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International conference of Arctic transport accessibility: networks and systems
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servicing issues in* the Arctic zone of Russia
Abstract
Alexander Denisov*, Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov
Alexander Denisov , Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov
Yuri Gagarin State Technical University of Saratov, 77 Politekhnicheskaya St., Saratov, 410054, Russia
Yuri Gagarin
Technical
University ofand
Saratov,
77of
Politekhnicheskaya
410054, Russia
Improving the effectiveness
andState
quality
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oneSaratov,
of the primary
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of Russia. The paper analyzes international experience in solving these problems. It provides a description of a system ensuring
Abstract
the operability of buses with a division into subsystems. The marginal utility theory in conjunction with a system of maintenance
Abstract
and repair of motor vehicles is presented. The following relationships are addressed: the fleet utilization coefficient vs. the relative
Improving
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buses
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marginal
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of
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and
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of motor
vehicles
is presented.
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following
relationships
areone
addressed:
the important
fleet
coefficient
vs. the(vehicle
relative
costproduction
of production
and
technical
facilities,
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technical
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of vehicles
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the effectiveness
relative
cost indicators
of production
and
the
and technical
facilities
of bus
servicing.
It was
provedcoefficient
that
of the
most
cost
of production
andspecific
technical
facilities,
the technical
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the specialization,
relative
cost ofand
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capital
investments
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andcoefficient
technical
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of the enterprise,
the
technical
utilization
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the
maximum
level
with
a rational
combination
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centralization,
cooperation.
readiness
coefficient
and
consumption
of spare
parts
vs. the mechanization
level.
In vs.
the
course
ofofthe
study,
we
the
technical
specific
capital
investments
in
production
andrepair;
technical
facilities
the
scale
the
enterprise,
the technical
Keywords:facilities,
the Arctic the
zone
ofthe
Russia;
marginal
utility
theory;
maintenance;
servicing;
rolling
stock;
vehicle;
production
andconsidered
technical
© 2021 The
Authors.
Published
by ELSEVIER
B.V.partsBesides,
facilities;
system;
resource;
utility;
costs.
readiness
coefficient
and
theand
consumption
vs. the mechanization
level.
In the course
the study,
we considered
the
structure
of
the
operational
repair
cycleofofspare
vehicles.
we compared the
effectiveness
of of
different
options
for improving
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
structure
of theand
operational
and
repairof
cycle
of
vehicles.It Besides,
we that
compared
the most
effectiveness
ofeffectiveness
different options
for improving
the
production
technical
facilities
bus
servicing.
was
proved
one
of
important
indicators
(vehicle
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International conference of Arctic transport accessibility:
utilization
rate)systems
reaches
the maximum
level
a rational
combination
servicing
centralization,
specialization,
and cooperation.
the
production
and
technical
facilities of
buswith
servicing.
It was
proved thatofone
of the most
important effectiveness
indicators
(vehicle
networks
and
Keywords:
the
Arctic
zonethe
of Russia;
marginal
maintenance;
repair;
stock; vehicle;
production and
utilization
rate)
reaches
maximum
levelutility
with theory;
a rational
combination
of servicing;
servicingrolling
centralization,
specialization,
andtechnical
cooperation.
1. Introduction
facilities; system;
resource;
utility;
costs.
Keywords:
the Arctic
zone of
Russia;
marginal utility theory; maintenance; repair; servicing; rolling stock; vehicle; production and technical
facilities; system; resource; utility; costs.
Currently, the share of the urban population in Russia is 73.9%, in Germany — 78.1%, and in the USA — 81.4%
(Guzenko 2009, Makarentseva et al. 2020). The majority live in cities with different population sizes that directly
1. Introduction
affect the public transport system. The larger the city, the more developed the route network of public transport, which
1. Introduction
is served by a large number of vehicles of various brands and models. In the market economy conditions, these vehicles
Currently, the share of the urban population in Russia is 73.9%, in Germany — 78.1%, and in the USA — 81.4%
belong to several owners. Therefore, the question arises about the organization of a high-quality and effective system
Currently,
the Makarentseva
share of the urban
in majority
Russia islive
73.9%,
in Germany
— 78.1%,
and in the
USA
81.4%
(Guzenko
2009,
et al.population
2020). The
in cities
with different
population
sizes
that—directly
for maintaining passenger vehicles in good repair.
(Guzenko
2009, transport
Makarentseva
et The
al. 2020).
Thecity,
majority
livedeveloped
in cities with
different
population
sizes
that directly
affect
the public
system.
larger the
the more
the route
network
of public
transport,
which
affect
theby
public
transport
The of
larger
the city,
theand
more
developed
routeeconomy
network of
public transport,
which
is
served
a large
numbersystem.
of vehicles
various
brands
models.
In thethe
market
conditions,
these vehicles
is served
a largeowners.
numberTherefore,
of vehiclesthe
of question
various brands
models.
In the market
conditions,
these vehicles
belong
toby
several
arises and
about
the organization
of aeconomy
high-quality
and effective
system
belong
to severalpassenger
owners. Therefore,
question
for
maintaining
vehicles inthe
good
repair.arises about the organization of a high-quality and effective system
for
maintaining
passenger
vehicles
in
good
repair.
*
Corresponding author. Tel: +7-919-836-88-20
E-mail address: camoxod1990@yandex.ru
*
Corresponding author. Tel: +7-919-836-88-20
Corresponding author. Tel: +7-919-836-88-20
E-mail address: camoxod1990@yandex.ru
* E-mail address: camoxod1990@yandex.ru
2352-1465 © 2021 The Authors. Published by ELSEVIER B.V.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International conference of Arctic transport accessibility:
networks and systems
10.1016/j.trpro.2021.09.035
2
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
Alexander Denisov, Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000–000
137
This study is relevant not only for megacities but also for smaller towns, especially in the Arctic zone of Russia,
where timely implementation of management decisions on the maintenance and repair of rolling stock will make it
possible to maintain its operability at a high level, and, therefore, provide uninterrupted transport services to the
population, especially in remote areas. The peculiarities of bus fleet formation were previously considered in a number
of papers (Belokurov et al. 2020, Belyaev et al. 2020, Bobobekov 2020, Lobanova and Evtiukov 2020, Marusin et al.
2020, Repin et al. 2020b, Taysayev et al. 2020). Some researchers also addressed the organization of rolling stock
maintenance and repair (Boryaev et al. 2020, Chernyaev et al. 2020, Dygalo et al. 2020, Gaidar et al. 2020, Grayevsky
et al. 2020, Kapustin et al. 2020, Kerimov et al. 2020a, 2020b, Malshakov and Akzholov 2020, Rakov 2020, Rakov
et al. 2020, Repin et al. 2020a, Safiullin et al. 2020).
According to Korchagin and Ushakov (2008), Kuznetsov (1990), Magrupova and Baranova (2010), as well as
Pestrikov and Shumkov (2019), the extensive development of routine maintenance and repair due to the scale of the
enterprise and the cost of its production and technical facilities (PTF) has economic limits. Even with all the necessary
equipment but inefficient PTF workflow management, the economic effect both for the transport system, in general,
and for the PTF, in particular, will be reduced. With insufficient routine maintenance and repair, the level of traffic
safety and transportation quality also decreases. Therefore, it is necessary to intensively improve the performance of
enterprises engaged in the maintenance and repair of motor vehicles, including with the implementation of an
improved system for routine maintenance and repair management.
2. Theoretical studies
The problems of major population centers, in particular, cities, which are classified as large systems, can be
represented in the form of a hierarchical graph (Fig. 1) (Denisov and Feklin 2020, Dudakov 2018, Kuznetsov 2003,
Menukhova and Solodkiy 2016, Zueva and Vdovin 2011).
The system of ensuring the operability of buses can also be attributed to large systems (Kuznetsov 2003) (Fig. 1).
The development and use of large systems require solving several applied tasks: functional (ensuring the system’s
operability and purpose accomplishment) and operational ones (planning operations, managing resources, and
developing the system).
Based on the marginal utility theory (Chernyshov and Chernyshov 2008), the value of goods and services is
determined by their marginal utility based on the subjective assessments of human needs. In this case, the rarity of the
product is declared a value factor. The marginal utility theory helps in the development of management decisions on
the allocation of funds aimed to meet the needs with limited resources.
Fig. 1. Role of the issue under consideration in the general large system for the solution of urban issues.
138
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
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3
Another process that occurs in the decision-making system is the assessment of consequences based on the principle
of determining their subjective value or utility.
Utility can be total or marginal.
Total utility (TU), or cumulative utility, is obtained as a result of the consumption of all units of good. It increases
with the growth of consumption (but not in proportion to the volume of consumption) and then gradually decreases,
reaching zero (Fig. 2) (Denisov and Feklin 2020, Kartashov 1991).
Fig. 2. Relationship between total utility and the quantity of goods.
Marginal utility (MU), or additional utility, is obtained by the consumer from the additional unit of a specific
product.
Technical service occupies an important place in the life cycle of motor vehicles because its costs are 5–6 times
higher than the manufacturing costs. With an increase in coverage of the service enterprise, the effectiveness indicators
increase (technical readiness coefficient, fleet utilization coefficient, productivity) (Figs. 3, 4). Meanwhile, the specific
capital investments in PTF, the manpower input in routine maintenance and repair, as well as the consumption of
spare parts decrease (Figs. 5, 6).
Fig. 3. Relationship between the fleet utilization coefficient and the relative cost of PTF (Denisov and Feklin 2020, Kartashov 1991).
4
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
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139
However, these nonlinear relationships damp out, as can be seen from their parameters. It can be explained by the
law of decreasing effectiveness (Denisov and Feklin 2020, Kartashov 1991).
Fig. 4. Relationship between the technical readiness coefficient of vehicles and the relative cost of PTF (Denisov and Feklin 2020, Kartashov
1991).
Fig. 5. Relationship between the specific capital investments in PTF and the scale of the enterprise (number of vehicles registered) (Denisov and
Feklin 2020, Kartashov 1991).
Alexander Denisov, Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000–000
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Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
140
Fig. 6. Relationship between the technical readiness coefficient (1) as well as the consumption of spare parts (2) and the mechanization level
(Denisov and Feklin 2020, Kartashov 1991).
At a certain scale of the enterprise (the limit of extensive growth), saturation and a sharp change (so-called
“breakthrough”) in the effectiveness indicators occur either due to the structure of PTF or due to new organizational
forms (intensification of production). Since “a system is represented by elements that are structurally and functionally
interrelated” (Latypov 2013), one of its main characteristics is its structure that is determined by a series of its elements
(A), corresponding properties of these elements (P), and relations between these elements, defined as the ratios
between the elements (R) (Czichos 1982). Thus, the structure of the system can be represented as the following set:
S = ( A, P, R)
(1)
In logistics, a cybernetic approach is often used, according to which the logistics system is considered a “black
box”, where we have the resources consumed by it at the input and the produced goods and services at the output
(Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. Application of a cybernetic approach (“black box”).
The control system constantly monitors the output parameters of material (information, financial) flows by
comparing them with the specified parameters. In case of deviations, control actions are formed (Czichos 1982).
As for the system of maintenance and repair of vehicles, the structure of the operational and repair cycle includes
preventive and repair actions (a series of elements) that have certain limits (frequency, volume, list of works, etc.).
As for PTF considered as a system, their structure includes buildings, structures, process equipment, properties of
the elements (cost, condition), and relations (level of mutual influence).
An increase in PTF volumes, associated with the growth of areas and the introduction of process equipment units
characterized by the same performance standards, will at first lead to a significant increase in labor productivity or a
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
Alexander Denisov, Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000–000
6
141
decrease in the unit costs. However, with “saturation”, such an increase or decrease damps out (Figs. 2–6, 8) (Denisov
and Feklin 2020, Karimi et al. 2018, Kartashov 1991).
Fig. 8. Influence of the scale of the enterprise on the increasing and decreasing effectiveness indicators.
This is where the law of decreasing effectiveness from utilizing capital investments or other types of resources
manifests itself. For instance, an increase in the mechanization level of routine maintenance and repair at a motor
transport enterprise by 1% leads to profit growth as follows: at the initial mechanization level of 10, 34, and 45% —
by 3.6, 0.6, and 0.4%, respectively (Denisov and Feklin 2020).
3. Calculations
In general, the law of decreasing effectiveness (Fig. 8) is described by the production function (Denisov and Feklin
2020, Kartashov 1991):
Х = А ∙ К𝜇𝜇 ∙ 𝐿𝐿1−𝜇𝜇
(2)
𝑃𝑃 = √𝐿𝐿 ∙ 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶
(3)
where X — total production;
A — total factor productivity;
K — capital;
L — labor (the number of employees at the enterprise);
µ — output elasticity of capital;
1-µ — output elasticity of labor.
Output elasticity measures the responsiveness of output (in %) to a change in levels of either labor or capital by 1%.
The available data summarized by academician V.A. Trapeznikov (Denisov and Feklin 2020) show that the most
important effectiveness indicator — labor productivity — is almost equally affected by the capital/labor ratio and the
level of production technology:
where P — labor productivity;
L — the level of production technology;
CL — the capital/labor ratio.
Based on Eq. (3), provided that the level of production is maintained, an increase in the capital/labor ratio will
entail an extensive (i.e., decelerating) increase in productivity. Depending on the gradual saturation of the subject’s
needs, product utility decreases due to the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
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142
7
Intensive forms of development include the rapid transition to innovative technical and technological solutions as
well as the management structure. Determining the rational moment of this transition t1, t2 is the most important task
when planning scientific and technical progress at any level.
Thus, with an increase in the scale of the enterprise, its effectiveness indicators improve. However, this process is
fading. Based on the above data (Figs. 2–6, 8), saturation occurs when the concentration of buses at the enterprise is
equal to 500–600 units. With the number of buses of various capacities equal to more than 1000 units in a city, 2–3
centralized specialized production facilities (CSPF) are required to reduce the waiting time for routine maintenance
and repair. Further effectiveness improvement should be ensured by improving the structure of PTF within CSPF and
organizational resources.
Based on the performed calculations, it was determined that the cost of the creation of a single CSPF for a city with
a population of 1 million people will equal the cost of 100 buses of medium capacity. If a CSPF is created based on
the existing PTF, the required costs can be reduced by half. This effect will be caused by the centralization
(concentration) of service. However, about 36% of the rolling stock use PTF services.
Other types of intensive developments methods (specialization and cooperation of production) will make it possible
to reduce the cost of technical service. For instance, the re-equipment of CSPF repair departments up to the 80%
specialization level will require additional 20% of the cost of technical service. The cooperation with the production
capacities of third-party establishments will require almost no capital investments. An increase in the operating costs
of technical service for cooperation can be taken at the level of 5%.
Thus, the preliminary calculations based on the queuing theory show that there are several options for combining
extensive and intensive methods (Table 1).
Table 1. Comparative effectiveness of options for improving the production and technical facilities used for technical servicing of city buses.
Option
Ctot
Ku
Kop
Klab
1
100
0.82
0.55
0.48
2
50
0.65
0.61
0.57
3
70
0.83
0.68
0.65
4
75
0.87
0.72
0.71
Notes. Options: 1 — the existing decentralized system; 2 — the recommended centralized system; 3 — the recommended centralized system plus
specialization; 4 — the recommended centralized system plus specialization and cooperation. Ctot (E1) — the total cost of PTF; Ku (E2) — vehicle
utilization rate; Kop (E3) — operation factor; Klab (E4) — labor utilization rate.
The methodology of decision-making under risk and uncertainty involves the construction of a so-called “decision
matrix” in the process of justifying risk decisions (Table 2).
Table 2. Decision matrix.
Option
1
2
3
4
Total
E1
100
50
70
75
295
E2
82
65
83
87
317
E3
55
61
68
72
256
E4
48
57
65
71
241
Total
285
233
286
305
1109
4. Conclusions
The results of the conducted research show that one of the most important effectiveness indicators Ku reaches the
maximum level with a rational combination of servicing centralization, specialization, and cooperation. In this case,
the values of Kop and Klab are at the maximum level as well. Based on the data in Table 2, it can be seen that the
maximum sum of the effectiveness criteria is comparable to option 4 (the optimal alternative to the solution according
to the Hurwicz criterion with an alpha coefficient taken with an equal probability of all options of 0.25).
8
Alexander Denisov et al. / Transportation Research Procedia 57 (2021) 136–144
Alexander Denisov, Evgeny Feklin, Anton Ignatov / Transportation Research Procedia 00 (2021) 000–000
143
In other words, a rational combination of centralization, specialization, and cooperation in both extensive and
intensive methods makes it possible to increase vehicle utilization (effectiveness) by 22%, which is effective for any
large population center, especially in the conditions of the constant need for uninterrupted transportation as in the
Arctic zone of Russia, in particular, in remote areas. The application of the provisions of the marginal utility theory
in the solution of bus servicing issues will improve traffic safety and transportation quality, which, in turn, will have
a positive impact on the economic component of the transport industry.
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