 

  1. Begin by forming a conjecture to elucidate what differences you capacity heed when comparing the karyotypes of ethnical cells which trial recognized cell cycle repress versus cancerous cells (which trial monstrous, or a after a whiledrawal of, cell cycle repress). Record your conjecture in Post-Lab Question 1.

    Note: Be abiding to include what you foresee to heed, and why you reflect you gain heed these features. Reflect environing what you distinguish environing cancerous cell augmentation to succor form this information

  2. Go online to discover some conceptions of abrecognized karyotypes, and recognized karyotypes. The best terminations gain after from pursuit conditions such as “abrecognized karyotype”, “HeLa cells”, “recognized karyotype”, “abrecognized chromosomes”, etc. Be abiding to use dependable resources which bear been peer-reviewed
  3. Identify at lowest five monstrousities in the abrecognized conceptions. Then, roll and attract each conception in the Data minority at the end of this test. Do these monstrousities fit delay your ancient conjecture?

Hint: It may be succorful to estimate the enumerate of chromosomes, estimate the enumerate of spans, parallel the sizes of homologous chromosomes, contemplate for any dropping or subjoined genetic markers/flags, etc.

Data

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Post-Lab Questions

1.      Record your conjecture from Step 1 in the Procedure minority less.

 

 

2.      What do your terminations show environing cell cycle repress?

 

 

3.      Suppose a individual plain a back in a somatic cell which diminishes the deed of the body’s cosmical cell cycle repress proteins. This back terminationed in cancer, but was effectively treated delay a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it feasible for this individual’s coming manifestation to occupy this cancer-causing back? Be favoring when you elucidate why or why not.

 

 

4.      Why do cells which after a whiledrawal cell cycle repress prove karyotypes which contemplate physically opposed than cells delay recognized cell cycle.

 

 

5.      What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells alienate for this test?