Cultural Anthropology Midterm Study Guide

Anthropology 2 Midterm Obobey Guide: Professor Li Zhang Midterm Date: October 30, 2012 Week 1 What is the end of cultural anthropology? Debate its convergence of elimination, way, and elder alters aggravate season. ?Cultural anthropology is solicitous delay the disfront and degree of gregarious and cultural separations incompact divergent societies. Convergence on Inquiry: Why there are divergent ameliorations and how they came encircling and are fictitious or changing. Convergence on Approach: Approaches could be polished, gregarious, constitutional, medical, matterive, environmental, feminist, etc. Goals: ?Understanding how separations incompact societies are castd. Sense the inadequate energy kinsfolk unformed societies productd by colonialism, imperialism and coeval global practices. ?To parallel the perspectives of divergent societies and how each of them interprets the universe. Changes in cultural anthropology aggravate season: ?Used to be a way to assays matterion of others and exonereprimand severity and ethnocentrism. Now its for-the-most-part-unformed encircling substance crucial of unevenness, ? We as-well-behaved do provincefruit in western, ‘developed’ countries. ?There is spent globalization now. ?Early anthropology convergenceed on observeing weak, tribal societies. ?Over season they began to obobey wide polished industrial societies. Today the end of cultural anthropology has broad into incongruous subdivisions, such as polished gregarious, and medical. Parallel the two elder grounds of present ethnical concludeing: British gregarious anthropology and French structuralism in stipulations of their original affair and convergence. British Gregarious Anthropology: ?Emerged in present 20th senility. Deep instituteing cast was Malinowski. ?Radcliffe-Brown, Evans-Pritchard, Gluckman, and Leach as-well-behaved were deep casts. ?Two presumptive instituteations were separate-amongalism and structural separate-amongalism: 0Functionalism - Explanation of why distinguishing gregarious institutions rest. Explains the cultural confutations to basic sundericular needs that are bioclose and/or physiological. 0Example: cannibalism may be expounded through a survivainventory separate-among-unformed ?Structural Functionalism - Solicitous close delay sundericular needs and renewals and spent delay the establish of the sundericulars in the gregarious direct. ?Figures out the kinsfolkhip of sundericulars to the wider gregarious congregateion. ?Example: Cannibal Tours – colonists arrived and stripped villages of religious views and introduced European monetary arrangement to import-environing the villagers subordinate During these present years, gregarious anthropology was deeply intertwined delay the British colonial council that granted the financial assistance for elimination and adorderly in anthropology. The original producer was in Africa – to obobey their specificions and originate scholarship encircling their gregarious and constitutional arrangements. French Structuralism ?Primary cast in ground of concludeing is Levi Strauss. ?Focused on the inchoate finds of kinship, mythology, and specificion. ?Some affairs comprehend the archetypes or underlying finds and how seemingly not allied mans may in-fact be from a obscure arrangement of interakin cleverness. Contrive is emphasized aggravate full. ?The inner logic of a amelioration and its kinsfolkhip to the finds of civilized fellowship and civilized sentiment. Comparison: ?Both grounds of concludeing are solicitous delay observeing the find and layout of the fellowship. ?British gregarious anthropology is solicitous spent delay the mischiefony of the sundericular to fellowship suitableness French structuralism is solicitous delay how sundericulars are adevotion to one another to contrive the fellowship (mythologies, specificion, civilized sentiment). Week 2: How does Edward Taylor expound “culture”? Debate the inexcellent key faces of amelioration by providing one copy for each face. Examples can be enticen from the balbutiations, films, or other sources including your own comment. British anthropologist Edward Taylor expounds amelioration as: “a obscure undivided which comprehends scholarship, conviction, arts, manners, law, charge, and any other capabilities and behavior habitual by a man as a component of fellowship. ” The inexcellent elements of amelioration are: 1. Amelioration is scholarly. ?Culture can be scholarly consciously and unconsciously through interacting and imitating the pursuit encircling us. It can supervene in faulty settings such as your abode, or contriveal establishs devotion churches and grounds. Example: as posterity we attain to prosper testification we hearkenken adults utter and attain to utter the specificion. Suited breeding is taught by seeming at how others beentertain or from interacting delay pursuit who indoctrinate it to them. 2. Amelioration is portion-outd. ?Members of a congregateion portion-out beggarly convictions, values, memories, and anticipation. ?Example: American amelioration is verified delay sundericularism, suitableness Chinese amelioration is verified delay congregateivism. This separation can be seen through the influence and meals they select. Americans usually don’t devotion to portion-out their meals and direct sundericular plates suitableness the Chinese normally portion-out their influence and eat nativity-style. Example: “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” by Richard Lee 0For Christmas, Lee buys the widest ox to presention his gratefulness for the Bushmen’s happiness during his end. He graces disordered when wholeone in the village says that the ox he bought was no good-tempered-tempered and that is has no pulp on it. 0In Bushmen village, it is separate-among-unformed of their amelioration and legend to affront each other so that pursuit don’t gpursuit huge. Lee scholarly this by topic the Bushmen encircling it, presentioning how amelioration is portion-outd by communication and interaction. 3. Amelioration is kindic. Fabrication of amelioration bes on the civilized’s intensity to use kinds and be potent to penetratetain kindic concludeing. ?We are potent to concede aim to a man or adventure and comprehend the aim. It can be etbearing and usual and bes on the gregarious texture that is widely trustworthy by fellowship. However, the texture can deviate for each fellowship. ?Examples: -McDonalds has gpursuit a kind of rapid influence and cold eating in America, but it is sighted as haughty adconscientious and present in China. ?Colors obey to penetratetain kindic aims sturdy to them. Red represents devotion, yellow represents conduct, sombre represents mortality, etc. . Amelioration is dynamic. ?Culture isn’t a static crib to lock pursuit in. It is someman that alters aggravate season. ?People use their amelioration creatively and locomotively instead of rigidly aftercited the dominatements. ?There are some separations in amelioration unformed congregateions and societies, but the separations aren’t independent. ?Cultural hybridization allows divergent cultural legends and practices to join coincidently. 0Examples: - Influence amelioration: diffuse of influence features a association of divergent elements of ameliorations from all aggravate the universe. - Western psychotherapy combines Buddhist cogitation delay western psychology. What is ethnocentrism? Why is it problematic? In your dispute, entice copys from either Bohannan’s “Shakespeare in the Bush” or the film Cannibal Tours. How would a diffusionist persuade balance ethnocentrism? Ethnocentrism is the obeyency to use one’s own amelioration as a yardstick to value other cultural practices and convictions. •Tendency for pursuit to see their own amelioration as remarktalented and cosmical. Pursuit import-environing judgments according to their own cultural lens, giving them a scant perspective; they see all other ameliorations as supplemental to theirs. Examples: Cannibal Tours: The western tourists once paralleld the natives’ conductstyle to their own and saw their amelioration as quaint and tailwards. They saw the natives as archaic and scanty pursuit who lacked the technology they possessed tail at abode. Bohannan’s “Shakespeare in the Bush”: Suitableness balbutiation through Hamlet, twain the storyteller and the intersight present ethnocentrism. What Bohannan took for granted and sighted as beggarly testificance were mans that the elders did not conceive owing it didn’t rest in their amelioration. Ghosts and the afterconduct did not rest in the native’s amelioration, and childish pursuit should not battle balance their elders. Elders eternally made remarks encircling the play as if they knew what was going on, believing that they were labortalented her the penny aim of Hamlet and how her sense of Hamlet is in-fact wickedness. According to Franz Boas, no amelioration is undefiled and not spurious. Instead, cultural boundaries are pervious and cultural diversifys penetratetain desire rested in civilized societies. 0Diffusionism presentions that all ameliorations are interakin to one another, so ethnocentrism does not rest. In Ralph Linton’s “One Hundred Percent American,” he presentions that ameliorations are not 100% from their own country and that amelioration is diffused and conducive by incongruous establishs as separate-among-unformed of their amelioration. What is cultural relativism? Debate its pros and cons. What is your captivate on it? Assistance your dispute delay indication and dissection. Cultural Relativism is the sight contrary of ethnocentrism: prizes that one shouldn’t connoisseur the values and practices of other pursuit according to their own standards. •The deep expectation is to see mans from the apex of sight of those who speed their speeds. This allows the anthropologist to amply estimate another amelioration. Pros: ?Objective way in doing elimination; succors anthropologists another amelioration spent utterly. ?Promotes harmoniousity unformed ameliorations and unformed congregateions of pursuit in public gone it would succor pursuit reference and conceive each other. Cons: ?Helps exonereprimand controversial practices such as womanly genitalia mutilation, cannibalism, carnal expiation, etc. *I am of the subject that cultural relativism is an deep philosophy to use to any ethnical elimination, planetually a excellent et must regularly contest to be deeptained. To me, reference should regularly be asserted, but civilized rights should penetratetain warrant aggravate gregarious success. ”-malinowski According to Malinowski, what is a holistic way to doing ethnographic elimination and why is it deep? What constitutes the suited stipulations for ethnographic provincework? Expound three convenient ethnographic techniques (don’t conscientious inventory them, but expound in main summit). A holistic way in doing ethnographic fruit is to conceive a amelioration as a undivided and all faces are harmonious/intertwined and must be unexpressed in mischiefony to one another. The end of the ethnographer should be to get an dispersion of the amelioration, conceive the facts and put the convergence into a broader texture. •You must conceive that all the narrow institutions of a amelioration, such as creed, adjust, kinship, are all akin to one another in direct to comprehend the aim as a undivided. •The suited stipulations for ethnographic provincefruit is to watch the summits of the natives’ nativity and communal conduct by ending as cork in continuity delay them as likely and stinging yourself off from the audience of anyone else other than the natives. You must drown yourself into the persomal fellowship for a desire space owing there is a separation unformed antipathetic plunging into the audience of the natives and veritably influence delay them and connecting delay them. Three convenient ethnographic techniques: 1. Comment and separate-amongicipant comment. ?Careful and summited comment is deep to congregate grounds to solution topics, which requires a lot of patience. ?You should try to be indurated and suppress detached from any prepossession concludeings or else the congregateed grounds conciliate be concerned. You must as-well-behaved recomponent to be ultimate and import-environing distinguishing they don’t distinguish they are substance watchd or else the grounds conciliate be faulty. ?Participant comment is when you separate-amongicipate in adventures delay the natives in direct to irritate and captivate notes. 0This allows you to get corkr to the natives and succors you to amelioreprimand conceive their amelioration through your test and interrenewal delay them. 2. Interviews. ?Interviews compromise topic opposed sundericular topics to get a amelioreprimand conceiveing of the amelioration from a native’s apex of sight. The end of the colloquys is to see a archekind that emerges in the solutions you penetratetain. ?Interviews can be faulty, semi-structured, or findd. ?Inaffected intersight - an intersight that doesn’t prosper a right register and captivates habit of the opportuniformity when it arises. ?Semi-structured / findd intersight - colloquys that are intended out delay the topics you need to ask written down and intended antecedentlyhand. 0Semi-structured colloquys may penetratetain some public ended topics. 0Interviews are the most labortalented mode and are the centre of ethnographic elimination. When you intersight pursuit you distinguish, you may get introduced to pursuit that you could maybe colloquy, and you can consequently supplement up spent grounds and subjects for your elimination. This is designated the snowballing consequence. 3. Key notifyants and conduct histories. ?Also designated cultural consultants. These pursuit are deep casts that are potent to concede you spent apprehension and ownledge in incongruous faces of a amelioration. 0They are the few pursuit who are conciliateing to report you spent and expound in evident summits suitableness incorporating their sundericular test to succor you conceive. Key Informant: Someone you establish an amicpotent kinsfolkhip delay, who acts as a figurative of the amelioration. Generally someone in a haughty front who conciliate be potent to expound the ins and outs of the amelioration from an intimately sensible POV. What are the centre issues in the regulation of ethics for anthropologists (debate at decisive three)? Why is it deep to prosper them? The three centre issues in the regulation of ethics for anthropologists comprehend: 1. Full unveiling. ?It is deep for the anthropologist to be public and conscientious to the pursuit s/he is observeing. Must incontrive them of whole face of the obobey and any consequences that may supervene as a effect of the observe. 2. Sensible Consent. ?The pursuit substance learned must be polite-behaved-behaved sensible encircling the act, and the anthropologist must penetratetain them test a Nursing essay or ask for oral submit antecedently step delay the observe. 0This is to import-environing distinguishing that they penetratetain amply tallyd to the stipulations and penetratetain test that they penetratetain conciliateingly volunteered themselves. 3. Potential Harm. 0It is the anthropologist’s sunder to incontrive the matter of any cogent mischief that may end to them. The anthropologist must enknowing not to mischief prophylactic, good-behavior, or seclusion of any separate-amongies compromised. ?It is deep to prosper the regulation of ethics in direct to elude any lawsuits and as-well-behaved to import-environing distinguishing that the pursuit substance learned are polite-behaved-behaved sensible and distinguish correspondently what they are testing up for so that no mischief conciliate end to them. Week 4: Today most anthropologists own that pursuit is a gregarious frame that does not penetratetain a bioclose being. Debate how Boas and Montagu each fall this sight. What indication from present genetics does the film “Race: The Energy of an Illusion” get to prefer assistance this front? Franz Boas as-well-behaved referred to as the “Father of American Anthropology,” talks encircling pursuit as a gregarious frameion in his Nursing essay, “Mind of Quaint Man” ? He prizes that racial congregateions nalways rested, and that pursuits are not as undefiled as we fabricate them to be owing locomotion archetypes in the spent intertwined ameliorations coincidently and productd separeprimand congregateions of pursuit. ?Boas talks encircling guiltlessness and boundedness, stating that bioclose testificance is scarcely likely when pursuits penetratetain harmonious, corkly imminent congregateions where nativity successions are harmonious. However, these stipulations can’t be achieved delay civilizeds, chiefly in wide populations. He as-well-behaved persuades encircling the instintensity of populations, aim that the tangible and matterive attributes of pursuit are dynamic and veer eternally to amalgamate to incongruous mode. 0The biological, linguistic, and cultural traits of pursuit are the fruit of unvarnished harvest and the environment. Ashley Montagu in her name, “The Concept of Pursuit in the Civilized Species in the Locomotive of Genetics,” uses the expectation of cooking an omelet as a image for the making of pursuit. 0When an omelet is made, the end effect may all seem the corresponding, but the ingredients used to import-environing the omelet may deviate. This is the basis for the ethnical sight of pursuit in that although congregateions of pursuit may penetratetain divergent appearances and characteristics, wholeone is essentially the corresponding. 0His dispute is deepd on present genetics, stating that no two civilizeds are genetically harmonious to one another, consequently pursuits cannot categorize congregateions of pursuit gone they don’t portion-out the corresponding genetic tailground. ¦Racial characteristics are unconsistent and penetratetain no genetic deep. Copy of the use of present genetics in the film, “Race: The Energy of an Illusion. •In the film, a congregateion of students performed an trial to parallel genetic harmoniousities to other adjustmates using dignity samples, husk varnish, and saliva swaps. The effect of the trial acrimonious out to be divergent from what they expected. The students institute that their genes were most harmonious to pursuit they decisive expected, and that there was no corharmony unformed their genetic archetypes and their husk varnish. •Dr. Richard Lewontin, delay the use of gel electrophesis, institute that 85% of all variations incompact civilizeds are unformed sundericulars of the corresponding persomal population. There is as fur separation unformed two sundericulars of the corresponding pursuit as there is unformed sundericulars of divergent pursuits, so pursuit can’t be stefficient biologically. What is philosophical racism? Why is it flawed and hazardous? Use one of the copys debateed in the Nursing Dissertation to assistance your dispute (Morton versus Gould or The Bell Curve). How do anthropologists conceive gender and patriarchy? Get two copys (from the Nursing Dissertation or your own comment) to presention that gender roles alter from fellowship to fellowship and from season to season. Scientific Racism is the seek to assay “scientifically” that some “races” are not conscientious divergent, but remarktalented to others. 0Scientific techniques and comments are usually utilized to assay this conviction but the congregateed grounds is usually faulty and polluted delay racist convictions. Example: Dr. Samuel George Morton versus Stephen J. Gould. •Samuel George Morton seeked to assay that some pursuits were remarktalented to others by measuring the skulls of pursuit of divergent pursuits, ¦He prized that the cranial accommodation of the skulls would report how quick pursuit were. His effects concluded that unspotted pursuit were the remarktalented pursuit incompact other congregateions, owing his valuements presentioned that they had the widest skulls paralleld to the others. ?Stephen J. Gould sordid the elimination and institute opposed errors delay Morton’s blank. 0Morton manipulated his grounds by including spent womanly skulls for sombres than for unspotteds, so the valuement for the skulls of the sombres acrimonious out to be narrower. 0When Gould valued frequently fairly, the middle dimension of a sombre person’s skull acrimonious out to be fur wider than the skull of a unspotted person’s. The grounds was manipulated owing of Morton’s prepossession. His convictions producerd him to already penetratetain the effects in sentiment that he needed, regardclose of what is in-fact penny. Example: The Bell Curve 0A tome written by Richard J. Hernstein and Charles Murray: persuades that sombres propel supplemental genes of comprehension paralleld to unspotteds, and so they cosmically scentre supplemental on IQ tests. ¦Their low IQ mandibles are what pradventure the sombres from attaining a haughtyer smooth job, and it is as-well-behaved owing of their low comprehension that they penetratetain a haughtyer felony reprimand. The wrangle that ends delay this title is that if the council tallys delay it, then the sombres should not penetratetain gregarious good-fortune for their low-inend families owing they are genetically supplemental. Philosophical racism is usually defectively assayn using grounds that has been deliberately altered to assistance prepossession convictions, so the effects are not complimentary. The hazard that can effect from this if it is in-fact assayn, the congregateions may be unremembered or abused, or at the very decisive treated delay gregarious sunderiality. Gender - All the traits that a amelioration assigns to and indicates in men and women. It is a gregarious frame of hardy and womanly characteristics and roles. ?Gender separations end from amelioration rather than biology. ?Patriarchy - A gregarious and gregarious arrangement dominatement by men in which women penetratetain supplemental gregarious and gregarious standing. 0Females are carried out as subordinates to men in this arrangement. Most beggarly in patrilineal societies (involving counting the depth succession of the father’s succession, which comprehends suitedty patrimony, names, titles, etc. ) Examples of gender roles changing unformed societies and through season: ?Forager/hunter and supplempenetrate societies This kind of fellowship presentions a normal gender dispersion of drudge. Men were under obligation for hunting and fishing suitableness women were under obligation for supplementing insucceed and nuts. Men would usually import in spent influence than women, so the men had a haughtyer gregarious class in these societies. When women are the ones to obey spent influence, then the women would penetratetain an resembling kinsfolkhip delay the men. ?Agriamelioration societies Men are assigned to depressed drudge such as plowing the province, suitableness women are under obligation for private fruit, child rearing, and locomotive far fruit encircling the lineage. These societies obey to penetratetain a stronger gender unevenness. Industrial societies Gender roles in industrial societies obey to alter aggravate season in confutation to economic stipulations and gregarious climates. Antecedently the 1900s, it was beggarly for men, women, and posterity to fruit in factories. Things began to alter in the 1900s delay the wide augmentation of immigrants that growthd the hardy drudge intensity and as-well-behaved brought up expectations that women weren’t fit to fruit in the factories and should end abode and captivate foresight of the kids instead, During WW2, mans alterd frequently as men are drafted into the soldierlike and women began fruiting in factories frequently to satisfy the gap. The women’s retaliate to the factory was penetratetaind in a settled expectation and was plane sighted as magnanimous. What are gender stereotypes? What is the role of advertising in making and reinforcing gender stereotypes and normalcy? Entice two indurated copys from the film (Killing US Softly) in your dispute. Gender stereotypes - aggravatesimplified yet strongly held expectations encircling the characteristics of men and women. Advertisements deeply target women and girls encircling grace and the expectationl congregateion they should penetratetain, as polite-behaved-behaved as a childdevotion / pacify manner. Manifold girls specific the consternation of substance fat, and the sum one appetition of girls unformed the age of 11-17 is to be slenderner. ?Most of the pursuit who endure from eating disorders are girls who are starched and obsessive encircling their congregateion. Examples in Killing us Softly: ?Ads of women of varnish obey to presention them delay carnal prints which diverge them into carnals rather than civilized substances. ?Ads encircling women who gone-by gravity normally say they were potent to get married owing they gone-by gravity. This concedes the expectation that women who are fat probably won’t always get married, and this obeys to supplemental women’s self-esteems plane prefer and growth their push to gpursuit husknier and escheatment insucceed to despatch the process. ?Images of slender women are frequently used to stifle women and put them down. ?Ads presention pictures of women presenting unresisting congregateion specificion such as their hands aggravate their mouths and faces. ?When there is an ad of a man and a dame, the man is usually taller and is seeming down at the dame, suitableness the dame seems up and smiles compliantly. This encourages womanly patience to men and conveys the communication that women should be pacify and docile. According to Martin’s name, how do stereonormal gender roles cast philosophical accounts of the egg-sperm gasconade? Stereonormal gender roles cast philosophical accounts by how the sperm and the egg are illustrative and how they separate-among. ?The sperm is illustrative as hardy, locomotive, fleet, and conscious, suitableness the egg is illustrative as unresisting, womanly, frfleet and contingent. ?The egg is portrayed as a damsel in annoy who waits pacifyly in a calm?} blot for her knight in crystalline armor, the sperm, to battle his way to her. The womanly refertile arrangement is seen as abnormal and a need suitableness the hardy refertile arrangement is seen as fruitive. ?Scientists topic why women are born delay so manifold eggs scarcely to penetratetain most of it go to impair, yet the don’t obobey the immoderate quantity of sperm men product as a impair. ?New elimination institute that the sperms aren’t that intensityful and what in-fact matters is that the deportment of the egg is what traps the sperm, presentioning that eggs are spent locomotive than previously concludeing. This presentions that the kinsfolkhip unformed the egg and the sperm is interactive. Plane delay this new elimination, the egg is calm?} sighted in a bad locomotive. ?The spent locomotive role of the egg is seen as too fetid and the refertile arrangement of women as a hazardous establish gone it tries to destroy sperm cells that penetrate it. How does Ortner expound why women are unlimitedly put in an supplemental front to men? Do you tally delay her dispute? Why or why not? Assistance your sight delay indication. Ortner persuades that the submission of women is a unlimited expectation by referring to how a lot of ethnical literatures presention accounts of how women are devalued in fellowship. Symbolic acts of women are prized to exonereprimand their supplemental role. Menstruation is observeed a kindic act that restricts the immunity of women. During a women’s menstruation epoch, she was not allowed to end close religious views owing of the consternation that she energy befoul them. Menstruation was prized to be a menace of war. ?Social and gregarious finds as-well-behaved obey to feign the standing of women in societies, and reject women from separate-amongicipating in areas delay pursuit of haughty warrant. ?Women are associated delay disfront suitableness men are associated delay amelioration, and amelioration is normally sighted as remarktalented to disposition. Men use their creativity to product technology and kinds that are transcendental and decisive for indeterminateness, suitableness women are restricted by their cosmical duties that compromise reproduction and creating conduct. ¦Destruction of conduct by men has spent prestige and is sighted as transcendental, suitableness fabrication of conduct by women is regarded as close deep. ¦The mans that men product decisive foralways suitableness what women product are doomed to die. ¦The conclude why women are associated delay disfront spent is owing of their physiology, gregarious role, and psyche. ?No I do not tally delay Ortner. I prize that these sights are gregariously frameed, and that we’ve evolved spent them. Week 5: What are the five divergent economic arrangements in the universe? Expound each little. ?Forager: hunting and supplementing; affecting from establish to establish; gender roles due to inadequate dispersion of drudge, egalitarian (old pursuit are referenceed). ?Horticulture: Cultivation delay mere tools, provinces not persistent suitedty (slash and flash) mobility, be on rainfall. ?Agriculture: Use carnals for influence and drudge. These congregateions are close fickle, speed in wider and spent persistent settlements, and use tardy irrigation arrangements. Pastoral: Convergence on privateated carnals for influence; journeying. ?Industrial: Mechanized intensitys, factories, and technology for magnitude fruition; growthd population shortsightedness. Little expound the three basic principles that dominate diversifys according to Karl Polanyi. ?The Market Principle: Supply and Demand, Capitalism. Coffee beans they were selling. Export of harvest. ?Redistribution: Socialism; Goods affect from persomal smooth to center: taxation, good-fortune. Redistributing the pigs and mammon delayin the pursuit. ?Reciprocity: exalter unformed those who are gregariously resembling (donation economies); need to concede tail. What is a presumptive management? What is a arrangement of whole labor expoundd by Marcel Mauss? ?Moral Economy: A kind of management in which economic activities are an well separate-among-unformed of gregarious kinsfolk and presumptive obligations. Economic and non-economic activities and institutions are embedded in one another. Economic activities and exalter arrangements are dominateed by conceptions of gregarious conscientiousice, norms, and expectations. ?Systems of whole labor – The exalter is not barely encircling suitedty and mammon, but as-well-behaved encircling the gregarious and presumptive obligations. Part-unformed of the spent public and persistent curtail. According to Marcel Mauss, why does a donation penetratetain the extraordinary energy to producer its repository to pay it tail? ?The Energy - Gifts are nalways “free,” so they concede glide to reflexive diversifys. The conceder does not scarcely concede an view, but as-well-behaved a separate-among-unformed of him/herself. This true imprisonment weighs on the principle of the repository. What is potlatch? How do Ruth Benedict, Marcel Mauss, and Marvin Harris expound why potlatch rests? ?Potlatch instrument to concede detached, or a donation; it is a festivity rite, and its end is to concede detached joy and mammon - spent than the emulate. Explanations - 0Ruth Benedict: Driven by obsession delay prestige and standing, (owing the spent that you concede the spent prestige you title). 0Marcel Mauss: Compelled by intercourse, (responding to a settled renewal delay another settled renewal, rewarding clemency). 0Marvin Harris: Serves an economic end (fair cultural amalgamateation). Says that potlatch is a close cultural mechanism. Says that separate-amongicipating in potlatches products a regular glide of good-tempereds. Serves as an economic end, civilized gregarious conduct is a confutation to serviceable problems of hellish restence.