# UON velocity Lab Report

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PEN 120 S2 2020
A/Prof ZT Jiang and Dr GEJ Poinern
Online-Support Session
▪ What is Velocity?
▪ Rate of change of
distance (displacement)
with respect to time
▪ Unit ms-1
Opposite
Angle = ⍬
Sliding Cart on a
Ramp
Height of blocks
Table
Angle = ⍬
Sliding Cart
Sliding Cart on a
Ramp
Height of blocks
Angle = ⍬
Table
Angle = ⍬
Sliding Cart
What Moves
the Cart?
A force!
Height of blocks
Angle = ⍬
Table
Angle = ⍬
Sliding Cart
R = Reaction Force
Recall-Newton’s 2 LAW
Force is proportional to
Change of momentum.
F = (mV-mu)/t
F = m(V-u)/t = ma
Weight = mg
Angle = ⍬
Table
Height of blocks
Sliding Cart
So if we break the weight
component, we shall get mgcos⍬=
Reaction Force and mgsin⍬= force
down the ramp.
So this is where our acceleration is
coming from!
Reaction Force
Height of blocks
Angle = ⍬
Table
F = ma = mgsin⍬
Acc is a = gsin⍬ ms-2
Recall your 3 equation of motion.
V2 = U2 + 2as, since U = 0 since you are launching from
rest.
So, V2 = 0 + 2as = 2as
So the acceleration makes our cart
move and it pick up speed.
Then you have to measure the max
speed with the Ultrasound Vernier
system.
V2 = 2as
At this stage for a certain height h of the 5 blocks you
can release at different s, and measure the velocity Vmax
Then we get to Plot V2 v/s s
Just as we can plot V v/s s
V2 [ms-1]2
Graph
2
V = 2as
sm
Comparing with above
equation with y = mx then
m = 2a
Or more precisely
m= 2gsin ⍬
So with this graph you can
also Extract
g, acceleration due to
Gravity.
Quite Neat!
Physics Rule!!!
V ms-1
sm
V = ⎷(2as)= ⎷(2 gsintheta) x ⎷(s) =K ⎷(s)
Excel Data
Lab Report
Lab Report
LABORATORY 1
Velocity
Speed and velocity are rates. They tell us how much distance is covered in a unit of
time. Velocity differs from speed because velocity depends on direction, while speed
does not. Velocity can be expressed by the formula
v = d/t
where v = velocity or speed (in m/s), d = distance travelled (in metres), and t = time (in
seconds). In this activity, you will study the velocity of a car after it is released from
different points on a ramp. A computer-interfaced Motion Detector will be used to
measure velocity.
OBJECTIVES
In this experiment, you will
• Learn how to set up the Vernier data acquisition system
• Use a computer-interfaced Motion Detector to measure velocity.
• Record data.
• Graph results.
• Determine the relationship between velocity and release point.
MATERIALS
Computer
Vernier ultrasonic motion detector
Lab Pro (detector to computer interface)
Dig/Sonic cable
White planks
Dynamics cart with metallic reflector attached
1.2 m dynamics track
USB cable
Figure 1
PROCEDURE
1) Check what equipment for the experiment is already located on your bench.
2) Collect any equipment which is missing from the equipment bench on the
northern side of the laboratory.
3) Examine the ruler which is part of the dynamics track. Set up a ramp on the
white planks as shown in Figure 1, making sure that the 0cm end is at the
bottom of the incline, the 122cm end at the top. The high end of the ramp
should be about 10 cm from the table top.
4) Check that a black reflector is stuck to the back of a car as is illustrated in Figure
1.
5) Secure the Motion Detector at the top and centre of the ramp as shown in
Figure 1.
6) Connect the Motion Detector to DIG/SONIC 1 on the LabPro interface.
7) Prepare the computer for data collection by opening the file “PEN120
Velocities” from the C:\Program Files\Vernier Software\Logger Pro
3\Experiments\murdoch\pec120 folder.
8) Test the Motion Detector and the LabPro system is working by clicking on the
button. Within a few seconds, you should here a ticking noise coming
from the detector. Move your hand up and down along the dynamics track and
check that your movement is being recorded on the graph in the LoggerPro
window on the computer.
YOU ARE NOW READY TO BEGIN.
9) Place your car on the ramp with the end of the Silver Spring arrester in line
with the 20cm mark on the ruler. Click
and release the car after you
hear a ticking sound coming from the Motion Detector.
10) Click the Statistics button, . Record the max (maximum) velocity in your data
table.
11) Repeat Steps 9 and 10 two more times and record these in the table as trials 2
and 3.
12) Repeat Steps 9-11 at the other positions identified in the table.
DATA
Velocity (m/s)
Trial / Release Position
20cm
40cm
60cm
80cm
100cm
1
2
3
Average
PROCESSING THE DATA
1) Calculate the average velocity for each release position from the maximum
velocities. Record in the above table.
2) Graph these results using Excel. Plot RELEASE POSITION (in cm) on the horizontal
axis and VELOCITY (in m/s) on the vertical axis. Include the graph in your report
(attached as a separate page is fine). Describe the shape of the curve.
3) What happened to the velocity as you released the car from higher points?
4) Describe two ways you could make the car go down the ramp faster without
changing the height of the ramp or the release positions.
5) What slows the car?
Discussion and Conclusion
Write a discussion and conclusion about this experiment. Summarise the results.
Include some thoughts on the underlying physics involved and sources of errors that
may have been observed.

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